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Full text of "Di geshikhe fun reyd yunyonizm"


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ot^ n« ; Djnjyy: t^k voD'i^Vi n lyi^^N ^noipn n d^j ^«d 
^^--DK "lyiy: /tD^^v lymx px D:njyyj pn do oyii ytoD^tryj n 
iy:i$T w ron: -i5<s tm^3 iyrDy:i -i^d .t:ik ij^j nnn id k 
PiK D>^3n8 lyiJi^ PD yi{!jDyD iyi iy:iyii lytDiyTi y^^^^y 
.pjy-DB^in nytJiK iv lyDiP i^d lyi^^x 4yDfe5D^ny"i v'\n'i< 
PD mniDtj^ nyi lyaijnyojix do ly^yin i^d ^nxiuji 
8 PD D^\":'rD::n n lyr^m^a iv jji:yi"ii<a iiijovi^nD "lyi 
n iyj^£:y;"ivDMx n^^j ojiDB^n^n iyjy:^^x p« oy lyD^yn 
n^n lyji^P iy:yTiDDy-iJiD ,^'m< t:ix do m dj^ii lyoy^n^ns 
Ds^DC'i^nDii^ ^iT« wwi lyj^n iypjsny:i yiyoix ts ,iy:«iT do 
yDD5<Dy:i V'? wn^n di^'oi^:! ly^i^T i^d t» 4oy oyi iy:yii 
n^D .iyDy^3i$i3 yrri^i n pd nyDP^i^D nvi ty^yn ^jo^^d 
,yc^^D«j{^py V't ly^n DycD ly^yn >n Ti§ f\2?:viv: lyn^n 
PK ; '?^^i^D v^'r2i}2i}\^v yj^-iDJ^s: ts lyr^noj^ ly^yn ohi) 
,y'?'^'o^2 MTS pn "iv r^8 T:ifc< ij^j DJ^^'yi' jJiD"ife$iny v:vhi n 
-y:ji^ n "i^d lyD^j^ii /DT«i^yjD^i« nrs in t2'?i^)) oy lyii T8 
10 nT5< AV))v:i DO nii^ nyai^ t^k oy .D^t^n^s ins lyoo 
VD \V2^r[ ,::)^'-\i}^ lyi iv lyD^^iDyaiv ni^: iy:^n i>o ""ii 
-orn^nD Dyi pd iy:iJiPiMi n tsi .lyray^D-it^ lyn^iny::^^ 
ny^ynDonr^^ nyi fi^ix ,!y:jojn^n-DD^^2ii$ n n^ix dto^^ 
"D^K nyn pd Dt^'iynsn nTi< lyj^n oyiJi^-iB pt< y^vetroj^ni^ 
-pni^iQ yiyo^K ps D^-'prDi^jyi^^^^isD lyt^oDyD iv:i''?i:v 
^ IV ynDon^fc^ p^« pd in \ivi:v ^n ryi .lyoyvi^iB V)vvi 
-iipv n PS ; lyD^niv 8 iv i{$d r^^« pd i^^ds px nyD^niv 
in \V2iin i^D ^fc<ii .••n d^d lyDstiv in Diyuy ^^ii^d yt^'^Ds: 
lyms tynn iv iot^D::n y^^^Di^ji^py is lyj^cyj iv DD^iyj 
Dyi PD PK ; Dnyio^sj^ s lycj^iDy: i^d lyn^in oji^uyinsj^i 
Av:i''^^ lysisi 1^0 DJ^ii ry; ,iiiyTy;j^>fe$ i^d lynt^n i«i D^yo^^'^D 
o^^fc§ lynsii i^D p« .v^T^v: s ii^: oji^ustnsi^ is do t^s 
■^j<iLivDi^j lyi^y; i^^jycDis d^«:ii yDD^t^'y; s i^^sk ts Miyry; 



nyijytMD n na DyDD^i^'y: yiyi:u«n n ns j:^iyii5<n nyv:5<: 
'0'2 8 ;y::?j$n>i:j;^ i>-i;5n ^2:^:2 ]:2'?v)) hd My:^>i<-,i!!£"i^nD 
nya ,D".y"i:irrinj5:^ i>t:i-y? oyi djm r:y::DMpy yjy^^imy^sr.x 
"^)? ^ 1^2 DTDD'Tpy \v2iiT] My:jn3'j'y:DMi5$ iy:^^i y-.yi:s 
■n«!D \v:''\ I'D lyv, li? /".ti? .iyi:^Nirjn55£ iy:^n pk t:^^v iy^' 
iyt2Dn5$i n ;yDU-iyD:iK pa o^^ms nyi d^d lyiiijiiy: i^:: 
i:8^ :v\2 p^K tiD ^oy^^Di^D i^no lyraj^'n "wiv trysD na 
■••DS^P /iy:ivDM« :>VB DpyD^Ty::^!; lyzjijn nx lyo^niv Diir vi 
TD lynj^n .\V2^^ pd iy::i:?^^D2{55 pn lyj^D iyD:iK otv^d 
,iJi§a lyot^'ny oyi pd lyD^Pc-'DMN ^n lyPD n^!D Ti< ,inyTy;:^^{5 
lyn^n di^it ,iyo:yaipi$n v:v' pd ^nj^-no^iN Dy:>>^p fc$ 'nn^ 
PS :ji^pMiD:y lyi y:ijn j^iDD^n oD^yn pn iv D:^^^yj mj< 
-ps^ PK Dp^noD ytosnnsn id s ojijyii{<a iy:>^oyj^fc$ nyn 
y^y:«^i*8DjyD id s .D^DiDDD-n^no yajj^Dynyorx id i<i ,dd)^ 
p« lynnoiK ps lyDnaD^ij^ yn^m V2:^d p« iyi:i:^«2i^D 
-p^s yt::«Dyiy*^:ix iyr:yii id s d^d iyDi$pv ,DjyDyn2i«D 
TD lynj^n MyD5<2 y-iyuirsi^ iv nn^^Li' 5< lyaj^n Di^n .lyo 
nyns ,yo3'*j'yj "lyiJi^ P2 lyii^^DMX iyvjj<i;j^j< lyii^ t}p»:y:i 
lyi IV mD^^tr ly^n pj< Mi?^2 lytD^^iiv rsnx ^n ly^yoij' 
n PD T^^fe§:5< iyv:j<a ayi .^^^n DT^ji^^jvi^nD pa yDD^l^•y:l 
D^^PrDyL) nyc'^:DD^:i;?^:vT^nt: nyn pa lyjiipn^ii v^^m:ii$?v 
lvriV'?2i^^B n ly^yii i:i§n lyo^niv s "ij<!: lya^x n^o tytisJ^ 
nnyo ID 8 \V2^r2 ly^yii n^D ly^^yii px ,Dr^j{^''jr-i^nt: P2 
PK PK .DJi^^jr y"iyi:n{§n n pd p^jjj-id nyn pd iM"iny:i 
-i^:ijpy i5§ tJ'nynjiii-tD^i tDDn Di^n nyn pv^ oyii u^n Dy:y^ 
-ifcjn Dni^Ti ; t:^ytDC''yi:y"i^",2^v ^11 ^r]vr2 pn ,^i§"ii^D yc>^!: 
-tjD ytj'^Dfcjjj^py ^y^D mt^ oyos o^yD^-'vists pn ly^y^i ly^ 

.iyD2^::'^yTy: yiynn'j'fefin f'y^ani »iy^i<n 
lyD^yi^ ?in« oji^y^isn iy:^^Dy:^5< nyn pa yoD^ti'y:) n 
pn "IV lyr^vDMis in toy^i »ov^:ynJsin i^jn in lyni^n i^d 
injypip 0^3 .i35<i^:iy pa ytDD^:^'y:l nyc'^tD^^j^s lyn pa ^^^d » 
nsD nypnt^ioD^n y^nynyo n pa tytDjyoij"i$? y^» n ^i^k 



11 tsn^in^s 

lyoM PK iyjjnn^D2'''iN n iy:yii d^dib -inyn nx iy;ijn^jy-i n 
^n£^ m ,yD3^t^y:i fe$ ts .roDn r^K on^-'^a ,yDn^jy"i n hd 
ns D^jn:D nx lyon n lyn^n^^j^n d^j ^i^r n DD{$nny^ nx 
n Tio ,yDD^*^y; lyDiuj;? lyjisp oy ^j^t lyo n:) ,iyt;^jyo n 
-y: n .Dy^i^«:t^:8:ini^ yDDsmyMi n ns :j^j Dyn iyj^«2Di^: 
D^^v nyD^^^:^^ oy^i dj$so^ iyj^^D»np«:Dyn D^y is ns yoD^t^ 
.p^«;Q 8 na yDD^t^yj n n« :i:n^:yn s nc yoD^tj^yj n pn 

lyo lyii Ti? ,n t^n c'^tDsiPf^oy"; mts m 'Dssd&j' nymx Pi< 
Dyi D^D Djfc§pj§2 pn lyD Dyn ,iyjyp8n dij in^x t:^D in Dyn 
Di?^p^yD^D T^^? D*-: nyD^yn pd ni nyoyn nyto^^nis iy:i^^^;:y 
"lyD ^yoy^,, ,D^M^nD-DJ«i^vi<T^JSJi» ^y^Dsipj^oyn .yo^^ti^yj 
-DD^uis p« tynjito:^ PD :ijn^^i:yi n ,(DnyyD m inyj dt^^) 
p« ^n«;tD"n^ P« ^yiJi5n"''nD ^yvpn^iB yiVDj^nysi^^ip /pi^ 
lyni^n /ty^syn^^ yijyDyiQt^^iynMi dd« pi< yii^^P vwi^^ id s 
"jinin«i^ lyDJnyvDs pd nni$^ yo^ny n D^n .d^-'V iv d^^v pd 
•«m^ n P2 pjsiy:i Dyn ossd-isd ,:ho lyrD^^^n div tu Diyn 
nvi nM« lyD^^^ ly^n DiJ^^yjiyn^K m ly^^-'ms-pi^ yonn^j 
lyny^ px 1867 Djn ,px jjijy^isn p^^jm^nD lyi ps :Ji5:i 
--.^^ ly^n Dt>^^y:iiyn^j< tynj^n iy^fe$yn^N n d«i ii^: i«ii ,^b*D 
-iyn^« Dt^jj^^^r-i^nD iyi Dv^n ,DT^j^"'jr"-i^ntD nyi ^i^ix ly^ 
n^^Dn pn ty^yii i'» -p^d^^^q lyi nnx lyD^^v pn t3Ti$^y:i 
yiytjix PK iyt^>:y"inyp"iyn^x yjy^ ps y^jso t» ^lyr^ni iv 
-«myn^K Dni3 tyDny:iDni» iyn«n y^^yii ,iy:):n^:iyi-''''Dist3 
n yD^yi"! ii<s pj< .lyos^p v^v^vn m v'?v^'t2 n px ::w 
■y:i lynyjy;:?^ iy:^n lyDsnix yDDjyn^^triSD m ytoDD^ni 
n li^j iypnj^DD"'n p« lytDD^^sjiiti'T yiy^n m ^n tia ryi«iii 
-"•^K lyny^ nss nn«:ynnK :i:ny^pny iy>n lynj^n ,iyijn>Dfe?3 
lyDD^j^^jm^ntD n PD lypjsny: n d^o tDJSPsin t^n d«iii ,Dy: 
pn pn iyn«i \v'?v)) iy:ijn^niJi^ yD^yrs .to^^v lyjy^ pk 
-tiivn^nD PD y^D^ti'y^ n rynnt^ya lyni^n i^o 5'^ni ,r^yDiv 
Dy^^iv DO ]iK ,DTOi^or"i^no Dyi ny^^iv onxDin dp:» 



t:nyrniss 12 

-y: 1t^'Qx lyn^n n^D ly^^yii .^yo'-sfesp-Di^tj' iynij< PN 
nvi na ^""^D D^» iyi^^« :i:^D:H d^« iy::^j lyny:! D2ife?n 
niiiD » lynyj Dnuna i^d ivia^n nn na ij§^2 lyrDyo^yjyi 
i^^jr-i>nD lyrDJ^^n nyi iyn^i< p^^nnya^x lyuya^^-^u 
pni$tD'^ "in^N D^D ,iJi^^^Dife$D lyj^^^jD^N nn^K d^d ,D^yii 
,DT^j«:3yD lytj^-'D^^j^B lytDD^my^nya m V'''^^v:^m^ iy^b*p{^^ 
nx — ,yDD8sn^nD iid d^^p lyijyi^nyn ny^u in^x d^o 
y^ijn nJsotJ'iv-Djj^:nynrx lyrovK nn^t^ lyn^N Ds>innyi 
lyonyjjj^ tid n y^^yii /P^dp^ld hn w'pv'^ avu^dvd v^n'^i^ 
-iD^DDJ^P VDV^vy^': ^n«i^ yD"'n:i n piyf^Djyi^D iv hd 
lynyoc' dj^ii ^lyDy^n^na Vi^'^'^^B m v^'r^i^2i^?v .y^yjj^^i^ 

.!y:iypDJ^ nn^K 
"isnyDyD n ly^osr 112 d^ui» lyn lyjy-n nyDiyii yri^^toy 
I8D T^vo lyr^niDMis i{^2« in ly^yii piyii lynix nj^a ty^ 
.-i^yD lyn^ytDyi pk tyn^^jt^ tyoip lytoystj' ly^yn dj^ii ,yjy^ 
y^^yii lyjyiT :ji^"ijfe§nsj:!i yii^^tojn:! p>p j<itD"'j p« oy '•n •'its 
lytiD ryDD-iK^y; ly^j'^DD^j^i^jr-i^nD nyi pd yii^nys t^« oy 
•ly^JitJ'n^iD yjy:^^« yiyn^« ?im« lyt^^^nj^Q i^^^yTDBnn in i^d 
Diyii Dyi iy:ypny:i^ ti» ,t^3y nvi Dim^tJ^ dj^it nyn lyn^ 
lytj'^^jjy ns yDD^t^^y^ iyi ty:iyi^ ty:iJij^ii^D D'j^jiiiDjynn .n pa 
-'t:P55i3 Dn^^Din D'^yi^^sn ^ni^^st^^n pa p« D^^p-iyD^ms: 
lyjyj^^K pn pa DT^ji^>:r-T'nD nvi pa :i:ic^D^^toDnN lytj^ 
■Djyaynsa lyDDrD:)^^ lyi .d^^v iyjy:i^^K t^>T m :i:itD3n 
Dii^ayi,, Tj/i DD^^^^a t^« v:v ayi iya^« ^snytDi§D lyoD^^ 
-{$D„ "lyi pa iyny:yjDnii$ /'Dp^ntoD uy D^t:y^>DJ<tD-T'nD ij^ 
ly^'D^^stJ^ lyDPi^By:!:^;? 18 4860 px "t«lt^'^^N^D«;Ds: o^v^'O "pv^ 
in lyD^-i^n^a v'^'^^w aytDPsia yosnynyn^x roDniJ^a tD^^ 
"snoiK PK yjyai^iiiyjjr^ yosD lyiy^^ny^Qix iyi d^o toij nt?: 
n pa n»iiya D^yo^^ty: ryj^n dj^ii ,iytDDn8n v^y^v^^ 
n ly&rniv DT^:«^:vi>ntD ly^yii iy;:jiDniyt3:iN y^y^v^aj^ ?iJ^a 
)rDni:i « lyjiay:! 1^0 lyn^n oyi nny; .1849 p« 1824 tyini$> 



13 t2ni5ii"iij£) 

p« DJ«^:v"i^n^ lyjyiT lyopsQ yjyD"ii;jTiy3"iyn:8:8D ^n»v 
"isD n pK iyoy!?2Qi53 yj^ip^MiD^^i^ m lyoDn^ yii'nijnys 
-nsD IV HD .ijj§^ iyvjs:i ny^^x lypyoiij^^au-Dp^i^D yjyi^^t^ 
IV wn^D-iyau nytj'iiijD yj^Dsrpiv hd d^uij? n nyj:n; 
"SD yD^:PD:yDyii>D y^^yis iid dd^^ iyn:yDt^!?i^D fe§ nn oyi 
D^o .lyj^DyjivD^.^ n^D^n iyny:i lyj^n i^d dj^ii ly^^^nyo 
Dnny: m i^d lyaj^n lyjjirj^^xnsD pd yo^^tryrDjjsiDjti nyi 
p.x iy:jiD^^v yD^5§ /iy>{$p{^*o«-i3 y^y^v^E:« n ^i^ik lyrj^^-isD 
i^v.v yDtJ^iy yiytJiK .iyDy>DD83 yrD^^vj^-ix yjyi>^tr-i{$D 
n pinN Dinsn i^^DyiDDnn iq"i« fe§T^ n^ix iy:^n ly^o^sssp 
Mris» na ly^J^PJ^Di^iB n /'dj«!dd«p iii^ p«in P2 ly^ytJiiij'T,, 
-DiK n PK "D^Dfcj "n}^py-i» pd oy^vsp^^ms n /'^^djij^p 
yD>8 PK DjyDS^nsQ d^v oy^v^oya ynjyrn-D^nn yr^nyv 
t^'^Dnn px in lyrsyj y^^yn nnoo px nnx^o ry^yii D^nnD 
-Di<!T nyisnvyti^ciK nyn pk pk pvdh''2'?'2 ^{^m^>j pn ,Di«yTio 
iii^iiy; D^yDti^y^D^jiv t^k om mo^iyD^^ y^^'^cj^ji^py pd j:i^ 
.tj'ny^^P Djn^tj^n .dd pk ,^yi"iDPi^*2 -d .n iJ^Dyai^-iB ps 

lyDD^DDni DS lyj^n 1835 V2 Vli^'^VB lyi I^D .lJ^Tin3Q^>P 

-DnK"D;i:'iD^^v /lyiSDjyni^p DsnpDiJfe?D ps "lyijyn v'?V'^ n 
iy:^n d«ii /.ii .t^?; .« lyoy^siDs^s ,iyDDns!a ,ni:pn ,\vt:i':^ 
Dv^« in lyray:! p« d^^^q D^D:i<iD pd n«tiiy:i tDT^^ynyn^x 
■os:t iyD^^3^^^:i^Doix iy:ni^"i "lyi in« .DiNypo ti^^onn p« 
pn PQ iyp^D"'^i<:3 py^DjyDiJi^D Dyn pd t:^yD:j'y:iDn:iv ,::)'? 
'^2 n tDiniiDt^ Di^ii nyi ij^ij tD*": ,!ny:i»n tD^j in i«p ,tD^^v 
Dvi PQ lypni^tDD^n iyi inx ii$j ,D5?^p"iyt3^^nis: pq :i:'i:iyn 
yiDK^iy n pq lyny^ ly^^^v^iD lyii^ iy^^iD^5»s iytr^^j:y 

*.DiyiJinin«^ oyi pq in«^ rviyc 



11R y'i'tJ'^KD y^s n Pin« tas'^ Dy<>3 *7^<fl lyBiwn tDj;n ya^yn 



■jiTsn .jy^snyosD v^vu)i< na '?'"o nyDon:; m nyn« 
,D"iyiJinin«t^ ly^^oif^K oyi d^d no^^t?^ s D«n D»n lyn onyi 

^lyiioi^ yDJ8DyiyDJ''K in lyj^sy; DJi^"'Jv-n^nD v^vo^v 
lyDJny^iDS ayi tu ni pm^ d^^i nts !?«ddd« nn^Si om\ 
-■'^^Q na nnn v:i'?v)) pk ny:3^a-^«pj^Di^i3 — Diyuininj^^ 
■D^n y'n»« n ,yDyi^uy:i p^*? do i^^dn lyn ^nyoyipyo yro 
"iKD 1^ DyiiyiJsny:i lyniijn 0Ji;iyTi82 iyDm:i s pd lypni^D 
lyjji^DiST PK ; lyoyD^Dii^P viv't pd lyjJiKiDQ^ix n lyjy^^^v 
DJSP5<:n too w^''''^ D«ii /lytosntJ^D^^^ ytj^^DDo^or-T'ntD 112 
■yit:t5' PK lyjy^a n y^^yii mn ^DixytiD ly^^^Dnn pn i^^sk 
PQ nynyotJ^n^D p« "lyp^D^^^Q yjynyjy:nyn^« n pd iy;jn 
ni^^^y:i D-iy^p-iy dsj^d iv dsj^^d pa iyj>n D^s^p-ny^^uis 
.Dy^:iS!Tos:n{$ v^V''>^ pa lyjJi^^^DQ}^ yjyan^nyv n nsa 
lyD D«tn jjitj^n^a lymx isia lyQijy:! nn lyni^n n>D tyii 
pyii DT«i^y:ii^f do ty^yii lytrjyD yj-iD^n tsi ,DnyDmsa nix 
■^yty: ytj'^'pjy-ia-D^s^ y^JSD pa yDD^^^y:; iyDDrjyiu^« nyi i:^ 
o^^s "lyijytJ'nyn lyn Di$ ts 4y:iay: nyn^^ jyn«n i^d .lyDafe?^ 
T-tK DJi^or-i^nD n pa D-i^pn^^ny:! -lyjjyiD^ lyi y:n:n pm 
nyiij lyr-iiiv yo^s pa pyDyipyo n .lyD^DiDyns^n V'<p do 
nsa D^yD^nDy:iiyn^5^ tyni^n jyDa^tj^^yry:! y^^npi^^ yrD^^viija 
-i^n Di^Ti nyoy^^j^ >m d^d lyDnyaip vvi^^ n^J yiy^n nii< 
yjya^^nyjnyn^K n .Diyi:inini^'' lyDJnyv^s pa di^dj^t lyn 
iyai^-i:y: in lynt^n Dto^ovn^nD lyr^^tDs nvi tia lynn^a 
-t^na Pi< nopn n niN i«a iyray:i iv lyii^^aic' yiy^n px 
y^y^a pn* .lyDa^tj^^yiyj y:yDy:n^aoj8^ v'lV'^'^] pa iy^«ipi^»D 
-nn PK ^DD^prj ,^iQ"iyir5' pn \hi^h'^ i^k lyD^^nnyD^^niii; 
n lynj^n — lyDoyti^DJ^D tix i«3T«^:i t^x Dannnyn^N — p^ 
Dy-i» iynt^n:iy:D"'iK niD«^D-'^yn yDJiy^yj yD^s; n pa D-ttj^iv 
"iy-ii>* /'Dit?p v\:i'?^ D'jyDi§D Dyn„ lyn^^ /'tyDjyDPJ^i D'jiyTn 
tyD3^^p^nD^^? t« lya^ynwD^n^ n^ ,nopn v'^'ivo v:iVO'<^v'^ » 

lynnK' n lytynis ytasia'yji nytr^'?:::; lyi ns iy;jn'DKB jre'^ta^'^KS 

.1840 n« 1798 



n« y^sjiji^vs: yom: n na Di^irn n pk iyt:jyoip«n v^^ 
t:^^PD^^-ij^nD lyDoyi: "lyn d'd iy:^n DJi^n^jr y^yjj^^^jmi^ia 
yopmy: n ps nmny; lymx i^d \ii^))Vi lyayjynyD^H 
-py p.N mJutJ'n-yDi^p yosinnQ n iv tu nijpn pn lyoDn^D 
8 t:ik D«n ^i!!D p^K p« Tn^3 .nyDU"^i;?pi^D«n3 yivDipyr 
PD nyDu ytD^5§ n )'^ tDnoiv » tDji^Ty:a« lytoy^pyD-^siyjy: 
DJ^n ,D:n: Dyn 5in« iyiiy:i di&j'b t^« Di^ji pt< ,D2i§:i'^yTyj V'>] 
"\v m ytDD^ti'y: in^fc< lya^n^^ iv lyn^^py: in D«n p^^s iy 
.i^yD lyt^'ns1ytD^^ r£nt< lyDjyTiPJi^P o'?^ t33S!nt:s:n m« Dsn 
■83 lyiiyj D^: t^« D^^PD^^mo^v yD^^n:>nD yrr^i n px 
-jfei!jife§Q lyi PD lyn^s^s yo^yo^c'-isiD n nnx rn^a tDp:yitj^ 
-j^K yjyi^^i^'iSiD n px iy::^^^nn»D yjJ5<^ n nnx .D^^njy: 
y^spi^^ n PD tyjJi^^ii^DDnK n t:« d«iii /Oiy^jyv y^ynaon 
-T'?:>VD viv iy;«:ipyj *i^d \V2^n ,tDiyni$Qy: lyni^n lyivDis 
lyrtDJ^^n nyn pq D"'^':'rtoyD y^^^p-ini n prnt^tj' iv d^^p 
■n n DDnsn lyn^^n n^D .y^v^r^j^ni;? lyK^^toD^j^om^nD 
; DiyDtJ^ ynyoynj yt^D^^D n pi< D^^D:ii;jp"i>ntD n P2 iy:jiv 
■lyn^^jD^D PK -y^sPi^^ ^n^^v yom: s tDjnNi^y:>n lyni^n i^d 
tDijtn TJ1N PQ lyj^^K pt< ; i:^'? iyv:8:i I'lya^x ly^ji^DsniiiQ 
■yii:i? V^] IV y^:iy^nri3 yD^^jnynynyonN n iyDijjy:i isi^j^r 
■yiD^DtjP yivDipyipy n pd ly^jiosi^a yoeiiinB n pinx i:yT 
tinfc< inx m ^lyDDstJ^^yry:) y^8:«i^vfei!J y:yi^^tJ^i5§D ps lyo 
■i«D lyny: lyj^n d«ii ,iy:iJi^D8n8Q-iyt:fe$;y^y"i y^y^vso n 
Diynyii^yiisa ,Diyr3c^^yii8n yirt:«iyny2 yoni: n ps lysn 
■p8tD yriDDm inyr lyD^iotj's^n iv djj^^jv DiynyiJjy^nnp m 
,1892 pK ly^iivn y^-'D^irDpyr n nnx px -ly^siDn^nD ytj^^to 
-■•^oiJta^SDS,, lyi PD lytDSjy^yn v^'?r\v)'\'')V rvDyr y^^yii tinx 
-li5D n lyDi^iiyjoiK lyni^n "on^jytj^nrx ii^i ^tDy>^Di!?D iv^ 
'?^^t:i^ lyn pd yvsiDD^^^Dife? ytDDrjyiirK n px p^tDpst: 

.y^vfe?T^i8n» iyt3rnivi8D 
nv Dy-i ^^3 Tn^3 lyD^sny; d^j i^^i^d^?: in lynt^jn vj2 



nynyrDD^"'3n^ yjynyri/jji^ n DDiry^anx vd lyni^n lytojy^^ 
iy:i«npyj ^n no lyni^n n-iD .lynDDnrx yjyn^^ti'ij^Q n r« 
Dy DJ;f:n lyo ^^1 /lyniij -typ^onp iin iy:iJiD^nji$ y^^^^o id j^ 
jyj^n ynoDnrx pd lyj^^D^ssp yD-in; n .lyoifesiny D:iyoy; 
-y:i yiy^n na ^■'n ny^y^viyD>^p nyi pn ij^coikq DjyDD^^Q 
-j^^K n D'-n Djspsn njyj >n lyj^n lyo^yt nnyr pj< avd^v^ 
-^t^JSJij^ nyrDJ^^i i^^Sfc? lyij^ ^nyr^j^os lyi pq lyto^^n^yv 
"lyDJix nymx px fi;?^ yiyDyn:i js .lyD^uns vw^f pd y^v 
-DD^uis yjy-T'^ti^-i^D n pd pyDyipyo n lyiiyj lyj^^r jji!:Dnyj 
■i!?n DjyDi§n miq^sj^ n p« to3nniyn''5< .oy^v^-'v^^sD^ ^V2v:i 
i^^in^^-^v ly^n Dojyn iyr:i« pk tD^ytotj^y:! nyn n dj^ ryn 
-ist^-DD^uns yjyi>^:^isQ d^o ly^Ji^uiiini^D V)VDi)v'?ii>? p« 
-y^DMJi^ lyj^n Di^^i ^dp-'jod^dkiod yDStiinQ n px lyjji^^^D 
-:)^K Doyn n lyn^;? .Dy^v«^vj<iDs: yiy^n pd pi^iiyj to^ytotj^ 
"ij^jv-i^nD iyi PQ lyp^Dnp yDDD^njypj«ny:i px ytoi^oii^D 
-DD>^nn8 iyvj^:i Dyi pd lyii^Dyo px yvsr^jsjiis lyt^^^oD^j 
p« lynyTQ^iK-iyD^uife? n px lyjicyj i^d lynj^n D«^p"iyny:i 
1^0 .iyD^nn« ly^iy; \^>^^ dd«i n«j lyj'-n y^^yii ,D>^^ni^*Q 
D8 T^N Dfc$^p nyn dj;? nj5i:i di^ii ,tDny^n»n ^i^ot^syi jynj^n 
y^yntDDnj''5< lytj'iijQ dj^ii n i^q iyD^n:inyT iv lyDoiy^iK^ 
PQ nny d^s iyDny;i lytD^yr inyr toiyii tix iyDy^n.>^n3 

D^^"?nyiiti^ n tss /iy:i«T iv niN isq ^d^ij dmp pk oy 
yisn^iyvDiK n Dii^Q-D:iJi^nyvny i» p« iyv^yDtj^D>iji>^ ps 
PK Dy^v8T^Js:iii$ yDnyiJiryjQ^i ni?J nyijyrnD n pa d^dis 
Dy^^^jny Di^iitoy oyp^jijiD yiyn:in8n v^V'^'^t ps ty^no^^ij^ 
nnyt lyiiyj t^t? ,:):ji:iyiisn iyj^^oy:i^8 lyi pd ytD!D"'tj^:i s iv 
^D^-'nis iym« iid ni^non yD''^iymsn n lyo^ni i^o .D^n:i 
.DPJisTJi$tDt5^ lytj^ni^tDD-'n s p.d ^^d ,iy^nNiytD^^ 8 pd ^--d 
nyn pd D^ms nyT:)iN px t^rDinny lyiiy: iv2h iyj''n n*o 
Dyn tD^D pi^iiy^ nypi^oK^ r^s t^k y^^yn — :ji:i^^nyn^5< 
-j^tot^iD p^''ir-n^ntD n t^ — ,:iji:j'i^d nynix iid d^^k^jdi^d 



-5<:-i«i nytj^^D^^j^s n« iy>ynDDn:^« Hd lypnsijDDM lyrDi::^? 

TK nn lyj^Dyj lyirjis V'\vd'?v n no y^y^D .iyi:iNi^Lj^ 
DO iynyDtJ'"i8D yD^yii nyo^uis yj^yvj^^x ns rnssn DyT 
n ^u ts 'Oy t3i^D«3 lyo^yt do .onyii lytJ'nycDM ny^n 
yj^vr^K i:^ Ml nnyD oo in lyrsy: lyoDsc'^yTy: ynyoy-i;! 
inn .11 .TK .« lyis^iPi^v ^lyoDnsa /nupn no lyis^SDyrpy 
inn nyii^ .nnn ly^o « pt* in lyn^^^piynntj inn ,nDitJ^ s 

Di^ll Di^l T» ,DD« DDyiD lycyipyD iyD^{§ IS nc DMD Dyi 

iyv:«irfe< Diyii J^irn iyi pk DDMinyj ;i{^d lyiy^ do Diyn 
Dyn ly^DST lyii^ lytJ^n^^D lyjyaynya^N iyi .tyiJiNiVk^isD 
"ipji^ lyii rt^^onyny lyoix lyny; T^i< oy dmij mi .lyc^n^sn 
■iyi in i^D lyni^n lyDjyv i^ovi^nt: lyD^s is pn ruyo 
n Dr:^ny:Dnj<„ lyo Di^n pniv w^^^^m Dpyr d^d tj$ ,ddikii 
-i^^^m-DP^fc^D v^^ph'? n pK .ijnrn iyi pd "DyDSDtj' yD^s 
yD^yii lyD^yt in lyj^syj -DixyriD t^^Dnn p« i^^sk pk ,iypyD 
•ly^i^Pi^D^iB lijjov -i^nD yD^^iy:^K yD^s iyi» y^o t^k oy 
-Doi^ori^nD iyiy> lyn^^py^Dnx ifcjj do lynnyi tynsn vd 
lynt^n i^d ij^j ,iy:np DJ«py: lyn^ijn i^d djijii DjyDip«i lytJ^^D 
pys n PD iy3:ivi^Pi»D pt< iyjivDn« v^v^i^v"? t:::fe<Dyj mx 
,iyDy^DDSB ,ns^ipi^v ,nopn ^lyD^nsn nyD^r^^ijpj^DJ^iB 
•lyn^^y^DnK ni« mn lyo d«ii ,.11 .?{§ .n lyjjiD^^viyD^-'ms 
t>np lyD-'nn iyi px ,iy^«:nyDSD pd a:i^D»T y^n^i n 
,i^^jyo»i« lyiiy^ D^i$ii ,^8D lyiy^ pk kbi: iy::iK^ii;jD n pq 
^^^n n tyrip iv ^td lyDi: Dyi ta^^nv: 00 lyD^sii i>d lyii 
PK •D^-'ms lyrti^i iyi p« v:v'?h? lyrnys DDDyn » pd 
-D^D Dyjyny;yaiyn^t< m tyiiiDyj i^d lyn^^n p^D^fe<:i .11 .5 .id 
o«iife$D IV lynj^n n-'o D^-inife? lys^^i^DiyDix oyoyii r^v^'pvn 
yiyT:it< pk ly^yinyDi^D yiyt^iK ps T>np tyD^nn Dyi ryp 
■niyi s 1SQ PN ,n3K^D-^yn iyDJiy^y:i s p^^s: .dp^dd^dsdd 
lyai^iDyr^n iy ^^r\ ,moi^ v^t ps lyDyipyo iyi ts^^v lyo 
•n^DiyDiK PK nyr^yor^ y^isK^ 8 ii^: t^o d>oh§ iyi iv 



tDISTn^S 18 

nyniK pn .Dnyii lyD^^vyt^'s^DiK hq jjipimid^d pn DD8Dy;i 
-^>6j^ yt5>ny^8D 8 lyDuyjJ^ns i^d lyni^tn ^ytD^ssp wo'^v'? 
■i>nD 8 iiQ lyny^ iy3^^ny:>i< oyi lyjyii nynya pn no junyn 

PQ fi^^n yDDD^^nj^nD n iyjj$ipy;i n-iD lynsn oyn vins 
,n y^8 lyoyj n d^d lyjyDyiD^iK ly^^t t^d m\ -lyto^n y^t? 
-D^K DDisny; t-d lyo^^ii ,pjsi s :in^itj^ iy:^n 1''d lyoyn 
.njK^ P5< yt:D8»n li^^jvn^nD y^s cyDD pa dd^^ s ly^ytDt^^ 
D^nyn^K d^j ^sa ayi pt^ p« nyijnsi lyiy^ lypjsisn i^ 
ya^^jynya y:mMi yiynix lyj^n ^n pa y^y^a ^>ni /^d^o 
pa y^y^a iv ajioa^^ansa lyt^ix dd^p ^n iv DDpyj .u^na 
.ID IV DiynjiTsn /"ynDonj^x pa lyj^tD^asP,. yo^ij n 
PK ,PMiD^y pa ly^n ^yj^^i^p m «i«nD^i^D tia ^^yn ni> 
Dyoyn ,Dy^v8>vi;?DS! lynyjDD^^nis n pa pytDyipyo n iv 
Diynjnsn .DDjyn lytJix iv ^na iyjsDtJ^y:i pj< oy d^^5^ 
.ifciiDnisn pnynyia .id ,^yiiDp»a .d .n i^npjsn i^d m'>^'t 
'^'?i^B m D8n;^ysB8 Diyn«i .id ,"'^D^n .d .y n«Dya»i3 
n^K lynj^jn >n d^i?^^ nsanyi ,D:)nnn ini^tj'n Ti^^D^D-DDjyD 
-»jTitj'T-nyt:>ui8 pj< lyDy^aDsa y:yD^yr y^y^a iyn^^y:D^i« 
lyj^n mtosDJ^np ^^^vn .id p« tDy:i>n \nH^n .id nyn ,iy^ 
Dyj^-tK pa nit:pyi«:p n lypipi^^Dnn :ijy:i n^^ij^na lyiiya 
-js y^^n^n^v nnn ••>! nyoynD^it^ pj? ly^D^ssp inyD iyn«: 
ni^na PK Dnnn y^y^* ^^^iv ij^j j$n iyj>n oy m .lyjJipiyD 
DBnpDiJSD lytJix pa niity yny^ lyppDin lytoais Dyoyii 
lytJ^nsnytD^^ n^x inatj'j^ lyny^ lyp^snisa )'^ D«in m Di^n 

.tDvni§n iy dj^ii ,DD:yni8a 

■yDSD yiyniK pa n«iiy: D>n:y:iv t^5< y^asi^j^^^n^n n 

iDPiis nsnp:sn lyj^n i^d ryDyii ,yn-iya .« .i .id iin ty^sn 

tnyt^j^j pa D''>ni8 ^v'^V)'\^ lyi i»a m^^^yaas p^^na '>)) 

.tyaivD''iK y^8 DyDS pa D-'^pD^^tDpra n 

.n)?TJ Dnta-'S .1894 ,^nB» 



19 



I 



u VH /pmoMN DVT lynyot^'isa i^o mi »i«i^jr-n^nD «; 

"Kn ly^n PD iyjji::n8n n nyoynistD lyii^ iyt:?«!mvDM« 
ly^yii "i^D ■'ii jJij-ij^^KisD PD D"i{$D yrijsi n .jjirtDDyt^' 
.nn«^ Diyuin ^^i^ y'''i:y: ijs^:jy pj< pv^ oi^tDo^py ,inyT 
lynyn ::^^vi^3 ^i:jT n ts: /ly^yDiJ'iviJ^D in n^^:yDD""iN oy pk 
TD Djn PK .yD^ypn"it::y-^iD 8 lyny^ p« lyj^natj^y^Dms 
-■•^v t:«n WD v:i^v'\^ .Dy^viD^DDrfc< n lyjy-istj'sin np ly^yn 
Dyii ,DT^:i!it^jr"i^nD pd lyan^n^D n d^s Djy^^^vsn i^nuyo 
::^^:h nvi d^d ni lynns do lynnnjj^ yoD^'^y: lyuiK in 
D'} lyj^n i^D D^^v lyD^yii ii§D ,Diyi:^nnj^^ lycsjnyvDs pd 
n Pinx Di^oonpy lynj^n ^i^r oy T{<! ,iypyit::y iv n^iD^a ly^iyj 
PK iyD«B:^ny! in ^jst Di<tii ,D:nT{$ DJ^ii^y ty^n\s y^^^t^nn 
oy D«ni nmyi jnjypip do /inyDD«j .jji^rD^^DDnx lynix 
-py D^ijiTyj iyn«n iy:i3uo^"'«isD v^'^:nv ts ,iyTniy:ji^ Diyii 
ly^^^tD yjyi^^tj'nj^D px lyo^si^yD^D pd d^^v lyi px n^Don 
-:s D:n: p>p do i^d iyn«n ,DjyrDJi^P lysi^^xyBJ^n^^x P2 
lyD^y.i Dn^xy^Dnx lyni^n Dy^viD^Dori^ yD^yrs: ts; ,iyony:iv 
iyi PD :ji^pn"iD:y lyi px lyop^ii nyn nnx di^d:^^^ t^k dv 
in tySn^D i^d .1:^^ oyi p« :iji3yiTyin 1y:^'^DDOl$ov-^^nD 
/iy:;:ixTivy:i iviyi i^^pini iy:^n 1^0 m ,DrD3y"is:n lyanyi 
-ij^i-n^nD n 5inK i^^D^^'tj'DnK yDS^tj^yj lymt^ iyvoyi;is:a iv 

•HDi^D iyDr:>''NisiD iyi pd D:i?{ 
"y:DnK i^^pmonK i^» tynsn jjitj'D^^DDnx lyoi^ o^d 



"DDStJ'^yTyj lyj^n dj<:^i /H iy:iypDJfe$ ty;3irj^^«i8£) yr^^^iiD>^^ 
n ^11 0'?^ MT8 lyj^n DP^ntso .■•n hd ly^yn iy:«D^yj i^^ 
-I8Q ytJ^nj^DD^T D31T D^ii /SJ^p lyDis:^^ iyi .p^^is yto:D^t^y:i 
j5;tJ^Mi>^ Vii^py?};^ V2'-\HD 8 iyj^ay:i .^y^st^'^^i div ,ti:jp ,iyD^^^:i 
D^D ,Dn:^D PN Dny3«o^y;i^:^ yt^n'-x n iid njsDtJ^Q^ix nvi 
-ynjjQ nyn iy:iyp oji^y^yiD^^j; ny;i^D:;''i? ^vi 18Q inj<^ i49o 
-"'5'8DD n PD p^nDD nvi d-id rMiDtJ^ ini§ ^yr^ \v:im iv jjn 
DJsn lyD Dm^ nvi mvp 4892 pt^ oiyj-'BtJ^-^yiisin lyt^^nnn 
]v:hi> n^D .D^uis: lyi IV ly^^nyDiSD ytoDy^tj' lyny^yj ••n 
nyi lya^^iiv i^^^;ii8Q lyDDjny v^? w^t^o do iqik DitJ^n lynj;? 
■jSDti'QMK yr^nyvDix n px jji^yii^n p^om^nD lypDJ^^i 
PK lyij^DtrcnK-iyD^^p:?^ n >\vo^"] vwmivd:)^^ n pa lyn 
PQ lyoy^n n y^^yii d^» /lyt^^j^iiyrDny^is y5^''Q»^ptj^-n^»n 
nyD^^nns,, oyi pq wdi^^b yriJ^n n .^^q tyj^n yoD^^^yj lyn 
^>T pa ^^Mi "i^Qiyi iJ^J DO ,pjy iyni« iv do nyny:i ":iynp 
li^: 4y3:ir:^^«ife§2 ynjyDt^'sn p^p ly^pyjo^i^ do lyj^n 
y:y:jny:i p^p ly^iy:! do tyj^n "Diyp^nDD,, n ^^ni isQiyn 
oijjnsn n nyoym^D iv DDiTy:i lyn^^^n y^^yii ^lyD^^msi-pi^ 
-yj r^-iivna tynfc^n '•n Di^-n /DPsidj^p-dd^uis is Piq iy:i 

•lyo^i^Ej^ 
••nyss^PK^ PD lyf's:)^ n tis lynns lynj^ iyny:i TtD lyn 
DiDiyn''i"'nQ DyjyDnyrnT^ nvi iv DD»ti^jy:''''«n^^^ lyij^ 
DO vw in n^D lyrsy: ^Dii^Dti^ ly^^^iyD^^^yD-'o iyi pd 
-sn njy:i pn iv do nn:yDyi3 i^d avih2 \'-\v::'f ^tsj ^inx 
DV .''\v^'?^''?v^^t2 px tyny^-Di^^DC^ iy:j'^^:!:y Dyi d^d tsji§p 
lyDSiPV ,iyj*iDy3 in iynj<in tyD^^v y^s iv t^ ,ij^^p iyn« t^x 
yjyiijny^ ^ni^v « ,nD«^D-^yn nyDo^^D iyr:iynsj<!oiN* nvi d^d 
-n^D in D>>njy:y^y:i ^u ^ddik^isi ni /iyni^*n v:i'?V)) .ly^yryj 
-1XQ yrti^i n .lyioyi p.x lytj^iyn yiy^n iy;ypD:» d^j^^^^ 
lyD^snyaj^ t^noyD^^v lyij^n ^DyDsmnsn Diyii 4y:iJiao^^x 
o»^ n lynj^n /^ti'D^ .1387 pi? .nn»^ 18:i«it pk 0:8^ D^i^^in 



21 nT''3j5"'^i''""T'''''^^ ps iy:i:'inyt2t:^Djy 

nc lynytDnK,, n lyjyj jn^n^^yayn .D^^yianyDDiK^ iyj«T 
po .t:D8tJ'*iyTiin yjnjyDt^'Kn 8 iyi:nj w DDny;i /"n^D 
-^yii/, ,D-iy3S!D^yoist n pd D^^yia n iyD3Mn«3 ^ivovbi:^ inij^ 
18 D5§nyj iv2ii,n ^n rs ," i y d « > iyDny:i mn lyo y^ 
ni< yyi^v^ k o^d /'lypjyiy;; ^n Djn« Dc^tj'iyinn v^v^'t^ 
/tD"iy^Piy lyniij iyai;?n DiyoD^^D n .pi^Jiyii^iJ yoo^DLi^fci:! 
nn«^ iny^^m mi ^nvD d^j lyiiy; o'?^ rx jjij^:^^ni8d n !» 
1417 p« •nn^^c' n pyDyn i^ lyiiyj t^k pyii>^ in^x tbi n« 
"ly^yryj nx D^^yis,. lyi^^jtj' n nnyni^D onoy; lyo onn 
,D-iyDD^^D y-iy>n ^u mt iNirt^iyus ry:"iy w^^io) ^v pd 
'Vi 8 Di^Dii^D lyni^n nx lyoDJipjyDSiTiv si^-iyo^sn ^n ^^^ii 
in \v2i^n iyt:D5<i^'-iyinn yrtJ^T n ni< oj^rj^^Nife<!D vd^)) 
Bi^^^2 nyn t:>^n 1538 pj< .p^^j? ii^-i:{^^ pK n^^j d^j iy:i2y:i 
"lyDDVk^ rvj8iirpK-p^fc< ts /I'^yiiDj^ip iv oyDiDn^n ^>^^k pd 
-rn :nfes2 ^ n^x lyn^^pi^jD yi lynj^n t^•DynDn^ pd \v'?v^v: 
y^8 lycnDnjiv t5p^t^'y;l ••n iid ^m iyni>*n pj< dii^dc^ I'lyo 
lyanpivDnis nD ^^n d^d iyjyjy:i8D iv m DiyDD^^DnyoDit^ 
Dyii iv^'^'?,, T8 onjyt^i§TL3D /finoK^ yiy^n Finj< ::ny3yn {§ 
ymynnD n nsD w^^'??^ v^^^ vm^D^ px \vd\? do 
py^itj^ DO ly^yn Di^ii .n d^d lyjy^y-nvs^ in m ; nn^Dc^ 

."tn D^D lyDSPv inyDij^ iv 
-5>>>D n PD Dmsi lyonyj vd dj^ii ,\v'?V'b\^''2 yrii^i n 
.ly^snytosD yDD^^tojyDyi^D do ^j^o:^"-? i^^j dv>k r^n r^ni 
■DJyDy-ij<D-DO n pd ^jitJ'i^DDnx y:n:yD*k^^{>*D ^ Ti? ,iyT^nii$3 
PD vn^'^'i yv:s:: 8 Dpyiy:Dnx d^^-i^^d d^j^ii lyirDii^: voy'? 
1!^ D^si'Dv: T'?:vr2 niK i«D D^{^ii px ryDDsti^iyinriy^yTy;) 
•ly^joo^^xi^D vyii^i n pd ""ny: iy;^D3n oyi tyo^D^^'jiin 
yD3i<!iny: n pfc< •'V ni^^p do iDit< pxn .^y^sc^^^n div ,t^x oy 
-yi -lyij^ nyny^DD^'-m^ iy:y: Dp^nDD iriiy:i oy lyj^n ly^^D 
pm:^^8 lyTJiN -lyv oyn pd DyDn^^Dnt^ iyi iy:yj lyD^i^ii 
n^5'3yD p« ^tJ'DynDni pd DiyDDv^ n d-'o 5'8d nyn tsj ^t^k 
PD namo yDtj^ny n i^d in d^d D^yDt^ ,yiyoK y^j^r^ pd 
•^ni i? T55 /lyDnyj:^^ ly^nyn ^«t iy» ly^ .dtoj^ovi^^d 



nyny:DD^ui8 vw^'t iy:yp lyD^uns yjy;jny; hd lyjjirj^^j^ 
iyj:irj^^«n«£i yoQsnnyMT p« iy:J5§;y:iiyn^« l^^pi^i^ lyj^n 
ryjji«iivy:i m)v:i vd lyo^i^ii nyDP«i5§D ly^^^jny ti§ d^d 
■aia ny-i^ lyDJny^^nyD nvi to^D yo^-'ti^y: lyiJi^? lyn^nivj^ 
liD ::iD::i$Ti3fei;n ny^ijyj 8 n«j nyn{$ .DiyiJimnj^'' lyDjnyv 
p« lyDDs^iyina-iy^yty: no iy^!j?Q yD^^^^jycyi^Q y^fe> n 
r^i§ li^j T^j< Dy T8 ,D:^^viyn^j< njyDtj^^is i^q tyj^n nj.^^:ijy 
nyMT T^^? oy y^^yn tsi^Donpy lyn^^in oy Tfe$ ,tyr^ii«n du 
nyD^^m^-pi^ PD ty:i:'irj"'^Nn^D y^'^:yDt^'toDa^yT px v^^^r[ 
.iv^'?^'?VD'D pQ D^^^ iyi t^K nyny:iDto^u-i!!$ ty:iyp 
-i^D v:i^V)) Pi< .ly^sD yo^iiyj y-iyu^ i^n^a lyj^n oy 
Dt^-n ,nyDDnpy yocismy^n s tyD^^nyjj^;? lyn^n lyjjir:^^^ 
*.iy^yTy:i pq iy:sDt^^sn iy:^n ^n is ,p§ t^^iijyto^^^ toonyj lyn 
ys^yii f"y^j^2D^p oi^^^yt^D^n,, n pk ]v'?^q y^« p« iya« 



i2'0 p;n:n"i«s iyn:?Ji t'k Dxn /'n^'i^'a lyf^iKi,, -ij;ix "j;nKsi2xp 

"Dupy n 11 T 1KD "bwD lytDtrij; di^ iid ij?pyntDj;?„ ,1601 px 1446 
,;ijuo''Ni«5"tj;^yT7;i « ps ,yi^TUitaDjNp "lyi ]ts 'jna « p^ ,pj;Q 

ixDyExis ya^yii ps ,'|y'7Knj;t2«D n ps ;;:i3myttiiK yjita^inKS i* 
ny:j?BnyjnT« lyi ps J3np'?'tr yanKnny'b I'u ly^K^sp laxn iy'72'K 

!D'?Nn DNT .DiyuD'iQ p3 ik: rVJ^V^V^ ps lyJKtatTNn t20 ^^rn 
n ps lyn^n n px d«ti ,t2p«s Dyi ps lyoi^tr lii^pyj? Diip ]y:3 
Ml ,"iyin'S yDi^;iyDnKS lyiisy:; I't iyn«n ly'^yry;? yjycny;j-nT« 
nya'^yn ,"iyjj3>'?^n ]in nyiDKip ]is li^ns nyn ;D'^^'n n-iKtran 
-Kn DNn n ns nyjnK) "e^rnNn ps* iK'^ytytssi,, « ]yiNny; t'k 
lapiD "iy nyn yiDys«"iB -lyn px nK'yo-n-ix'? "ipKn^x*? cyT lytin*?;? 
pN ,1535 p« "y>3KQD«p lyoiK',, "lyn ps (.n^K — isdk px 'pnx 
T^K nys'jyn ,"i«'yD-Ti«'7 lyjmyiaysa^ nyn ,iyT'?'7«n *nN:Ky^ lyo 
ny lyu ,1594 to 1572 ps yiixsaxp onx'jytJ'tsNn nyi t^N lyny^ 
yiangi^n nyiysyn "lyn ps T''7:t3itt « d*?** lyiNMyjj ts^nymy,/ t'k 

".yiJ'^Dy; "lyn ps 



23 DT"':^"':r-T'niD ]"id ]y:i:iny:2K^tD:j; 

-jiK 18 mw:^ ,DD8tJ'nynnn-iy^yTyj 8 d^8 lyoijyjj^ Dijn lyo 
-yi T^K Dij^i ,y-i^^riyDD^^D nyn hd jji^^^db« yD:yi"ii$y:iyD 
,n«^p pn nyanyi oy^i ov AV^v^ii^i ynn^N li^j lyi^t^iyj onn^a 
n lyD^STiisD nynyjDD^uis n V2'?v)) pk ,iy::irj^^«i^D ts 
py^^ lyj^^nss d^j lyji^P .yoD^^n n lyn^Dt^sn m oyo^P 

PQ lyDPsu lyosn^^ oyn isd jjny^piy n rs .lyn^^j td 
lyo li^P lytD^uiK yjy:ijnyj n \v^'))'i iy::'irj^^N"i8D yiooyD 
lyai^n lytD^^nn^ vd21v'?v:\ n d«i^i ^tyorj^OMK n px lyj^syj 
DO ly^Mi n^D .iyD^u"i8i^Dm8 t^'^DJ^ji^py in .Dsnyj i^jj 
/'D^^v y:yi^i^:i„ s lyiiyj ^«d8 t^k oy t8 ,pmj^^8 nvi ly^^Q 
-yr^K pn lyiiyj t^« n^x^D-^yn '^VD:'\v'?v:i ^viv' iy::^yii pk 
•DytDD^D-pi^ P>p nsD DDVKTiy:i DO D«n lyo p^ /nun-^yn nyj 
DiisjDtJ' nyt^^^ijy nyn P2 v^t^v^ nyi pi< lyoy^n yDL^'•^y n 
iyj>n y^^yii ^D^^y^s yjy::ny: ww^ \v:''>^ oy ts ^lyr^nisn 
-py^ iyi lyn^sit .pi^ ny>n d^q lynnQiv lyiiy: ^i^oy^^ do 
-DOD^ynisD nyi pi< tu .D^n lyDSD yDjiy^y: n p^< ^yryj 
,n:"nD iy^8''vi;?D lyn^ypyi iv Diynyj ,d^^v nyjnyi^^D royo 
nn lyiiy: T'ik v?^vi iy T^i< T'^inyiiy;; pn ^n^^n-^yn pn ni 
.180 \v:i''?2r]V 18 iyn« lya^ytDyi px lyDD^-'o 8 pq inn 
D"in^Dy:ji;it lyny: i^^DyTDsnn t^n ynDonrx n m :j8^ nT8 
n^ inyD do DrDDyD'8n lyn^tn yrD^yn ,DiyDD^^D v:'''p? pd 
pit PD D^^^ yD^^Doti^D-in n mn ,]v'?v^v: ^niv lyni^ Dy:^^N 
Diymy:i do iyD^^n"i8 Dyjy::ny:i ly:^'01y:y wiv* ^^n ^yis 8 
y\2V^^ Diijn j:vny^ lyro^^^D iyi p8 ,ini^^ y^^^Dy m ^nvD 
P^t D^D iynj;jn i!^ n:inn do nnx .lysi^n Djypyj di: r:8: 
-18D n^an-^yn 8 \'^V)) iv D^«D:y-iy^ t^n nyDD^^D D'lyDD^^D 
"185 P8 iyD^8ny: anjyD:^^ D^i^n y^^^8To^8n{$ y^o yiy^ .in 
"Dnj D^i^jn PN lyi^^jD^D yDDrnys pn yDDD^y yin>N n^^ 
Diyoyjinti^n nD:yiii^p„ n ni ,DPjyit^8n lyi^yj r^nnyn^yn 
n n^ lyii^ /'lyt^'JyD v::)\. n nn.N /'^yrj^^t^n .dd n« i^o 
T^i 1415 pD ly^'yrynyi^o'^ Pd DD8^iyinn y:^^>niD^^v 
PD .lyc'^yD yjyoyrsn-DO pn y:jr pa v^^:^ 8 ^nN ,1417 



m^^P IV m'wii "W))^ D^«"ii DV lyn^n i/jynnssny-D^j oyoyn 

.Diyin^D lij^Jvn^nD yDi;i :iijy:i 
,DDip D»n MT^ ')) /inyDK^n^Q iv :ijn:i lyinyn t^« oy 
■jiK y^ynDDnrj^ ton-'Donpy iya»n lyo^^v y^js iv tj^D^a ii$ 
yr^"'^iitD"'^j^ HQ :iJS!;inya^« oyn iya« n^D iyj''Dy:i /lyjJipmnyD 
.181 ^^^v lyDDSK^^yiynsQ yjm^yDtJ'sn p« iy:iJi:iu''^«n8D 
iyn«n ynDonj^K nyn p« lyjji^jnsn v\:i^vi:vv:i n lyii 
IV nyD-'-'iis Dyi na lytoDnoMi? n Diyjy^pnsQ p'l^^w ns:; 

:2)"[r]^B^v lyn nin Di^^DtJ^iyoJi^ Diyii Di^ti^ nyrtj^i lyn 

nyn ^MN tyD^uns om ,Diyrati^ n lys^yn v:i'?v\) /Onya^jp 

na to^i^vy; ly^n m^^p m DrDsyti^sn nyi^ /Pti'«Q""y^iD,, 

-lyom;,, "lyi .lytD^uns ••n lyDyii iss /Dnyj^BEi^-^ynj^n n 

DPJ^3 T^K Distil /18D nyjyDpsmyT s ^{$ddq« t^n "nys^jpij^D 

1V2H Dn"'« D^n«v ny:3^yii .r^^s nyj^s^ lyn ni w^^v^ ^its 

-ns^^yiisn n tJ^Di^D /iy;iy"i"iDDyi:nQ .pi^ iy:inyn^j n8:i » 

,DT^:i#^jr"T'nD Div ;ji:i^^j ynn^ipnyD s D^ns ty:i^^v nyto^u 

yv8T^J8;inj$ ynjyDt^DDn^yt « lynn; iv lyDuisD n lyj^n 

nytj^^:iiyjy nyi .iy^82y:i:Din n:ytD5^ Diys^jpiss n ns 

fiMK lyDisii p^« p« to^5$n -lya^yii nys^jpnsD ^vw^Vi m 

■yDrxisiD iyD'':i t^n ,iy:)^s:^ s nyii toyn iy m) toiro lyn 

nyi^^K ,nyB"'jps& Dyi pa nn^^tj^ n tiyjy^pnsD iv tDi^oyn 

lyti^^iiv :j^:iyii8n ny^o ^ViV pa lyin^Q n .nyDyi:!ns!Q iv ^n 

-D^ns! in^« PD DPiDy;i pnnynjyiiD^u iyn«n Diys^jpisD n 

nyny^DD^uiS! n ni$ny:i lyj^n p^^s >n iii i^:i nti? .ty^jsD 

/li^T .n^^iiy:! tyn-'iniyi lyj^n ^n lyiD^yii pq .d^j^p oyi pq 

-y^j^^K D^3 ^i^iDJ^^P nn Di^n DiyQ^jpnsQ nyn>''t^5§PJ8^ n D;n 

••n lyj-in ^i^^jr-T'nt: yn^yDtj^toDn^yt » h^dis^d iv tyny:i 

PD DyvitDnjDJi^p n t^t< ,!y:^''t<i8D v^v^'f in«i lyn^^ny:) tD^j 

niD^^tr iyi n^it? aJitD^nji^ ^yp^tDtj' s tyrcy:) lyj^^p n^o yD^yii 

-yK^Dsn. nyn px nypiyiiDJ^n-iytDD^^a n pd lyv oyi lytj^niv 

/i^^xnsD iyDjy"iiJ^y:nytDJi« lynjs is nyij$ /'y^jss»sp di«^ 



25 DT'':y''jr-T''"\D lis jyjiinyDtymy 

-••BK^ n •lyD^^ij'yjj^^s pn Djypyj lyaiijn ly^yiyj \V2'?v\\ pk 
n lyDijyiDMjiv lynt^n .lypyii:; yjyr^N yiy^n ny^:?^:^ ,Diy: 
y^^yii p« /iyj^^Knfe?D yriJjJT n .iyj^^«i«D p« Diya^jpnj^D 
18 n^Dii^D ,yjy:iJij<ii:^yj 8 i^^jny^iyj r^i< d^s^i^^jo^d n 
n 1KT1 ,ii$^:vn^nD DiyrB^i' lyi pa ^^^tD iyD:yTiJ^y:-iy^j^K 
n lyDj^DnsD /iyj8"iD^u n iy^Di§T m \vd'di:^^2 vdd^^i 
i^ytrn 'wiv' Pfc< lyD^^insD pn lyiji^D n ly^^^DiKD ^nupn 
-ij$D n ^^3 TT jn:y:ynD:«t d^j pDi^n^ /iyD^M:yjy^yjj« y^s 
n T8 /inyLDt^'ii^Q iv ly^it^ d^j nynnyi t^k oy .«di: onys^jp 
■unD lyT lyj^D'^sn r^5< oy y:)^yn pa ,n'i:)K^o-^^ya lyoo^'-D 
iDix S!Tj< n^iN op:i3 \v2i^n nyv ly^^^nyD^s^yD^D 8 P2 ^«: 
lyii^ ly^yryj n ly^nyjivD^jiv i^^vo i^d lyj^ayj oji^py: 
■yjiyDjiK 18 P8 182 Dyi pd lyi^^jto^a yiynyn^j vwi:^ 
n DD^Dt^'^a lyni^n ^n lyayii 18d ^tia^tj'nyinn nytDjyii» 
lyiiit "Diynyran^/, n D^yD::':iyj8 ,yjyiD^o vy'?^nv^''?VD'-\v^ 
"ivw'' PN pt< ^y"iJ«iD n t:yLD^8in8D /'DiynyTD^N-Dipon,, 
n :n:yT{^^iyi do ,iyD^M:yjy^yj:8 n di^^^jjidj^ip D^nrn 
njsnn^D n px nyi T^i< oy y^^yii lyaj^n ly^i^t ^n ly^yryj 

.ryj:i^ 
-Dn« n T8 /lyt^msn yniyD^Mi pn :i^Dnj '?h^ ov a^ix 
n oiytDtj'y;! dj^m ti'^Di^Ji^py m lyD^^msivDms ^imk to^n 
DJi^py: "i^D ly'iD^i;?!! ,iyj:ir:^^Kn8D yos^mj^Dt^ pq jjn^oisQ 
-^^yn yoj-iy^y: pd lyo^^p yoniyj ts /t:P8D nvi iyj:yin 
"18 py^i "IV \2'^n:v:v'?v:i v? D8ny: too lynt^n v:i'?v)^ ^didk^d 
-lyn iynjn:i iv iyny:yij^^8 «^ y\:i2V\> in Oi^n nynyjDD^^n 
-lyDJiK DPDy:i tDi^n ryty: dj^i ys^yii ,iy:i:"ir:>^K"i8D yt:£8n 
-y:i pniv jj8^ pic^ lya^tn ,^y^s'j^^''n div nyiyno n .lypm 
D8i^ /Dy^v8iy"iyDJi^P pk Dy^v8:yi:iJi^P y3^^iny\, yny^n L38n 
"8PV lyDSstj'tD yD^^tDD8t^'j^^oy:i y-iy^n pk iyj8t:*^8n iy:^n 
nn pj^Tiyj iyDfc?m8D i^^pmont^ lyrn yD^yii /'iyt:DJip:yo 
-li^^i PQ DiyDye^^yrv n px .1425 px DP8"tD:yo8^")85 8 
,1467 j^8 y-ij^^ny^ lyi pa n{^*iiy: tDjy*ni^"i83 lyj^n lyjooyp 
n8:i i^^Pini T^8 oy ."Djyo8^i8D v? in >^3 nn^Divj>^8» do 



-^yii 8 pN D^j Djo^^KnsQ lyiwj lyj'^T /lyD^^i^f 8 w D^uns 
nyo^natj'isQ ^«;jj$^:^8J s p« ij$: .yi^u ly^spis^ vi< ov nyo 
-n«iQ yniyD^^iT m) ojirj^-'KnsQ pd tsrs •DDstj'iynnnsQ 
.D^^'?:i^DyD m ^nyj nn^x ^^ik ^y'? 'invD lyQisii iy^«T \vn\^ 
no i$ p« pn '?m M T8 .iy:i^''^DMi8 n^^jyo nsJ in i«p 
•ni^ i^y^-'DJ^D ^^ijyiD,, lyroj^^i nyn iv n^^jny ww^'ib 
p« n«iiy;i Dyn:n;iy:i t^« v:i'?v)) /'dj^d^^djij^dd iPD^nysyt 

.1832 

,tD>ms;y:i d^j toi^n nyD^s^yo^D pa lynyno "iin nyn» 
nyDD^^D 8 nsQ ,iyD8Q-'U V2'^vlHf2 n ps lyD^uns! nyn ni 
"81 D«n lyD^yii /«2U i:ip Dyi i«& li^j nyonyjiyDJix 
m D^uns lyn ?iMi< DDsayjanx djjh /ly^snyo^D n Dn^^r 
-y:i n ^k ,pi^ lyn-'^^yD pyn^iTsn s nfe$D ,\:i'?v\:i^v:i:^ Disn 
pN .tyjjp-py^ lyii^ onys^yn yiy^n ""i? nyp^j^nyD ]i\:i:'-\v'? 
,Dny-iyMD n lyj^n niDK^D-''^yn yroiJ^toK^ n iv rsny^y:) 
DMn^ lyj^n ^n dj^ii tD^^>^ nyi pd f.ii .tk .n DiyDso^yrv 
lyn^^msQ /lyny^nyD^uns ly^n pq ^iid Dyi tu nny^ lyn pd 
p« T^N yD^y^i ^v:^"? 8 /y:«^ lytj'^Di^jj^py nyn^yrnyn p« 
-D^^D Dyi lytj^niv yDitDti>-D;j8:in"'K is lyiiy; lyD^ss yiyus n 
-i«:t nyrto:^--!! nyi •'ii dp:i3 .^Tyy:i nvi tiN nDx^D-^ynyD 
lyj^n ,?'D^ PD D-'ms ny:D^y'ii nj^?^ i'dmx ny^tj^^tonn lytJ'^D 
-i^ntDjijp iyn«:n v^^V)) /iyi"'vnj^nQ yn^ytDt^toDn^'yt ty^iy; ^n 
DPV^n D'?v'i2^r]V^ \V2Hn m n^no ny^n pd lyn^^tDyn n tDi^^* 
-lytDD^iD iytj'^D"'D Dyi pd tj'iyijs n8:i iyn« .njip Dyi id^d 
DO DDMpnfc§D ^n lyni^n /lyDSD-piy^in^sn n pd n^N^D-^yn 
/D^^nns yjy:^^« ny^n ••ii nnyo do p« ,D"ni8 ^V''^ ""ii inyo 
-yDr« DO in iyn{<in px ^yr^nQ yDjypiy:s! yDi^^mi is;d 

lyD-i^PISD ^VlH lyDMP D>^1 tyD^Di^lD ty^SD D^D Dn^Dyi 

n ."lyD^^nns yDDi^iD iy:!:n D^^n ni di:i mts ,iy^fe§nyDfc?D 
DO lynnyi t^« iy:i3i:io"'^xife$D ly^n pd D^^'^rDDsmJSDt}' 
lynfcjn i^d m ,y3^yii ^lyoi^Dii'-^i? v^v^ nn iyiiy:i DiyDK^y:i 
n pK n^^iyt^ lyrmy^Dnns *o«^3jy p.x in tyn^n /inyry:! 



27 DT^:^'':'!''-!''''"!^ ;is ]y::inyD*j'Diy 

.iy38D-D:8n 
-lyiDiPfe^f'yD^D p« lyjSD-'n n ns ^y^fi-'^u lyn nnx ,iya» 
oyi na lyDsniN n y:^J3 nn^DDn« lynix D^;^JOK^iyt::iK 
rx -lyo^unyi n ^u iy:jirj^^«iKD na lyopj^ii lyosTJJK^ 
-:j^p r,N Dyvs;:yn:j{$P V2'i>in]!\, n iyD?i;jii ^lyDSD v^vi:^ 
-.ym« lyDHDMii? Djj^py: p^^s lyiyMD n pd "oy^^^snyiyD 
.Drjj^uvi^nD lynnD na ly^y^st^^u d^s o^^PD^jip-iyoDnx 
IID jjppniojy VD'iV^ n iy"i« ,D^\'5rt:yD .naya oyn lyjyii 
lyD^D-^a n i^k iy;:irj^^K"i5§D yD^^-iyD^y:^yD^o y;Mii:i n 
^iti? Ti§ ,:innM"iP"iyD t^k oy .Dt^^:nj$: lyi^^^ td lyo^ni 
nytoonpy lyn hd nisa:^^ p^p Ht^'2 vt^ -lyo^Mi "i^d mi d^mi 
-D5< 112 D^-"^ lyn pi? .onyiJinin^^ iyD:nyvDiD pd nyt^ysiv 
ijiD^j pnn p\"p PK .inyt ly^yn n^o mt .Diynjimn^^ lyojnyv 
y^s; DyDD p« iy:iJ"ir:^^K-iy:D-"iyD^ui« iy:yii tyoDJiPD^K i^x 
nn D^ytoc' oy \ii nyny^DD^^n-isi n -ly^^D yoriy^yj vrji:^ 
nn DjyD«^"i5<B Div lyDM^ pk lyD^sny; "iidd lyajsjn .dm-is^ 
1V2H .nyD^uns yiy^n pd D^t^'yo vi:i:^v'?^ n 5^^ij< iy:i^*^pfc$n 
pip K^^DPJ^D "1^0 iyn«n lyDsia'^n n pn iy3:ir:>>Nifc§D pd 
nynnyn .Diyi:in-in«i^ pa ?nD div li^: t^2 lyjiay: d^: -nstj^ 
lyTJix P2 ns:iDt^3u Dyi ""U jjynot^ lyo^b^n in \v'?i}^ "i^o lyii 
nyny^D n ps y^v^^nynyD^^P n :njyony::{;j jJit^^tD^^DD^N 
■afc^itD^n IV iy:i:iKiivy: lyiiya n^o lyD^i^tii .i^i^jm^ntD s d^l? 
in D'D D^yoc^ yD^yii ^yntoonj^j^ i^ i^d lyDi^s-nn n lyj 
yii^nys i$ D^r^vi tsi^n n dj^ii .^y^si^^^^a Dyjyo^yr Dyi 1^2 
T^« i^i ; Diy-iiinini^'' iyD:nyvsi2 pk DT^:«^JV"i^no p.2 
l^N n:^t:c^iv 8 pi< int$^ Diyi:in ij^s » "i5<2 lynns; n 
Dvy^iv p« ; i^^:}yo^i« lyiiy: t^« DT^:«i^:r"i^nD lyD^m 
D:j^^:vi^nD ly^^yn pn ,y:«^ «; px iV2^^^ pnw n t\^ 
Dy Tb* /Pfc< lyni^ pm:^^^ lyjyj^^x lytJiN .on^^nyj iyn.^;n 
-j;iyiyD px Dy^vb*:yiJ3{^p» n ly'LDDstitostn iv lyr'^o^n t\s 
5$ p.3 yDrjt^-D::inytD{rD:y n D^i§ lyiyno n P2 "Dy*\* 
.l}^*^:v-i^nD b* P2 iy"i^^« nypiynD:s:iTiyDD^^o pd yi^^j 



iyjjn-i5§D VD^V)) nyo^uns pd y:i8^ lytj'^DJ^ji^py lyi lytj' 
yD^yii /yjy^ m wwi ly^Miayj ly^ynnrijrj^ div in 
,DD^:i^^jr-"i^nD lyt^'^Q^D nyrDJ^^i nyi '•n i:p:iq ^yto^nns 
-p-im Dyn m ^m tytj^niv DnyDt:^ D«n nyay:iDD^ui« I8 isq 
IV nD D^uiK iy>n Dj:n nyiD^yii iik nyriMini^D ]v^>'? 
D^D tyjy"i«i"i5§n dh^k ^j^t Di^-n -D-'Di^na «r» Dyi pd ly^so 
nyi D^o Ts /lypjyi n^a ."jJiD^ytm^Q nyn isia pi^, i-'n 
yiyoya n lynj^n iiopyt:on« ny^'-^T^'in lyi pd :ijnyj^''Di«D 
-D>^D y:^^^p pyii iv tonyiDtj'y:! -invD m ^nvD niDN^o-''^ya 
T^K niDfc^^D-'^yn yD^yt^ pd y^vi5T^:sjiis nyiy> pn ,DiyD 
s PD Q^D ly^^^jnyiiyj ayi ps^ iy:!:fei::iy:iiynn8 Dpnyos3D^i< 
tD^^ii DytoD^D ly^ynDDHj^x sr^ lytojix *.y"i^^rnyDD^^o 
-Dnni? ii^'Di^:^?v in lytiDnDMx yn^ym D«ny:i ^'yry:! nyn 
yn:ytD{i^^n pd lyopsTi Dyi DiytDtj^yj D^in dh)^ 'lytD^mtjiY 
Dp^D Dyi p« D«i P5< ; lyDiiiD y^^^jnyny:! n pk ry^uirj^-'xij^s 



DyT UNii y3'?yn /'lyn^'n d'jkdiu'un tin {^tin^,, Diyiyno in 
n„ :y'!?i'7«Tyi j.niyj'^NS n lyouy^jx ,1735 ,-)yno:ri?yT iyu27 
iy:isj;;j taxn ,i2'7:rQxnN5 jiniy>»T ,"p;TT^n D'jKDiiruK p£3 v'^^soxp 
ly^yp lyayiniNs lyaDDi^ppB' d^ p« jtn'^ity n«n;j»p im^v 
-tt«p lyi lu lysiNinytsJix ta^i ]in pK ,iND"-ij;iyntt ly^^JKJ oyi 
piT ]Kp trjyo i^p TK ,;''?'n nT« lanmN pn jjnjyonyjJK ,yoK9 
-nyia^iK la^j tu iskh ly dkti B'DiyT .lyjniKS ta^j unyi tamn 
-o«p lytajNOiyT lyi ps ]yDK'?tyy:iDn« pi'^K in -iy taxn ,iyfliKn 
,tyjyo p'p T« ,p;Di'7tt'Kn yixsoNp n nt laita lynnyi ps ;yiJi<9 

IK t2!?»N pe '7NT 'byTyj-piy'? pip U12 ,ijrtD>niK lyiTin ]np tao 

-:iN ,pKn;3'p im:y ^yajKDiyT lyn inq nj?s'?j?n d'^k lyia'^niK tso 
,y:VJ''« DNT .ny m nrx ]nj;n p;uotry;5K ]ib biniub^ "lyi lya 
lytajKttiyT oyn pij '^yistr^'i oyn iyj;'?NB3«: tayn t'n Dy lyn nn« 
« n«s i2:iB yty'isKB' t3D« IKS taiiniK p?onyjisjK ,]nNnjJ3'p imjy 
Dy:n lynx ,-inn Die ;ii?:Kus prjnr tsiyn n ]jni ,(diq I6Y2) ^n 
ipyn iyt3<ityjr;isK in ly'i'NT ,di5 k ins D'^ys ye'itDKB' ]ny:?3K "inb 
-11D TIN ]Ktrn-ixQnKp3iN »m UN tTtDypD,,) .1B1N lyn'^ytoyT e]'i« 
(.132 ,131 .T ,(1879 ,in;t«^;) p:iivs^p)')p DontrTT ps ,"djkd 



29 DT"':^"':T'-T''nD J13 ;y::inj;tDtyDjy 

-jimnt^^ iyt:jny:;38 pd ^id div nyojns tu lyDSD-na n 
lyiij lyoD^^D-'U lytJ'^DD^^iiiD^setp lyi lyni^ lyii *.D-iyT 
.-ly-iynonytDD^-'D lyi lyj^o^nsn iynnnyjj« toj^n ii$opj§*iDJi>'p 
112 D«^P lyrT^tn lyi n« >a) .ts .k lynypj^D-nytDo^^a oyi 
rs^s pn iyt:yiDS« onoy: lyiMi ojjn "lyDnyjiyDJiN,, y:^^^p 
,D:i^^jr-i^nD lyn^n ,iyt}^u-ifc$ yjy::ny3 pa y^DisiyM lyi 
**.inyDtJ'D:y iv lynnny::^^ ,pT Dy:-iynj^D oyi p« 



tspyin Tin 1448-50 pN lynxnyj annyj t»n y'TKioi; iKiiiyo nyn 

nyn:u«i lynKny:? ij?ny;yj5Dn"i« t'k ,i3"iyn:in"inK' |yt2:n:;:iy2n ps 
nynn ,"iy':iyiu-nj;i:D"D k ]tk "iy"i5;na-iyj:Di'D « is i2p«it::Np e\iit< 
•n« nKt:D'n„) .u?'7Knj;aN0 p'jN tD'7j:i:tyy;ns r*?** in: kkh yuNiou n 
,5 .n ; 720-37 .T ,3 .n ; 258-60 .t ,1 .n /'oyo^ns liy "niya'i'Kpn;« 

(.629 ,503 ,478 .T 

lyjNi'TiK'? IT lyiNttiyn ]yD ^^D i2>f3"iyT j:n:o"iK5 p« ** 
tspyin t2'7yi:Nnyj ;n:yt2ty iv^xn i^^i'ryn ,(D'iy5'tr) tt'^'^iyoKn 

lyT'^ijjp TS ID3KD n .1350 ts:^ uim':n;"i« lyiiy^ "no; i>*:'u 'u 
-«^i«s K "i"in lyiKny:: t;''?mN2 1555 i^k t'« *Tin:2"i;*B'B' oyi 
lyonjrtDNn TO»'nt:„ iyu-inNBiNp:'« iy;:'r:D'7N?2y*7 "iy*T i!i t:pN-t::yo 
-p ;'t2iyp T'N Dy ::Tt3'7Kinyfl oyoyn ,"y':NEr2Np lyonynu'^'? i:y 
ya'jyn .oiys's* n .iyiN'?DnN-DnyaD''0 n p£ tt:yn n p« iy;y7 
-Dn"iK ]yj:iNnsyj lyny; ly^^'T ,i:Nny; c'J Dny::D"0 ]i^;) iy-«n 
-Dupy n iTK ,"yi:«2DKp„ "lyi i:n ]is ta^n^ns lynr ]y:jnprj 
lyDiyttxn UK 'cyDKD nyti^'DKj'TKON,, n ,]N<ji^-TniD yn:yT!3 
-Dn« Dyn i:>o 1872 pK lyixny:! t:yn:n;y; vn "lyonyntan^ i:y 
lyn ]iH a£Niy"iyi:y"iu"iNS yDmy;i k ]y;npiiiDn"iK ,i)*;'\)'S ])!D>bpm 
■'» pB ]y;5ju'j''«nN5 y^niynnc .y'jNersNp "lyi ]is ;:T^i2KnKB 
]'K Bt'^DiTpy lynxn ,DnN laT^''."! ,'iypyTis-lK5 ins ny!:''ni«"iys 
1799 ]>K ]"iN ("iyf3-iyi:Kn nx itiyDND ta'^Tiyixn,, k) 1789 
-"lyn >'n T^:nynyj CTomp ,iyonyc«n "nw 'tsy^^oxD '?n:yiE) 
I'cyo ]iK ; (";:'BB«p ,!rnyB DiKcn xo p« iT'yjiD trTTic'o 



n m ^Mfc< D^yDt^^yjajj iy::y^ ^youK in iyn»n i^d 

-y:i n ^nx m nyD^u-ifej-pi^ hd lyjJirj^^KisD yr^^niD^^:^ 

Du ns:i D^»ii lyD ^^ni nyo^K^yD^D nc lyDDstJ'iyina ly^yr 

n lynyj in lyomy:! s pk lyj^n ^n ts ,iyt^nu« D:iiipv:ii 

-C'-WD n8:i iyi« t^k oy .i«:"'jr-n^nD lyn na lyan^ii^i) 

liQ :ij"nBCj'"n« Dyn oDuy; i^^jnyiiy;i mn lyo tk onnni 

lynyin \v^:vo .Dy^:^iD^t:Dr« n d« p,« d^j DT^jj^^Jvi^nD 

-«^jvn^nD Dyjiyii^o nyn na nyan^iJ^iQ n i«ij Duynyj m 

-pi^ n na iyjJi:^J^^«"i8D yj^^nyto^^^yo^D n iv tj^j dt^j 

,DD^^i DH^ — ny^y^DD^ui^ yiy^n PQ n i:^ ii^j nyto^uii§ 

P2 D^\"PD^^jny yD^^nyoMK n *.Dyn^^rnyp-iyiiDJ«n n i>{ 

o^^'i yjjs^ 8 DJ^n ly^inypnyiiDJ^n oyi iv i^i^jvi^nD lyn 

PD '•^D nj^nQ n pd ^•'D /D^^'^o^rpiyDD^i^ n iyjnvy:ii>i 

nsD n lyiiyj iyn« t^n oy ; DT^j^^Jvi^nD pd D^NJiti^ n 

::iit:^ii^D yjyojs^^nn D'j!?J8t}:yin ii^DyQi^iQ pa iJiD-'^tDjyQy 

lynyjyj Dj^n Di^ii /'Di;j^JVi^nD pd j^nsti'n^,, nyn ty:iy^i 

-:» T^K oy iy:D:?yii in« **.yyn^N nyiy^^si^D lyi pmonx 



IjrnKn dnu /'D'tajr^'DND ':;nJiMtD„ y'?«pN'7 1850 pK iDnnntj^x:: 

(.1851 ,i«njK'7 /'ns iNiJN^ 

■"iys3y^yty<3 lytyn'n nyn ytDD't^:?:! m,, pn i^k .-lynx pnb» * 
,iy'7j;Tyj ]is ]y:>>Ni«s n tk ,t2j?i2snnKn ,(1877 ,:i!isn^) "yiij;n 
-iDJKn n ta^D ta^n ^o ta^u tan^'bnjjjj TJN'?tt'tD'n px iy:i«n ys^^rn 
lyi^n ,(1618) "ji^np ij;;inn«'-;i'Dim„ d:;i n«5 oyn'^u-iypiyn 

(.1879 ,;"inDNiaD) "tas:is "ivnj;n 1T« nyDita iyj"inDK-it2D„ D'-iy^ 

nyn ps ]yiy;;y;Dm« /'di'ju tri'^jij^x,, D'ntD'faD pd'tinu li? t3"i«n 
-p; Dj; T»« "ij/ta^Btt' .1870 ]^n "^rsyosD i2Dpi;ta b»»'?-3:'n >'7"imk„ 
u3yf29N'?^nyn lij? nstaom im„ d'7« -ly^i^TNn tDpmyj;i:;n'« i^n 
— ,(1870 rlKiJN'?) "DiNOi'-Tnia tin p3>TTn« ^nn ir; oib^^ im 
■y"i;j D'K:Ka3yni .m .tt tq ^ysnNn ynN;DM« lyn einx tax pN 
,;j^!rBn'7) "isitjp:v^y; -lyn ]yn'i'U"iytann« n„ :un2iK pyo 



31 DT''Jt5"'JT'"T'''"^t:i lis iy:i3inyDtyD3y 

■i^nD "iyjiyi«D lyn n« yn^^-j lyj^^iyD^si^yD^D lyn lytj' 
yj^^« T8 ,pj8iyj oui t:3i§-iny:DMi8 Jii:KDjyia .-n dj^h ,ii^^:r 
D«i nyiyuet lyi hd inyj:?{;jD3«j n d^mi mts pi^ix t^k 
-:yDsnv oyn iyDJi« lyjsotj'Djy lyj^n Dy^^^iD^DDrx yi^u 
-«n yD^yii ,\V'^2Vd v^V' ^u iin /DyoD^D \vd^^ is na inn 
n^o^3 P^t 1^ nD ,jJiT^^^ani< iy;iM«n lyi ns lyo^^y: lyn 
•ID m) m .":ji:i"i» I« to^^":>;njyDtJ'DDn^yT lyD^i^mi^DMN 
-n^no na yoD^^yj pn pd n^nji^ pk Di^jn ^yi«:n *^nij^tj^n 
n lyjyn ddjipd^k D'i<iJ8D:yi3 .n D^^^myim Dt^jytor 
T^« l^^jm^nt: n rs ^pj^iiyj lyoijyjjj^ oy t^k .ovi'p^i 
n P2 lyji^Di^'Djy .idik lyocDtj'saQiK i5§ oysy ^imn -i^^piii 
")yTjii< n5§D lyanyi oy lyD^sn i^d *.Dy"i^^rnypiyi'iDJ5<n 



inK m ,;3^'7i:KnBK y;'TKT n tt ]'k tt'i'Knts:^ (1871-2 ,*i:;njrn 2 
,1870 ij?2«i2pN IKS "imn tr'unn ttiKj„ lyi ]'« '7:;p'cnK jmj 
m inyD u'i T'N D^ ."]Ki:p-Tna n ii£3 iyDp«n iyi„ U'^yn 

atj'jp lynnxp,, n i'n .0^*?'; n ]is sk T'jpim lyaxtttr dj«':t 
-Tnta ]y;yn *?j;p'bik nytDU k i^t tsj'syj ,(1872 ,'i«n:«'i') "D'yoy 

n:K'7jJiy px tsjKpKnoiK lyTiy; 1P"t ]y;iU'ji'Ki«D yj^KT n tk 
isKnyj B'i ma^'iy ]'ip lynxn px ta"iyn:inKi ]ytD:ny!J2K oyn iks 

.Dyi'bu n ta'D 

":«p,, D"?yiKn tyTTitjcTT ."id ])s iyt3>n t2"iyn:in yaiyiy n * 
; 1877 ,y;K'7£n« ytiiyny ,]K*TiK'7) "-iKn^''? n:y "jycByp tin D^poij 
.m pB ;:i'?«n"iyTm ynjyj « lyj^'T (1891 ,yjK'7flnN ycms 
•TKOttrK ,]ys:«;:^K layoD tD:'iiy"iy ya'i'yn ,;!ii'?njKn5« D'KiNB:yn2 
1871 pK pTiy ny^N .D:y;'iK D'^jyixn .no d^k ,"iytt"iyn yn'ryrn B'D 
"DnK /'t:"iKn:yjyj nyn ]yn'?'j"iyta'^n"iN„ pu ]'« ,«JNt::yi3 .m iskh 
n i2'D tti'j ,Ki«B' m nTK ,D:Nm'-TnK) n ]yn:mNS T»^pm 
,i2piyT "ly m ,):2'i))'i^ ,iyi2£Kty-iyTnn-]y*7yTyj n tt^D "inj ,Dyn'7U 
y: 1^ ^lyniyas'DiK yianyiiyy; lyts:^^ ,t22Niny„ :i'>^y;p ]V^^^ 

".p'BpKi: nynj n is ]ik ,iy3y^ ]in mn3 



.i^^Jvn^nD nyjiyirsD lyn m lyv M^^nvD^K^yD'-D oyn 
lyj^n DJ^om^nD n t{$ ,nyii lyrMisi \v:ii^P '?m dv tm^ 
yo^s n ns) D^K^ir n iyi"iy:i DDnj^i fx oy ny^^yii px 
lytj'ii^QDMK lyansn n-iD tk n^i^p pn oy Dyn t»i /Dyi^^;i 

->» Dyn ns ai^-iyostotj' D:»''Ji''-i^no n ts /Hiyti^n n 
oy tyn«n td •'II D^ni nrs ny^^nypiynD^^^n lyD^^iy^^^^^yD 
"DD^tJ'y: n .in i^d d^j r^msn p-ip D«in /tyj^syjDM.^ DJ{<ipy;i 
D«n ,^5i^D^ ^iJ^iJj;?^ PK .Dyi IV iiQ>n^ iyny:i tyr^ni^n y^^^ 
yjyDi^iniyDJi«-to^j 8 iyD^sny;iJj<i li^^JVi^nD p^« ••n inyD 
-nyiiDJsn n .Diynjinin^^ lytojnyvDis Dyi tojn y:ivdd']p:; 
^u n« /"oy^j^BDi^p-'D^D,, n pn ij^j n^Donpy oyn^^nyp 
lyDDjy^P Dyn oo n^D lyj^ay:; yto^^t^y: lyn pk topjis p^p 
-lyD^uis D;i^n^:^y33« w^nn ^n PQ in ^j$r oy t« /t^nisi 
nyj«nj{§^ n tynj!?n DnyiJinin«i> ty^is Dyi Dns .iyt:D»t^'f'yty:i 
lyn iyn«n ^n dj^iii .^^''DJs lyiy^ n«^i«Q DS!ny:i lyD-'-'nis 
\v:ii}n yD^yii /Dy^jsso^ip n pn tD^ny:i '?hd^ iej'q^ t^^? oy 
n t3''D lyjjnrin^D t^x oy yD^yii lyni^n i!^ Diyny^Dnx V)^ 
iDiyii Dy *.iyDyj n iy;j<iiDy:i w^^n ^n yD^yii pa ^Di-inD 
Dsny; lynii^n "oy^j^QD^ip,, nyj^ijj^^ n rs ,iyoijy:ijj^ toa^^t 
lyni^n oyi^"'; n ix-n ,toiyDK^ px rs m ytorj-'tj^y:; Dn^jonx m 
'^:v ^:i^pv:i -"n pa DJijn oJi^-p^i^tDjy y^»Di«ij s DD;stoy;iain 
mr] Ti'^v^n y:in«n n .^^y^^D^iD-i^ntD yjiyij^D n inyDtj^ 



m) n'D tj;:<5i?; ,Dnn-m y-ij^nt nj?n>« jr^^jpnomi t>k oy j;3^j;n 
-nt nyi^'jnn n px nypniDB'-iyp«T nj?:«nit<^ n ]is ^ns oyn pN 
■lyta^oiK i^*Ty> lis ]j;-i«njr: ta^iitatrj;;} lyj'u ^t tn ^Cnjnyniyr 

pt^ii) pK Biyn^imnN' ij?iDjny!?i'^j Dp px tn jnip'tsDupj; 



33 DT'':y^3T'-T'nt:i jis ]y::'inyDiyt:):y 

lym .li^JTS^J PK DO m ^DDSPIO p« DO rliiilDDyiS PK 

"Miv j:snjyD8n:i lyDDjy^p oyi lyj^Dyj ix n^iDU miyi n^o 
yijyoiPDMK n PK oyn^o ynjymsDt^'DnN dsojs^ n lytj' 
■n5<;3 /•nyi^ii^ -d •t^'n .id Di$n i^y^Dysy p« .DJjjovn^nD 
-DM« ^«DJ^^« ,^M p:v'\^ .no PD D3n«n « n^i« in :injyQ 
.pyn lypiisa ij^p junjuisa yDpyin s ts ,D"iy^pny n^^pm 
yD^^si'y: lyi pk lyDPsisj ayi pd jjijmyDJiK yD^^Djnj s 
DH T8 /DT^^iTsn "yoKBDi^P 'Diy^DJ^P/. "lyuyn^^n ii^: lyn pa 
V'i^ iv Dijtn DiyDD^^D PD iyj:i;o^^i<*i82 yD^^D^^tj'DnK n 
T^K Dy vd'pv)) DD5§-iDy;iDMi8 lyiij lyny^yjoms do d^^:^ 
.5'iD T>K i^y^sytj' yo^yii d'>d ^oj^ori^nD yD^nSiyiv n pd 
v^v^'?v n pQ yrr^K 1KT1 A''?:^^''^ pd ^sd "lyi i«j dd^^^i^ oy 
.Dyn^o n ps si$"iyD»Dt^ ^n lyt /lyDB^nsn p^^s dj«ioi> 
,::iDinyD:i« nyD^^D:n; s ii$: ,dm"i8 m d:i^^v «i i^k "wim 
lyii^ ::8njyD8Tiv t^j< oy iv^^V)) isikd do t^k ij^j do ts 
pn DJi^py: DO ii^:i mn ov t» ij^j ojidsidi^'sj^ vwv^n 
i^^D^^tj'DMfe^ n lytj'Mi^ ::nrn"i8:D ytj'osins t^n oy y^^yii 
pi^iiy:) DDy!K^y:Q« do iy:^n y^^yii .oyi^o ytj^^D:«DDyDi^i3 
,DJi^or-"i^nD yti'^^MDSp-^^'^Dm D^i^Din n d^d 4842 r^a 
ID « D^D di^d:^^8 lyDDyi:! "ly^n DD^nnyn \V2Hn v:^'?^)) 
"lyDn lyoMiy: \:i^D n^^Pi^ii lyDS^nsn i^d .lynns iy"in«> 
p-'P HDi^D iyD:io^^i<-i8D lyi pn t^n ^sd p^p pfc< ts ,^'>'>:> 
,Dpy"ini^« DO PK Dpv^n DO ,iyj«DiJ^D:y do li^ovn^nD 

.yn^o "iyp"iyiiD:)sn 8 pd 
'i'>^^\:i n T8 ,ifc§T yjyrni^n s d^s lyDoyj:^^ ddj^ Diyii Dy 
DyiDi^D ,:i:n5:i^nix in^« pn iyi^y:i do ^i^r oy d^ii 4«oi> 
o^« Dyi p« y^{$i yn^yin i:i'?v'B^ px lyDjyDy^y yn^yrn 
n oi{,)) .DiyiJininj^^ lyDjnyvj^o piD nyDD^D ly^ynDon 
PD v'?^:^ ^vii^p s .nyD^5<^yD^D PD yi^o iyp"iyi^DJ5<n 
IV :oy: pn Dyii ,Dyi^o n ly^y^i Doixii^n t^k Di^n on 
yDDJ^n v^vf PK "i^^DK .DyvytTosjii^ yrtj^i n t^ ,TyT>^"n»3 
,^yDB^:yDStPV iy>n t^« ^n 4y"i^^tj^ifeitD-D:n:i lyi^yj lyj^n jyD 



:i^DMJ D^j niK ns£5 Dyn n^^^jijitD lyrij^n oyi ny^^iv 
nypnJijDD^i ns oyn^^yo VD'iV}v:i:v^Vi> n p^tDiPon iv pn 
.ovi'?'i ']VQ'^V)'\'o:^n n pa :ij'n3Si^niN m lytopsisj Dyn y;ijn 
/r^iJSDjyia .n t:^D iyjsDK^-iKQj>^K pn i^d iyj«p D^n p^x pd 
-18D iM lynjjn nnx^D-'^yn y^ns n rs .iJ$-Dony: iy ly^i 
nsQ ly^j^t lyjij'ijjnsa yny^n is lyrj^^nyi iv d^j hd ,torj^>« 
.nyii Diyjy^pisiD \v'?i^\ tyDD:ynn5$2 yiy^n p« l'^v)) Div^^^f 
n DjytD''n D'DSD pa n^inD^D Dyn„ iy;yp lyv^:?^ iv m pn 
n T8 lyDSD 15^ DDiTy:i iyn«n y^^yn ,Di«Dt5' pa iym«^ 
nyn:8 nyn pq ."y^na-D^j n pc j^;:ynsj^ pn ly^j^r y^ns 
n T8 ,Dyn;j^jj;?p .n t:^D lyoj^pv lynn^j vd mvD t^^n 
PQ D>> \V2V'? p« n«ny:i lyany;,, ryj>n lyi^^:; iypiyiiD:Kn 
y>^: D^8 ni$3 /lyDyton^tDMN yun^Donpy n iv DT^j»;i8tDJ8 
nyn nyn« yoDssn-Dn^itDK" n y:3^yii ti^K ,D'y^viD^DDj>N 
iyD''ny:i 8 iy;j<nDy;ny2n8 \V2^n "Dj^tj^LDnMon^^;,, ny^sip»^ 
nn /'DyDD-iD d^^jijs,, pd s d^s ,"iyDD^^Q yiy^n pq ^>^d 
y^t§p«^ n Dn"'^»iDJi$p tj^^tDPsa D«in ynj>^oy; n v:^'?^)) 
nyntj .DjyDiDJiijip Dyi pq lyoyiyDr^ n p« lynDonj^N 
ni^DyDJ^ns oi})) .tDDnj^-jytj'^i^^; n lyonyjji^ lymi mnP rn 
-DDn^yr iyiiy;i lyj^n Dyi^>; n Ti§ n«Q Djy^ '<v^^^ .mi .-n 
iyn«n y^^yii /niD^^^D-^^yn pa tytDSstJ'nysnyp yuytD^sin^a 
iyD»iDD'';«D n DJ!?ii ^m^prinsQ yjy:i^^N yiy>n ddsqisd 
D^j tj'to^D ,y{i^^Dp8Q n tDsnyji tyn«n DSTDni^tDtj^ nyn lynj^ 
-pniv nyiJin lyD^NiivDi^ DytDn«t:^i« .yDrDyoLj^sn lyvjsju^x 
"»m y:ini^i n pd yny .iy:ii>n n P2 iyDDJi:i div ,iyT>mj<iv 
piK ,iy^y^st5^^''n yD"»n^n«iv ps tDv^totriytojix Diyii tyDDnj«i 
DyiDisQ Dy yn«yD yD^yii ry^yto^DDyc lyji^i^ '^i$^ tyD >id 
T8 lyiiyj rD^j tD^'j^ii ,Dn»jDnx oyi y^^yii m '?v:iVi nvi 
ivP'^v))V)mr] n PD p''tDD"'D»tDD 7^n d^d Djfe§p«n pi ^•sr lyo 
D^j tDV''t< PI i«: tyj^n ly^^nytD^D n '^v:i'?v'\) isd ,Dyi^^:i 
-ji^p .m n^-iN rs ,'''^'^p pn »t^8 oyii oy .n«tiiy:i D^yosry; 
.y^DDn n pk Dyn^^nyp^yv.tsji^^n n iy:iy'n V'^'-]i$,v\:i D'oyn^JO 



35 DT^j^^jr-T^ni: lis iy::inyi2tyt:jy 

n est; iVK'Miv v*^ tD>: tD^>p3^^:ny ynjyD^nsa p^p i«ip lyii 
nD Dj^^jvT^nD n n« lyoDSLJ'iyBii/p y?»3^v^JiD-a^sn 
n r5< .lyt^M^sa yijyrjyj "lyns o:jyn3 «:«t3:y-in .-n .dj^m 
D^: ,iy>»D yoMiyj p« D:yDD:^jyii /t:?yijsny:i iyn«n oyi^^:; 
i«j rtDJyo^DJijP Dyn lyv^t^'^a w cDnni^ t^k oy '^v^'?v^^ io^d 
ns lyoyiyD^K n lyv^tJ^ iv tm^3 .Djiij^jr-n^nD y:^t::^>n n ^n 
"t^-is Ds^P P"'N n2 /DD^^T D«T — lyi^^JD^D yjyji^^N yiy^'t 
-D:i<n n rs ,oyui} n Djyoj^D st fin5< jnjyony::};? .nyi^vn 
'D-iy3y:DD^^3"i{§ n "iyiJ$ liij^Jvi^nD n ni ,yi^^; lypiyii 
p.D iy;:irj^^K"i»D» pd ly^^yroyi iv D^vnv:^ o«in ,y^vii!^v«Ds: 
t^s yi^^; n tD^Mi Ml n^K lyDinyojiN VDi^'? /'nyi^vni^-iB 
.iyD^"'3"i»-pi^ ns iy;:irj^"'J<ij<D yj-iyiJ^D n iv i^^jny lyny; 

vi< y^v8T^:5$:n» yn^^:i "lyn pk hj^d y^^io^yv n ,sr^» 
-ojy "in^x pa lyi^^nys y^j§ pk m iy?8D y^s pk ,iynyj 
■^yn lyi lyiiy; t^k lyD'yn /nDK^a-^ya-iyLDD^^D lyi ,3ji^pmi 
n PD lysMpii^D nyn pk j^^vyrDjj^^vpni^is n "lyn^x n^an 
nyn y;nj2 iy:iJU^^D y^yi^^ij^ij^D pn lyjj^p oy .lyDPni^na 
i^-i: oyi lyjyTi "lyiJ^ yn^^: lyi pn ^yry: oyi pd yjs^ 
lyD .yi^^j nyn n^^myonK o^^ans nyDD^^PK^nsD nyn pd. 
in mn n tD^Mi Ml nni< iyoDn:« yjyi^^:^isD lynt^n :yD 
,D:yoiD:i^p nvi pd lyDynyorK n lyjyn t:i^VD''?v:i i^^pnni 
-"ii^"ii<D y^y^D PD pyiiv iyD^^D:y:^^N lyi pn iv d:^^^ dj^m 
nyn pd pim^ lyvjs: oyi nnn nynj^j .yn^^j iyi pd iy:jijyT 
•«!itD:i^p ,n3«^D-^y2 nyoD^^o lyi t^k yn^^; nyi pd yDD^*^y:i 
'HiB n PD piMpii$D Dyn p« lyn^oyD-Do^^ms n ruyn^^ 
■p^ns "lyn ly^y:) .yDn; ny^ynoDnrx '\v:'''?p pn pd rytopn 
"lynji^rDi^T lyn pk oyoD^D-yi^^j Dyn pd "lyD^j^msD '■wn^^'o 
t^K i^^^D^D-yn^'': iv^^b'^ "lyi .niP *.in^N px di^d:>>8 



ly^T B|nj« piynt:3Kn nyu i2-)n'£y;::K ipKn ,^KB'Btjp 'ryD'nK pB 



lyrDMJ Dyn ij^j d^j D^yot^^yjiv ny D^in dtip .lyD^uns; 
DD8K''DJ5§P82 yjy^ in« i«j ,ynDDnr« pn isq ^so^skp 
,tyDpnj$"i3 112 ^^D ly^snyD^D yiT-n iid ^^d ,pis» Dyn d-iq 
n ."nyDnyjnyD:iK„ oyn 112 yn^;iQ^ii< y^y^vyao n t^« d^iii 
iyi PD oyDn{!?DMfc< ytj'^D^^j^a n nx DyvPJia v^^j^n^i^pv 
D^^ry: D«n n d«!it ,Dyn ^nx tonnsn iyiiy:i tD>j lyj^n yi^^j 
Dyn pinx iJi^j ,m3«^D-'^yn y^^ Dyoa in t^N lyo^^ntDjy 
y^yntoDHJ^K y^^^pn-iii n iy:iDy: in tyn»n in^x pn d^ii 
-nsD ,i«^jr"i^nD iy:nynj;f!D lyn pfc< .d^^v nyn pd Diyin^s 
''?V'\^ /'^v^nv:^vo:i)i<,, pd p^ki^s i^^p do i^d lyj^ayj /Dinyp 
PK ynoDnrx nyn pa lyi^^Dy^ n V''?^ n^^J^ntDJt^p yD 
■n8"p"i^ PD ::"irj^^Ki«D 5§ n^^j ,iyDpn«tiQ v^n^i^ tyonpis^D 
-^N PD DDsitj'iynn^D lyn nyt:Jix iyD^>ni5§ y^^yn nyD>^a 
-8T083"ii^ "lyn n^smyo^iK lynyo^ y^^yii ^y^SD^Dj^p-ynDon 
"»^p yD^^DDst^^ytyj yiyun^n pt? iy^>''DiyiJSJfei!D d^t .y>v 
n p« ,D>n p^K n^iK iyD"'m«-Dj<tp pk lyoD'-^sD^aKp n lyo 
"PSD n — /D''n lyD^^iiv lyi ^i^x tojyn n d^o lyD^uife? dj^ii 
D«D^J8 tyoK^p p« toDi?K^^yTyj lyi pd :iJiD^fe$SK^yv ytJ^^D 
i«>:vn^ntD lyn pd :iJi^-ij^n«n viv^ ^ddd r^x — ,tys"n3 pk 
.yn^^-iypiyiiDJsn nyn 1^f ovy'?:nv DH))m d^» 

nyiiDJ^n yK'^B''D n lyto^^itD^n iv ,tD35§n nynjs lyi ps 
•yjDD^mst.. nyjiyiJ^o lyn pd iyny:n«D nvi 0'?^ vi'?'y^v? 
iD^^ii ,D8pnrD tyK^^DD>^i$D^s«p nvi iyn«i "yvs^vyiDs 'Diyn 
IV •'I'l ,niytD nyo^na sts dp:id ojij>^d lyniK d^^ ,iyny:i 
"lyiDtj'iy,, "lyn lyiiya t^« n is ,^yii^n .10 d>d lyospv iynM^:i 
"J1K Di^n t^^^s j^:5§D:yn3 .n .t^oi^n^ntD lyi pd "i^^di^^d 



-yj ta^i i>^:^KS lyjnt j^n^u in ps tyso«p n .iiibti Dyiyjsnn 
]iN tD''ni« pK t2nn3M«i); ytj^iBi'^NB lymymy i!? t^t lysoKp jyu 
IKS ui'nan'?; ij;tt>nD''7«s pB ;ji2^pni?i« "lyn ikb "ik3 ^DitaayjiiN 
Di^':„) /'uii^Btt' n pN Diu3;;nN-u:n:j pN ^«ttiSKp-D^n3«n on 

(.73 .T /'D:N»3T<-i>ntt n^y 



37 cT'':j;j'':r-T'nD pa ;y:rinyt:):yt:jy 

,Dynjrjj«P -"n hd o^^py^o^v^v lyn pj< n«t^iy: DD5$-i2yj 
n^D n DP^ pi^^iy: oJsiDsn t^k yi^u-iypiynojyin n tj> 
lyrvj^^K p« oy lyj^yii ns o^j /lyoyiyoj^N n hd iny^y-iD 
-^sDJs: DJ^D -lyoMiy:; 8 pk n« yiyiju^n ^m n na "ii^: ^ds^p 
Dyi : DD85r>yTy:i lyjiyitijD lyi pa iyD:yoy^y yt^^Do^j^i; 
,n3K^D-^yn lyoD^iD uvi /'lyDnyjiyojiN,, lytj'^DD^^siD^sis'P 
^^* ,n^DiPDn o^j «n ly^nsn n^D •'?^d2 tDjyoiDj^p oyi pn 
D^j lyD^si^yD^D PK lynis^n ^n Di^n oh'^d^ iy^iy:i px oy 
"lyn nsD y^D:N-i{<i: s d'?^ ,rjV^)i>:H\^ ny^na i^n D3n^;yj 
nns* TJiN i:ny:i oy .nnino pd oyo^^fein^P nyoi; pi< D>\"?D2y 
■yD:^x yD^^DDSi^j^^Dy: ^i lyj^n oy t« ,^"lyt^'^ ly^n i«i do 
-DD{!:5<oti^ Dyn ^u .yi:^^Dy: "lyi pd lyo^ji^p y^s lyji'Miv lyDyi 
iyny:i d:^^ej^ oy mi t^j^ .D^iy nyi ^^3 ni lyjoyn do -i^d 
-"•^yanyDD^^D yi:yD^^^ n T5> nesr yD^^iiyDL^^nj^DDDa^yr s 
lyi D^o ny\i DM-ioyjj« lyD-i^i DiJ^Di^^ "iy-i pd mDN^o 
yny^n DO 11N ^n do ts: ,iyD5<sivDM.s dd^^d n px ddj^d 
nK!D:^Dfc^D Dyn iyp:niv"iyD:n^ Dnn^iy pn ^{^t iyD:ymp:i^p 
PD v''i'i:)VB n d;j$t — "i^nix-Dsnn n„ .y^vpnj^ia pd 
■ijs-ij^pj^N i^D„ — 1861 pK "yo^SDJ^p 'DiyDjyD-ij§p„ nyn 
'Di^? yiyijiTS3 pK niDK^D yDDJs^ns m iyDSD-pnyTiD3j§n wi 
-pi§"iD Di^n ,iyj}^nyD y^s tj§ /pynv uvi d^d lyny; t^n Dyoii!9 
j§ p&< pyii DD«iay:j^n8 ly^^^t ,iyD5§D yD^yr^ px n^^*'D 
■ijyi PK D-iyDyny:DM5< \v'?h^ p^ jjiD^sm^itD lyroyoD^^^;! 
nyD:ix ,D"iyD^j<:in5§D yDoy: pn yjyinj^Diy pd iiv)^ di^^ 
."pyii^ Dyi "i^D DD^Dt^'^n ,iy::oni^ii<D px nopn yoniy:! 
"sn pj^iiy:! j^^dp^d lyj^n yi^o lyn pd nyjya vi2V^'''? n 
n m pint< ;njyDnyj o^vo^fc^in^D-Dni^jDiJ^ nyi pd yDDs 
PK ::'\\i^'?v^ PD yir^Dyj n jyv^^^^n iv r\n:^n 
n T^ ,iy:n ps^ lynyin n^o lyn nyanyi .'?]}i:')y^^ 
n "li^j DO ^lyDyiDi^D D'?i$]v: mn yi^o-iypiyiiDJsn 
,ynDDnrj< lyoniy^ s pn "lyi^vni^ns pd nimo y^i? 
ynj^^Dy: "lyi P5< lyDpni^iD n pd lyDMimsD n inx nsj 



lyrayj iv i^^j^ddix fx ov T8 n»^P nyii oy oyn ,^^Dn 
tj'nr lyr^j^^i^ t^« oy lyn^yii s DD^^j'^yry:! lyjiyij^o nyi pk 
HD lyDD^^Q n HN DDSD n .oy^^pjis y^sD^y^D yin^K na 
-yv n« ton^nyif ^^dpj^iq lyj^n iy^ ly^^^nyD^K^yo^D Dyn 
■n^nD n n« DDst^'^yTy:! -o^j^v^DC^iyDJiN n .pi^iiyj D^nsK> 
'DnynyjDD^m^ n nx Dspnro nyEi'''DD>^KD"'SSP lyi /i«^jr 
ns lyDD^^n lyi n^^ i^DpysDj^x-pnnsa lyn ,y^:^K^v«D8 
-ID n n« "ii<iDpy3Drx-DyD^»j^p-^iti^„ lyn /'npi'^ lyt^'^nP;, 
:i:"iDD8 iyn^:i n« m:)^'?^^ i«: ty^n dj^ii ,yDo«^n y^jsa^v^j 
n^^ lyjj^nys y^s n to}$ — lyoj^D n^? lyj^^ii y-iyniN J^nx 
D^yD:j'y:iDMi« ,D3yi fe§T» dpjib d^q ,iyji^p Dy^viD^DDrx 
*.yi^^r"iypiyi^DJ8n nyi ns iy:i^j^-)D{^j n d^5§ nv)^ 
Dyi r« n^^tj^iyoJii^ lya^^ton: » mn^D t^x oy on 
V'^i^VD v\v^)Bi^B n fx ,Dy^i:«T>j^;")« ^niv n na ^yotJ'Qnjii^ 
•i^u n Dy T^N ,D"np -i^^iy^pny dd"'-'^ to^^-pD^^jny ly^n PQ 
"i:iyn n — DpyiD:y D«n i^j;stojy-in .m dj^ii ^D^'-PD^^jny yj^^ 
,nj;Dy^5^ >ni n d^q ly^Dsp nyn ,Dnt:)j"'^« Dyn 112 ;jn^^ 
yt3D5§«n n iid ly^to^o n /D^^v^j^d iyD^^toD^tj^:^^Dy: lyn 
iy:^>«n«D d^^d y^i§ ^u \vd Dray:i Di<n nyn«t .11 .tfe? .x 
nts p^n » Dyi pK iyn«;n Dj^^^jm^nD n .n:{§^:i:)y px 
"lypjsip lyii^ lyDQfess^^yryrDjjiv^Ds^iyLDJix v'?^Pi^'? n ••ii di; 
n n^2 ij^^:j:; n^?:! lyn^x DT'Donpy lyn^in yD^yii ,iyni^p 
tyj^n ly^nD'^ y:inj$n n ^'^ .lytonynjinmi^t^ ^•'iiv y^vyS 
Dy PK ,D^J iy"i« ly^yv n pd lyDipy^D^n^i; i>^:ijnsti^niK 



-n pip Kta'i -ipN T'x d:; -ly^yi? yt3>« n ps ;;ji»«t3B'5K jr^^j^'b 

'u D«n ,t3pK5 Dyn }>in k .iy;3U'j''KiNS-iK5 ps p;»iNS jrjn^T 

IpNH ,ty'?nt2i«s jTDi'i'jn:; yomyj ta^o t? iyiyi«nNi is pK Dys 

,Byinnn in«tyn .no ps /'iy;3Uin«i-Dt3ninK n ly-iyoyniKS i!J 
(.1886 ,;"nn:ny) "iKm'? n« Dtt'y^": im„ t<N E3i^cjiyB;;i(jfl 



39 DT"':^''ar-i^nD jiD 5y:i:inyta:ymy 

n ^M \V2iin ly^sa yt^D^^o n pk ts /Opsd lyivDM s iya« 
T^K DV -lyDpyi^ PD oy^^nsno n na d^j ^yo^jyj D:«iov-i^n^ 
-DMpy n PD iJ^: /DnyiJimn^!^ lyojny^DiD pd y^i*8r^j8:-iij 
pK •■'n Dns iyt:D8C'?yTy;i"DjJiv^Dt^'"iyDJiK yj^^^p yiji^D 
lyoii^D yriJ^i n pd :i:iD«o:y2JiJ n lyo iiijp ly^KS yDJso 
y^^'^oD^D n 1^ lyn^nK^iv DDy"i ^y^D ^its d^o oy^jtijDyiyv px 
-DJsn n PD iyvJ^jm« n i^ n^ .ny-iyMD^na n pd iy>8it:n 
■pj§is3 lyj^n D{$"n /ly^sion yL;'^DDfc>t:j{<D n .Dy-i^^rnypnyn 
n^o yD^yii ,1S29— 34 pd DT^j^^^jm^no ayn pn tj'^DDnyD 
iyDi:y:i lyj^n ^^yo^ssp lymyDya*^ s pk lya^nc^sa ly^yii 
lyi PD Dy^jj^oyiy^ n iid ,inyt cv ly^yn n^D ni ,ni^i^y; 
nyni^ t:i{< dj{^t lyD ."DiJ^^^yDiii^ i^iiji '-ov'^Di^o ^^uyis,, 
-ly-iy^iD^nD ^ pd :i:iDni<D«iJ nyni>n; s pd d^jdd ly^^^no ^n t» 
nytJiK PK "iJ^^Di^pD iii^ o'\v''?'?H? nD„ n .^^it:n ly^^ 
-^"•ansi-jyrD y^y:3J^^vs!J ^ lyun; iv iit-isd ly^Jt^'ny is ,t:^^v 
nyDJiK /'lyij^ni^^,, !^« DiM^3y::;iJi? lyiiy; vi< ,p^^jr 'Diyo 
■ytDP{<-is:D y3:^D pj< lypmonx id 5< d^d /'-ly^Dso n:y"i;» 8 
/iyt:s^"in«n d^j lyni;? oyii lyj^^p .lynyno^nD n pd dp^dd^ 
lytj'M^v D^^P3^^3ny yn'nrj^Do t^« oy yD^yn i^ieiD vi< oy rs 
"ii^j p« /tDy^^Dj^D i^nD lyn p« ni^p-iypjsip lytj^^DiJ^i nvi 
-:^^K nyn .DT^jj^^Jvn^nD px Dionyiyno^nD ly^^^iv "lyrjyi^ 
nyi T^« lyoy^si -"n lya^^ii^^ mt:*^ "iyD^^DD8t^:^>oy:i "lyj^v 
lyrjyii lyiJ^ '^nvo pn in di^^^p Di;?n ,::irr^K"iy!D pd od>o 

.iy^"i{^D yD^^jny 
lyn px yi^^3 lyn lytj^mv lytD^^-^D^^jny v^vi:^ iyn« 
mv nnyo lyj^n ,Dnis D3:ynn j^:5<DJyi3 .m dh)'\ ^m^Ji^ 
Dyi lyv^tj^ 1^ PK li^or lyi pd pyiiVDJn:! iyi .top:i3 
■83it^ 18 ,tDD^>n Di^T — lyny^ :injytD:^jj^ is pd nsoc'Dso 
nn^DJ^^s nv: t^« oy lys^yii ry^yp i3st::^nynni iyt:iM^j 
"iyD^^niS"pi^ n pd noyo oyi lyriyi^nyi iv ly-in^D ti^p Dijii 
yD^^tiDSK^^yryj yo^iiy: s rtoMj t^n* oy ts -ds^p s d^s 
-3^1 s ly^iy^ Tr« .lyny^ pd nm^o n lyv^K^ iv y^vsr^:sn«{ 
-P8D PK Di^i ^11 ^yi^^rnypnyi^DJsn nyn pd s^vjns lyrD 



— 1434 pN njiDT^rt y:V[> w^'^^v:^ o«in — "DiyDJ^D yiyr 
DJs^By:! lyrn lyjy^ n -ly^iy; d^j d^jjijij^j p^p lyj^n,, 
^n Tin ^^T nyj^^«i 'wiv t» :pyi'i^ oyn d^d n«iiy:> 
lyt^^o o^j "in ^J§T nyj^^"? nx /D-'nn iyD^^;yD pn lyjnn^D 
•TID2 D^yii n Diyn oyn nnn .lyD^niv ^ pd i^^d Dyi pj; 
."njvn pn iV2''^v:i nn ij^p iyj^^« lyiy^ m '^:iV'?v in"'N pd 
Div D^'-PD^^jny n mis do oy t^x D^nj^n nyn pj< iynj$ 
'):vi:H lyr^i^^s oyi mi ^^mx d^sh p$''Jv-i>nD n dj^ii lyv 
->yTi PQ ,tD28{i'^yTy; nyD^^iyD^s^yo^D nyi pq s^vjna Dyjyo 
1^ Ml m'\v:i '^r]VD DO t^K yn^o nyi pd p^d^^j^b n ly^ 
lyK'ni^DD-'n lymx p« /Do ly^n^ i^d .pmonN lyrvj^-'j? 
Pi< in lyt^^^j^n^ ,:i:'i:yiisn li^om^nD lyi pa p^^aiyn>N 
nyn ps D>^":)rDD"'n ly^^^D^^J^Q lyn iy:yii ni^n lyjjs^ Dyi 
-^^nanx iyjy:i:i«ii^yj "lyn lyjyn yn^^yD ^v'2'^'\v\2'?^'PV\:i'D 
-H^ v:i'?v^^ pa m Di: ni^ m^iJ^^DD-Djyny^ oyi ps ::id 
!^^« pa "lyDsoa?^ yirDpy^^^P/, ni ^yD^-ipc^^DPsia yjiyn 
ly^ni n^D .nyD^mv lyi pa "j:uy;ivytyrpna8a,, iyi{$ D^n 
T^x yn{<!yD yD^^iyD^s^yD^D n t^ ^lyt^nnyn do nnx iji 
,n^iiy:i Din^ay:iain DDJiy P5^ d^tpimi mts t^k oy lyii 
K D^D nD«^D-^yn lyiy^ DnyDm^Q tynj^jn n^^pim ^j^t n ts 
-i^DD^n Dyn d^d tn^i tt n^oynyDrx i^d .njrn ly'nnDn 
PQ m3«^D-''^yn n ts ^inyr oy ly^yii "i^d m /Dp^a lyc^n 
-y:i v^v lyD^snivjj^ DDiTy:i lyn^^n Dny-i:'iriinj<'' tyD:nyvD8 
nsa ly^n pa ni:pn V2Vf2):v^^H n^o pa iyn» yD^^vyr 
-v^:^i^ yiyn D^^tj^y^ lyn^^n ,Din^;iy:i lynj^n >n mi ;y:)^yi'i 
,]ij<i"iiy3 D''ny:iQj<i do inyD iy:i^n nopn y;nj^-T n lyii -lyDyi 
-Din nyn lyDit iv nD ,Dao^"'xi«3 in lyD-'^ni^ n lynt^n 
-vyrya ran« r^yis DJj^py:i do d}<;i lyn^^n ^n lyn .3:iin^a 
n lyDoyj w'?^^ y^y^a px lyD^^nis n lynt^n ,3yM lyiD^^ 
1111 lyD^^nant? Di-iniia px ^:vr] v:iv:i'''i< yiy^n px i^iiT 
iynntj'y:ii{^a lyny; '?i^^^ vi^ dj^ii ,Di^i nopn ii^ovi^nD 
pK ni inyD do tj^^DP^a tix ^Dsnj'in iyi t^^5 rv^vi ps 



41 Dr"'3t5'':r-"i"'nto jis jyiuinyDir^tD^y 

.m^:r-i^nD nyi pk 
jjnstj'nix lyn'nnyt^'n oyn ns nnypcii< L:i'^N m T'Dis^ 

ns iy^»:nt^T» n pi< lyiis .lyosnt^^ii^s nx iytoy^2cfe$B'is!3 
->^«ni§2 yrijyDt^'sn Di'-Donpy lyn^^n ly^j^^r Dy ts Mtoc 



-:«'? iDiNKnj; liy ]in Diytsjns lyo'JinB'TT ns 'm nx d'^ktksxib 
:i:nnyD'iKS lyn s]nN -]it i:?;iK'7pN2 'm ly^'ryn i^k ,(1GGG} "]kt 

]'»H upmy;j va ,DiNyTio c^isni px tt ts:'^;*: ys^^rn ,y<:^'t:y3 
«a': lynx vh Dy .97 .t ,"c:xi:i<"Tini: ]in Dyn?^;,, D'K:Nt::yin .m 
,;ju>:i>NiNS "lyisEKnnym iyiyi:K vn oy lys'ryn -ine Timxn p'p 
isKn nyD'jyn ,p'?pjy'iB pj2NtrTn:yn ."'i'ysKS'c,, lyrs'jN oyi f*in« 
"Tinu ]y;iyn ^ixn k a^i tsiKaiyi ,1725 ps ]K*TiN7 px c'CiNyjj 
I'snK iD:i'tr oy dnii ,-inK t2'7Nn!:jy 1669 ]i5 ty'rEaxs k .D3K'Ji> 
-7K n,, : DT':Ni:"i'-Tni2 tins ;i:ii2in:K ik.]"t is p^b2 lymriy 
nTK T'N iycnn« pN msN'^o-'^yn tya^mii ^inyTityiKB y3'»Dy:i 
in"? "lyn pn nn«> ;iii:iNus-'i'iN-ffi:»s yt::?y'i' n pN tn ,jnnynyT:« 
i2nyDyi:"iK£3 .n .tk .n ,Diy^2'i!2-nn ,D"iyiynD ,D"iy7N!:D n p.s 
ITK '73iy lyny lyjyp) iKiix"? onx •?»'» 40 ]''a "j^n ,]yiKny;i 
6 c'D j:^'?'B' 2 ciMN ;iKU k D'iys 20 pK 18 pfl ,(;:n';yi ^yrsu 
Di:yB 12 pN 10 lis nyis^'niK yt:DNis ^o ]in ,::''i"tr 3 pN D':y3 
,n£"itr "lyta^iy'? nyn isi^T i«j ts'i dnt ]ik ,D'iyB 20 px 16 p|nN ;;xtt k 
-■^N'SKis px) tDS'N v^:ii'\p "jyTymyiiDity k .nynns ts^^s k is^o nxi 
liNH iy D«u ,iitr INS N lyzKD "INS Di:y3 14 (^iiht TsnN '?y:N'S 
p£ ;:ny2yn n ... .ci:ye 10 -ins !;r^<r3yJ inx' s^'^ym y^^'y*? n "ins 
tDny2^;n«B T'« ts^^niK n dkii Dyn iin lyo'.pyj ta'j "inK t'k ]n^ 
ya'jyu ,(]« lynny: yDjxo m) tD:yn lySnys oy 'j'm nynx iyiKny:j 
nyn:yDynEDn« jn ^-in inj ,iy38T"nN ye;;'e3y"iNn T^-jim ty^"T 



T«i nn lyjiijDiy-i i^d m) m .iy:iJi:iJn8rDto^un8 yiy^n 
-nni^^ lyDJny^fynn nvi ns nn{$^ nyr^ijny:; vtcDiV'? n px 
j/^ynoDnrK n ^y^i^ysD iix nynyjoo'-unfei! n iyn«n DiyiJin 
jyDQnt^'^:^ ^^d Lnjyiiy:i i>t .Dy^i^^nj^a^j^p nx "oy^j^Qo^^p^ 
Dinny;jj^ D^n d^^ii ,nn:^ nytoDjy^p lyiy^ ^u t::iyD8^i^a div 
-i^D lyD^uis ?iMK Djiij^py;! do nn jyn^^n ^n m 'iss iy>n 
-••j^^K-iSD yj^yrs ts .o)'?^ div t:ix di^t tonn^a 4y:iJir:^^i< 
na iynn«^ yotj'iy n pn *.Di^DDnpy do tyn«n iy:j^;i 
■yii yJ5§^P s T^«"tDO-iyi^ vd tyrcy:! DiyiJinnni^> ly^jnyvD^ 
lyrn lyD^^iis ytDJny^y:i n y^^yn px ,iy^Ji:!0>>Ki^Q m 
-:imn«i^ p« ^>n^ ^vd^^)) oh)) ."iytDt$nDyj:''n8 DjyDvy^,, 
-jyciDtJ' m pnyDiKD cy^j^^p yrr^i n ^n ,i^d lypiyo ^nyi 



yj^'oy; Pk yji'^'mta'^rt -jin ,!yiNn ^^'7^11 oys'tr lyiiyrnn-uj 
"in^BiynnN nynt tsnysynyj ,nf3n^a '\):^ni):bi<n lyT ]is lyiinDnK 
Ml jnjynyTjM« pn ,]ynyj t'n oy ni 'jy^s mtn ^no ims n^yjj 
iy:yp ly^NT 'u ina .(unH |>^» -^x^ d«t nr ]j;tD'7Kn ,tin d«*t lau 
ny;i3yn 'by^jj nttt b»o ]yann-iK ]i« ,ni}<wB' lynr m lyoyn ty^y"? 
-iKn„) ".pi^ iy»M pK DM1K lyoyiQ nr inyo "rysm einN ,;ytt 

rlKniN*? ,'y^JKO D«t3Nt3 pB /'ta3U"iyi2J1« .SXIQ Dpyt PiMN myD 

ly-iK^poiN pK Dyjyta'ryT iy:5'TKi oyn pB iyn« ^yixp 110 (.1669 
yji'jnniD''!} PB 13' 'p3i'7;yr2 « m ^n:^D iyony:DM"i« ta^i Ji5?Dn{< 
-Dnx ny!ii«;j t^T px ,y«By'T ?» ,vh Tiyta^nKi .iy:i:u>jnx-iK5 
-lyT ,1724 PK yniDDn3'« nytyi^;!jy "lyr pB ;i:inintyNn lyDi^i.TB 
.nyts'iniN ps lyjJuonNiKB t^k oy ya'byn ta's taixo 

lyoKi Dyn nyisiiN ,1681 tai'taxn ,y'niyKnn nyiy;i:i'7y; n ]in ♦ 
n'0„ TK ,iaiy'7piy la-iyn ,"nn»nvi tjn'^jj'k nx D^nu im„ 
iy3«» 'u ni ;''?'n mt^ nita lytr^^jJiiy lyr^iK lysKO la^j tyjNp 
•'jMN ]iN u''p'?>iB "lyiNnnyiiKT nyn ny'riij ,'))}']:);b ::'^]}i2i< ^^n oy 
.nnott' yDMH-iiJ inynxB yD'ryn ,"Di::inp yiyrjix ps tDnpts-^RStyp 
-nKB IS ta^: ijKtstyis II^^^tkt nyn iti taninty lyoNB-iKQ lyn iyn« 
ik: ,t3iyny;j la^i ^xor'p Ji^iaiyp taxn iy ^^zb)})) pB ,]y;?juoim 
triy^ ps lanptsmBtynNB nyn is pN ryTyr"npis-nytt''^np„ oyn is 



i^ij nj^n 112 wi'^nw:. n lyj^n D-iyi:in-ini^^ na lyo^D oyi 
-^yn /Dy^v^Dysnojj^P pn Dy^:i^Dy2 d^d D^^siyn^N "dj^ddiijp 
n PK iyj^^j<-iy:2-iyD^ui8 pd nyoDMpy n n^iN-iypyi y^ 
inyiDMis n^D ly^i^p ovy^i^ pn .Di^no yDjny^yj yoo^^D 
■isiD iyn:yt:*^ Dyi pd .jjijyiij^n "iy*i ps ^JiD^nnD^ix n 
y^y^vysD pn iy:jirr^N"iS2 n lyjyp ly^yryj n P2 in nnyo 
Dyi PK t3p:iB lyoDDyn oyn iyD^n:-iyn ny^n pk /lynDonrx 
njy:-i^fc< D«ni^D "ly^^yn 4799 pd did^dd iyijyD5<2oij<-D^nn 

ojirj^^Ni»2 v:i'?V)\ 

P2 :lJnBl^'nli< nvi ij<2 lypni^a n iyDinyDJi« vd m^ 
-n^ntD n mi i^d lynyi ,Di^no y^y^vysD px iy;jir:^^c<i8D 
-d:^k y^y^vyBD t^« oy v:^^^)) s ps d^j om^ oop^)) ii$^:r 
■p^« P2 nyo^uij? D^sn ,D^^-ijy:!y^y:i lyiy^ ""u i«: ^vi^o'D 
D^iS! .lyDipi^kD^jiv in D^ny: winn isid lyn^yToyTPK 
lytjoyD TS .lyo^yr tosyiD Dy» ri§ ,DP"iyDy;jj;? Di^n hd^od 
-iyD:iK ny^^iv i^^2J< ,iyDiP2M:iv in ly^J:?? iȣ lya^yroyi pd 
D^: in ^i^T lyis'j'y: ly^n di^i ,n^nDi8D-D^^v pn tD^^n 
Dysy Vi'D iyii$ ,Dip^^m3 iy:yp :jnyii:j^i»2 s d^q iy:njy 
i;c'>top»2 j$i lyrn oy pn * "lyr^ns \'-\v::ivn iv Dpy^i;?i3 8 



o'2K'?Tp'po ps 59 .T ,10 .p ,1 .n ^''DiKty: i^K ni2^yn„ * 
.1809 i3iitt«T ,iytt'0"i« 1« ps JJjn'ntyKn « pw .1863 ,ynj<:DnK 

nyi"? iy2Nn ^n .nytspxnKa ^yjsnnyTn pw lyns k ]is tJ?^''^ 
]'i2'0 IKts IS t:Nn DK'ii K*??? yiyT-« n >^"*< |:;nyj!isi:?n»8 i»t 
Ty2''7ttE«ir:'i!3y;! k ci'ik yi!JKf2iKE:'N ly^'^P is ns px ,Tna 
-n:'n«j p« tsji^i'iNiKS ly^^y^ Ipniji y'iiyis i«b ^u iy:'M ,]2ik 
;yDip <'t lyiT ... .D2t'?p ]ysnyj t2«n lyo dnti ,]'';^zi<^b'';v;:i 'jz^i 
lyT pH iyTy'?"iKS px n^rtr ytstriy n ''t ]:;;iy"i2iNB ,s]n:TS I'T 
iyi::?su"nj5 ii?n ten P'2 nyjsiu « ... .]y:!:".a''!J *;D^by;^ n inn 
pu BDONa K DM« ]KT tiiyn U'D pK p'ttty pu ^Kt Dy ,DnK, 



\v^r\V2 1:^„ lyo^un^ n iid lODJipjyDisTiv s iiq lyjisDc^Djy fx 
« Dy T^K toDj^ niN^ *."iytDn{^a ^yTy^:i T'^toD^^^yryj s 
-jyotj'feiin « DMi^'ODP^n Dy ly^^yii na /P^n^D lyn^yoiD 
in lyDiP .inyt ly^yn n^a ^ii ,i«i^Ei^-iyiJ^ .y^^^^T^jj^jii^ yn 
rDJyD^^i^B Di^ vi'^VB 8 lyp^tj^ w nD ,tinJiv lyo-'un^ n 
nn^Di^:j<i D''^^-i^;"D^^^ nD n^ji^ nynMi in lyoip ^n nx 
-i:yn ny^o « oysy iid jjnn^Dj"'nj! iyi n;s2 yvi^D^Js ly^n 
-js p,K .ryiy:i jyi^n^tDonpy ts Iyp-l^*Dt^"^^D iv iyn«t ,y>vN^ 
"lyon^y^ » ns nyLD^>ni« n lyrcy:! n^D ly^y^^ iy^«Q v^v^ 
lyom iv lynp ^n i«it f\vp:iV^ vo'))v^ jnjyDUi^n ynDDn:^N 
r»^Q"D:!:i^»j<T"ii§2 nyi n^^ nyvy^s-DD^m^* ytDj^jpfeiiii \vm) 
\^ ns ^yn:iiyp dj^i iqi« ^t^ Pin5< oiyii ("^^j^p iij^ Ti{^*n„ n) 
lyoniy: t3! no lyD^ms n n^ lynyt n^D nyi^ .y^vKT^jfc?:ij^ 
-DMiy lyi r« :injD iyD^« t» tyny:i t^n oy,, ts ^py^Pny ij^s 
-IV in ly^j^T no^^^D-'^yn yjyi^^t^'isa ts ,n^)'?D lytj^^tonn 
nn^Dw:^^8 n^ ^lyoa^^^yryj i>n tyr:^^Ki«E) n^? lynipcnj 
nfc< /'D^^'prt^yo^n^ii yD^^toonp n« DQ^K^ij^ns in tyti^niv 
-jytoti' Dny:i D«n .m^p-Dj:"i:niy^n lyii? "lypjsip ;si ryijn:i iv 
'1^ n Di^i^ DyD«i-|.n^ n lyriy^i y^Dipon fe? p« lynn^ n 
PK tD^yiJ^m^D ri:)y^n"'Q-tD''j Diyi^ iin ,iy^nj^v iyny:!DD^''n 



n ,Tnis Dyn i:;;i:?Ti inx m ; ^^^sxtatj' "ij;n« siKae' d^j:;' "lynx 
nn-i ij;t in: ,t23n«n « bn lyny^ tsu t«T .-n .tn .n px; bnt}^ 
-ii? DyT 1KJ tD^j tyo Dim iD'vi n:;e> n pn tn ^tn ;tD!in iy m 
]j?tt>m!J tyttipy^is'S t'n dnu ,-iiddd ijrny^ ]ts -in: ,11^2 ps njxtitr 
Dytrisj^pD D"?ii'7-iNp .1J3 ita i:?d:n t:;,,) 'Mi^tann-iN ti« taiNpnnxi: 

(.15-17 .T ,1809 ,ibV)}B ,1N'7iitD DNi^m ps ,"i'?TiyB UK 
]N lD"l«Bn„ OyT Pl« /'D-in:> 'Ipn UN <UyiiD«D TytSi n^^NDJNp,, 

,1860 /'iNiynt^iDNDN Diyi'D 'bytywD,, in ps "D't2:;i'DND Tna 

93 .T 



v^ 



4tj cT^:y'^ri''-T'niD jis iyj:in>*i:'j'i:ay 

Dns; D2t^ DiyiJ5$ii nyo^uiK nyi D«n^ ,-iyD^yT5< t^n 1{<d lyi 
-DD^^m5§ vivt ns pyii oy ^ii i^d lypiyo ,t:>^m5< njyDir 
,iy::iD3n:^^fc< y-Ly^Dj^DyoD^D D^un5<y:D^us Dsn:^?^ Dnan 



-K*? .(1S12 ,iKn:K7) "17G0 ,25 B'tiKO l^^;'^ ,DnK^"t: nK leyno 

■'« lyDpNnyjJDniK ]yi"T ,]yKDNp-D;:i;;myK2 n tspynyjj ]ik liyi 

"VJ! nTK lyDpNv.v; ;;ii::yp ^n;n:imnx» p2 c]id dvt '^2 t'k Sins 

y;iTKT n ]is inyo iyn« nyi^'N ]is lyisiys "lyn lyixny;? t»k pjyar 
-:in N lyn'N lis m:pn n .Dy'!>'NT':«;iiN j;:k'^:nsd ]ik yjn*'?'^^ 
-nn lis di!:nt oyi ]y;iN*m Dxn ,ivt2ENe»7yTyj y^'Txi n pfi BiyT 
-TJ Dn« lynyj i:ini22y!i:Kp j;':n iy:in p« ,1820 ]in 1750 ]yv 
D«n:j>t:Nj ]'k .DisyTiD lyc^ann px -j'T ivi^Eyj ,'|''B-ix-^ttDKp 
-y:::N ,1794 i'n ,D2i':p y^MNT n ]ts ji^iEiE-pN-Dpyr "ju U'-^-"' 
i:^> ,"'7N2-intS'TT 'cKnj:Nt2N2„) yiDyiJNis lyD'^iny "i;n ]« lyDx^af 
]iB ]yiy:yo ]iD iy:Ni2iyN2 y;i^^f "t 'n Jix*? nTK .(1794 ,14 

ny''?TS ,]y7NS y3:i<o px nyzK .lyDpNr.DinN t:2N*py;5 t^: U'-^-^'' 
"jyiK ,]-iyn:Nn tx m'i'u-i ,'|y;N-it2»o yann m ,'iy2NnTN y:yTityiK9 
-D::i:;n-iyN2 nyix "lypiKip lyi t^n ,y'DyENis nyi ]is lyinxEy:? 
'HI "lyT .Tnu ]yt:f3'i:irNn k pE iy!r:yo pE rn^^ ]y:Ni:trN3 zibp 
■y-3 ■|''?ii'anNEf2",N i:yr3D vh t2EN*ty'7yTyj;-D::iX't:c^iyt:aiN ]'» lyju 
U'wNp ]yi:ENti*?yTy;5 S'U oyn i:« pE yr:Na .ix'jp-Tna « ]iKn 
-jimnN' ]y2^Nmyn:K y.iy:? i«e r:y::D'Tpy ny^T iiiTEpms 
-:tn y'^NpN? « t:Nny:j ly^^n ,'7B'a7 ,Diyi:N2 -lyix^TN'?: n .raiyi 
pe Tn*?! ]y:Ki:3'Nn t'n dkii ,TnQ pE ttENtr'?yTy;j-D;!2i!?'CB'nyia 
,*"'Qy>iDNiD b):'>i'';2 Diyp'^n 'r^yo,, iy:Ki2K? n .1752 t2:'T ,DyiHn:K2 
Ml DK1E ttiNsyi 'm ]N£y D:Ktr'nnyT2K„) 1740 ]ie btekt 
jj'rspysDyi dnk'? 'm i« d:n?2?2np tin ttkh ^m n« y^'fixp lapy^yo 
pE iKn:y2y-i2 ,iyiyt2i2 .2 .trn .nyn pE ,"D'i:y''DND ''?n:yis 
TTD2D tin Dy nysVyMi ]y?2ipy;;iNE T'n oy ]yn .(1826 ,'?ynn!:'.KD 
TT i2;N^pN2 Dy m — oyoxp yiy'T iy:'n ,iy2y;Dt:''2iN n is'a 
-jnK^ — tty'TEDKS "iyi:N ]n pN •iyi:2N2NN2 yDN^yjJC'^s nyn'i'ynyi 



*.Ii§>JV-i^nD iy^ 



,"ij;pnj;niD:Kn yijytDninx-taij n DjrttiD yD''7taij;3yTT lI^'i'nKS nj»T 

nay T'yi 'm i« Dixtr^nnyrnK,,) ".p'T'?nNn D^jjn^yjj^K qj;': -ind 
(.55 .T ,1824 /'D'rD:;'iDND '"^lips n« dj;i;ni9 

p« Tj;t2SKtriyTnn-iy^yTy; ps JianittiNS n lyn^ntyi^? ]in (94 .t) 

y3'?yTK ps u'^njyTynsK lyi lytrmx uDKiBixp -ij;t .msx'jo-i^yn 
,ii8^B'tfi'n pN anpian-istt^iKS ny^n pK njx'jjij; ]in lytasxs'^yTyjj 
,t2pK5 nyi 1^ lyiyiT lynntyjrjis dn» "lyomy: n px ib^sk einxi 
Dyi iy»i:y:!:K an ^xttj^'p ;i't2jj;p lynxn ly'byTyj yiy'^jjy n dnii 
-:nyny;i y;'Dyf3'7y:y") n lynK /'pnKnyiixn,, yu'ta'n n pB ;!n:o 
inN' yDi'rtsy ,iaii!Jiny'? "lynr |jr:njy*iNs n'ln ,'{pjynnnN£3 is ts^n 
"ij; nyiu lyiyoNp'bNS'iNB is na ,niN^ I'lyn^x pyTiKnonx p« 
lyi'n Dyn'bu yiD'7« n ps Dyjy^mns y'?«pN^ n ]yii .:?3in's 
-y5B> n lynxn ,'i'j;s'Mis t; nyaaix lyiNiiy:; ta'ryaB'j;;! T'Mi^"ta 
PK "t3'>pjyDyT«n ly^iyn lysyty-s,, n ps |y;iiipjy-itt»Kn yamya 
tinpsi^^y-nxn n ^y'^ytsB'SN lanrDyj ,nsn;i lyoniy;; k v2 ,13N'^;jj; 
-3« ps inniK px ,"iynx iyiisy;i i^a .iD5^B>iyt3'm« nyr ps 
"inyiiyj? « lyny^ t^« oy tk ,Djyt2D:iiynoK taiyniimnx' lytsjnys 
ps lyBy'^tt'isonx iu lyoxs yomy;; ps nyiannix iks ixt ys''? 
I'O DN*n ^iinino'xn n ps ,K)nniK ;njyDiT anxtflty is BiKtsiy 
-Diynyir'bNtiiDKp px -Diyt2yp'?«n n ]is iy;!:yn3 lytsysty ty'^yii 

-JK11 yjUKT n "IXS ySiBty n T» ,t3T'niKl 1741 px Dy'SKT«3«;-|K 

.djn':t ytatrny n ps pyiis -lyjiusni k lyiiyj t'n |y'7yTy;i-"iyT 
-tDsntr n lyixn tDiyniinnnx^ lytsjnysjni ps nnnix px ik:? i^i 
,]yni'7p y'^Kpx'? ps rP ^ i^ia n^x"? dkt einstpiKS taKnyjj nysyr 
-«T n lys'^ymsDMiK ,iyny-3 ;i'iDiyp t^k yn«;isnK"tDSnn Dyoyn 
-D'D lyjiy'js nypm-ptaiKp n ]in ."lyiynJKii yniyDU-B'^iK yjju 
-:«ii Dyi u:^t2DyiKn lynxn yD^yii ,iytaiKp ]ynj5yj;Dn-)K tr'tsKoya 
"IK lyny ps "pnnNS-pnrpBiwp,, lyny' p« ly^nxo is "lyiyi 



47 DPJt5"':r-T'nD jiD iy::^nyiDtyD:y 

^n .i^nD lyn^yiDn na lyD^uns iid nn lyDipa^uiv ayi 
■n8"iM> na Dy^:^8tOKJi«i yinjyotJ'Ka DJ^jJinBD ou pyppijr 
iyn^^« ^lyDjnyvDS i^n iiii^))^: Dyin;iyj ny^u lyj^n nyo^u 
•oB^in n .DiyiJ^mns^ lyojnyi^yan lyiini iyDjny:iDiD pk 
PD iy::i;o^''N-i^t: ytDSiji-nyMi na lyopgn oyi -i«d i8r-n« 
fe^^DonyDPisis:) t^« djiJii /Ds^noy p« lyj^^ tid iyD'u-i«;-pi> 
;jnsn ly^stDjyosuiD lyjin^n oyn .Diyuimn^^ nvi "isd 
-lyty^Di^jj^py "lyn pn vd \Vi>vivd:v DTO«;or-i^nD dvt nsa 
PK .D38Dy::3nn lyai^n iynoDn:^« yo^iiy: d«ii .y^vi^i^tnyn 
Di^n ,iyjSDK^Djy lyj^n Djiifor-n^ntD y^^yi^ p« ,iy^82 y>8 
•DDn^yr pn 1:; Diyny:DMK Dsny;i lyo^uis yosQ yonn: n 
iyi}<;Dyo-DD^ui8 n n^^J^jn^jj^P y^^yii oyn^:^ni^-i3 yn:yi:»' 
; D^^3i^ ny^n PD dphjijis Dyi p« ly^snyosio n iy:^M«a px 
■pi^ yD^^::y^Djy2y^ ps ^:5<Dl^'1x Dyi px "lynns lyj^n >n 
DO ,:i^^^fyrDJi$^vpn«n9 n do /DO lyvnsa om) ,'\vt2'>'2iti 
Dyi PD,, .i:sD'^iv lyD^mj^yjDMx pn pn Dpni^ns oyi 
'^nv^ in Diyi{$3 DDyt^'yJ s n^^iiSDy iv di^ii ,DJyDijD 
yD^^Dy p>^ lya^^^pji^ d^'? i^p lyD^uis is ^y^sni ^^{^d^ssp 
PD Dis^nyDD^^D n — DDs^ynyDD^^D yi^o n di]!)) nnj^^ 
D^^":5D:ny^y: n ...lyDi^: 5§ m nnyo do — piymyDD^^o oyn 
■"iSD IV iy:jii<iivy:i lo D-iyn p« Diyii d^oij^j t^n p^^s 
D£stj'-iy::y: s ii$ ii$T in Dann oy ... .^5<d^2{§p iv in lyjjn 
■nn VD'^v'? n ,"iyt:^uisi px nun-^yn lytj'mv ryoyiyDJ^N pa 
-i^nD n 1^1 Dr]VDii^^2]} oy ; lyoi^pv ly-i-'snj iv i« m lya 
■^N y^ynDDnrj^ v^'ti{>i n ^njypmDnx nyii^ * "^Dy^^Di^D 
D^D Myji^T i^D lyjj^p nyDiyn y"iyDP{<iDD3S! pn ii^'2V^nvP^V2 



BKp pc ijjrs « ]iK n:K'?;3y px exp ps ijys njrn'i'Kn k p£ n^Kv 

,"PTy;j;0 D'2K'i"f2pyO„ pN "b^pitSIK IK pN JIK'bll'? .0 .ITTT * 

.1861 oijnnyfi 



nx i«DJi;?3D in mt) '■iU2>v\) .dpss iy>^ojyD«njia « n^x 
-«£) lyironi^a nyi n^s^ .T?»yj — D^yp^ncDjy t^nuyDiDL/ 
nx DD-i^feiiD^asp Dyn hd oy^^pa^a n iv^^m ^ji^^-'toiyu^j 
n{§D nyi lyti'-'nii ^nyonyn vwi^^ ld^d ,nynj§ /lyD^uns Dyi 
ly^SDyn ly^^j p« iyoy^iJ^na y^ynoonri^ n ni: jjid^^h 

nj^^i»i] mn nD«^D-^yn lyn ts /iy^ijy:ij>$ Vim ^nyii oy 
:!:nn"'2J^>is nyi inn ly^D^D-DJj^^i^pnj^ns n ns rngi cyi 
nyn iyny:i d^i d'?^)\ .DyDD^D-pnn^Q Dyi nj< ynyj^sj'^D ns 
lyD-i^iny Dsinsnyj du ^myi^n -iyn^« dm^ n^D lyto^j^n ,^«2 
riypnnsQ iyiiy:i lyj-in oy nyn^^N DJj§^jr-n>nD lyj-'syj 1^ 
-fe?D inn Dnyijyy^ d^j nn lyn^^n dj^ii lynDonrj^ p« nyij^ 
iyj^^Kij§D yDjy:fe§Dnya yto^ny n r^j /DP«d lyn .v'lv^^ii^ 
tyn^sn ;{§ d^d nyto^y lyj^n iJ!s^:jjy p.« iyD"'''mi?-in^ ns 
PK m iy:^Dy3 ""n n^^ /OyDD^o-pnn^D nvi na tonyuimnj^^ 
""lyi ,tD^^m;s!tDJ8n na D-iixDin lynnD^i nyii d^it iy::^£3 
-pi^ y:j^^:i:y^Djyny^ d^^p s pq ^Jisstj^si n t« ,n"i« djj^d 
y:iT^i^ .:!yi^ p-i^ 5^^i« ni nnya tyDipy:ini<i3 pj^ lyto^un^ 
-liiiD DD^syji^? tyiiyj ynyu^ nV inyo lyj^n /^^^^ ,niDx^D 
"1^:^ lyi pi^ .D>ui8 iyi pd ;iJi^''^DiynJi§J«2 lyj^Dor; 8 
■nnj<i^ lyDJny^::^ pa 3^inj>$ y^{<;D p« ,\viw v:^''^ 1^2 ^nyn 
■ya D^ii< ov^)) oy ^^^ niD^^D-"'^ynyDD^^o n lyj-'n ,tDiyi:in 
^nj^^ lyj-i^^p rDyoD''JD^ynn^Q nyi pa D^yDtJ'y:iQn:iv lyii 
-y^tDDj^p ^y^^»^yBD Dyi Djiy^yjionx in lynj^tn dj^it ,iyo>nn» 
,"nyi>^:tj^ lyn,, •lyi^'-jti'i^ DJ<n ,T'^nyj — i«2 pa ^^>d lyti^n 
"infcft^ lytojnyvD^ PD j^ddj^q ly^jv Dyi i^d intDJj^n ^* d:i}^t 
PQ D^:iti^ DyT iy:y'n3:i i^ ii^i^ pj^^q i$ lyni^n ^n^n» ,to-iynjin 
5§ PQ DiJ$D n nyn« ,r^^ s pq ly^DiD Dyi iynj$ ,^ynn« 1^5 



(.1880 /'p'^nn pN DynjKp iK^jii-Tnu Dy*i is Dymtj 



49 DT''jy"'jr-T'nti 'f.s iy::inyDirtDiy 

-lyanyi t^« oy ."yoyij$P nx to "lyi iw))"^ nyii^t .lyjjjtn 
iyj^^« tD^j« D«iii ,Diyn^u yj5$DJ^^i< na Di$?p s lyopj^iiyjoMi^ 
^^t tDiPsn lyD : lynn "ii>*b 5$ lyn^^Jtj'i:;!:; ->))„ d^mi "inyi* pd 
lyD^niiii; n« -lyjyiPSiiJJP ly^ismsD /oyj jyn^^: i^d vV2 
•-•n Dnj^ n^^jnyi^yj ... .t:;injy-is£: djsii oyn isd d^uik n 
"tniTnn. PN DD:ynns2 lyi'js:: "ly^n nyn^x ^n iyij;ii> ,v'd 
*."L3MJ PN nmn p« yi:vo\i^ lya^^^n pn (^^isp n« mn) 
inn pi^'ny:! opisde^'ij^d t^« i^^t^-iyDJix nyjni^i lyn 
n pK Oiiv^v^i iy3^n;^«Diy is iyjJ5§Di^;:« pi^n ot^ii ,Dyi 
lyD^ni Di^ii in oj^n Dii^oLi'DS"'in iyi P2 lyuyjyj yiyoyn 
in lyo Di^n i6Si px v^^ .^sd^ssp inyo r^s: tDiyiyisyj 
p« ly^o 8 nnx m /'lyi-'^jtj'-iyoyip,, oyi Pinj< o^yi^py: 
Di^n lyD lyii ^yp^yiy: id s ^^ni» .;iJiJ^^Ei^iy lyt^tj'jniyrD^j 
m ,Dn:n y>o pv oDnpisa d^j (lyo^ip i^x) iJ^usji^ pk 
lyiiji /'lyijip -ii§D lyi^^Jtj^,, iyi *Voj^m dj^i did tyo 
,?ni$DK^ Dyjyji^-'i^ v^t PQ i^ip msq dh^^j djjiti nDx^o-^yn nyi 
/'DiyanpisD py^i W^Hi D1y^^^Jt^',, is My:y:si iyiiy:i t^k 
ytD:^:y^y n px iyDs:t::^'piyii isd Djyi jy^nn ruy^nj^v 
-8iP«iDDns! yiy^n onyip ly^js^ :in:yny:i ,iyD2st^i83Ds: 
lyrosytj'Sin lyaisi ^i^T lyj-i^K lyiy rs m avd:v''?? y^^D 
finji^ Dn^-i^p lyo dj^it .ly^ytyj lyr^jsiiv lyii^ lyr^unyv 
lyD p« pn pK in tDrD''i3 lyo nyn "iyr^M-nn„ n pj< 
pt^ .iy3n5§ T^« \H^vo iyi tyn onis ni:nni ins ^n dbi^ii 
p:i^:yp ps D^st^^iyn iyi iyD:iN lyny:; i^^;yD li^j t^« oy dii 
iy:iJSDiv3J^ ,D^^v D'sni^Dpni p« i^^:yD it^: r^N oy m /SJjs 
"lyi^otj^ lyruyDti^DDn^yT d^» DsnyDrn s px tosyc^y: s 
iyi ^y^Dni ,^^:vt:i:v? px ^Sio^ssip inyo do d^^ ly^D^^o 
Di^i lynij Di^n ,iyn^^^P2n:iv ]^? lyD^^msi lyD^f'Dotr^in 



(1847 iKniK*?) ^;'2BaKp pB ,'*]:??30Tnii3 iKTis'b 'm,, * 

.192 .r 

.36 .T (1681 ,iKn2i<'7) "TiT'mn Tix'b;:'^ tik n^nts im„ ** 



lynij^n ^i;n« nn n^ n^in ni;T d«ii rij/n^^^p yj^^fl. n ly^sD 
D«n D«tii /K'oyDjyp 8 n« ^sd'-ssp ^ DiyniSDy:i ^ly^^ioy^ 
''?v\^ >^VD''2^^ nyuyt^D n ikd LDjj^oyj i^^jiyoDi^ pDi^n^ 
-j>^«! n« lyoma lyrt^n Dyi p« lyny; Dji^tDsy^i'sa lyj^n y3 
Ds .lifnyn iy:i«^6i^nyn mi^i> in iy^«t ^n ts ,ife$a lyo^^jynD 
-jimnjj^ lyojny^js oyi pd annjj^ pi< rs n^D m's^i::^ •'its 
PN ji$nj»^ p« lyD^uismyi^^jt:' lyti'^a^D nyn t^« oiyn 
Dy .nyD^un8"Pi^ lyj-'^jjy^Djyay^ 8 n«Tiy:i lyDDJ^DtoDyn 
-»u yDi^ny n ps nyj^-i^ t» ,t:>j lyiji^ii p">p lyanyi vi^ 
^lypyntDjy t:i:vpv:i \v:iiiin vd dj^ii ^ot^ji^^jm^nD ps ly^y^s^ 
-«>j^ n Tt iy:i^^P 1720 px .-^^^-w:) oyi dj$ pn iyDipy:n{^D r^x 
PK p« ly^ytyrnyi^oii^ n t8« ^DjyQs^nss Tisd DiytoD^^Q-nyi 
p« ijyTMD lynn nyDDJ^DtDoyii p« \ii,i:i^'? \:iivD^ n on^ 
njsmsD 8 p« lyo^noy^j^nK DJyD^^y^ lyj^n ,^n«v pk iny^ 
nynns ny^ s d^d iyt:^ui» nyniva^ii? pk d'? oyi ny:3yn iv 
nn^Div^nn ivov2 n^ pk ; ty^w; tD:nyiiy;i tyj^n ^n ^n 
y^y^vysD p« /lyDi^j D'jyiy^ lynnti'nsa ^n w^nn a^'?b ly^n 
nyr^^n-TiTsn nyii^ -«^n yjyi^^t^isQ p^ .pyii:^ Dyn isd ivyn 
.{iv^orDDDV)) PN i^njj^^ Dn« PK pK typjyc^ lyj^n oi^i) 
-»n»n yjyi^^tj'nsD iy^oi$T ^n m ; n^Ji^ in lyoip ^n ixii 
T^K Dy ny^^yn iy:iyp in lyn^^Diss i^ n^yj ty^D yijyD 
PQ y:ift§^p n Diyny:iDnN tot^n Djyn^^iss nyn ■ .":iJi;^{5Qit?Q 
4 tj'ni^jcj^n J tDps,, Dyi tyoijyjjj^i mr\ m Diy^D-'^o n 
'>'>o p« tyonyj di^t >^d toinyin^Q ^v:i'?V)) /'13 .p ,i .ldd 
px ^niD^DP^D lyDD^DtJ'sn s iyn"»« ly^n^ yiy^yn tyny;! ojiJi 
lyD^m PK i« D^>v iyjy> pd .;iJirj"'^i^i«D yiy tD^^m^D 
■18S lyt^Dj-'DDyii m ti^tiJ^^ tiD ry^yTyrnyi^''j{^ n tyrn 
.5'yDii^rD^j T^n^jyD^^v djh ,3jnj^3i^D ly^^Tpini p,x lyn^^n 
nyiiij inyvaiQ n ons Dintojyvji^p in mn yv^r^^ni^ n 
"^•'DJifcjp nins„ lyi px 1744 t^« ."nypM-pin„ rvjsiiv 
"Dnx in iy:!KTD:y "lyn ty:yp jji:iyii^n pk \im)v:i t:i)iv^v:i 
D^nr-'^yn n lyni^n i767 t^« .1720 ps vyry:! Dyi ly^^j^aiv 
yiy^n fin« DyD3sy:iDiN/''n tyjyp lyvyry;! tDPiniyjiDnx lynni 



51 DT^:^^:r-i^nD lis jy^jinyDi^Diy 

vi'\v'??']V "lyoD^^o fc$ D«n isio px .ivoDyDiijns y^ic^n^ayj 
Di^DDMpy *iJfes3"ifc$D ly^M Tfe$ /'DyD^oi^P ly^y^vysD,, j< neta 

.Dnynj^nin«{^ k "ly^yn vw 
iyr^Ni{<2-i^ntD v\:i*^^v r:fc?:i ns ^y^stj'^o lya^^jny is 
•»T Dfc^n Dnt^i .i:s^j:y'niyo hd yv^pnasD'Djy^i^Ti n r^« 
-y:jtj "iyo>^3i{<-iM^ yD^^^jy^Djyay^ o^^? 8 PD :})nvD\^D:v 
,-^^ntD■■^y^^^Jl^' "iyj«iJ«^ oyi P« ''"n Dii^js "iyi:s r:5§: 8 lyoiJ 
-o^^j<ifc<D HD Dj^o^iry-i iy3^yT»yi iyDny:DMii§ lynis DJjtn oy 
ns "iyto:«!pn35$D"iio yD^n,, n .-lyo^ui^ n lytJ'Miv iy:i:i:i 
■jyt PK lyj-in v^'pv)) .ii^i^yi pk n^^tJ^nyDoyDi^^: ,t:yDnyoi^D 
PK iyo}^:.Pi< IyDP5<llyJDM^^ :^t:DyD„ tonyi:imn«^ \v^2n]:'i 
/'lyann y^^^rjyp ^ii cDts? V2^^ '\wn v^vf /nn^t^'y pk 
P2 iy^5<nyD{§D n pd nyvnxn px ly^yo^^iv n lyiiyj ;yrn 
PD Dyv{$"i3 iyvjfe§j oyi isd td^j lyj^n djjjti ,ynDDn:^i< -lyi 
-^^? y-iyiJiTj§n Dj^DDytJ^sn nya^^ lynijn ^n ;y^V5<pn3S!D lyi 
:njy2np .y^vpni^s lyn pk yciDii^ "lyny^ i^s lytD^^nis lyo 
iy^-i:ynDiD nyn Di^n ,o•^yDt^'■p-lJ<!D n pa lyj^^x pn ^i^-n Dyi 
ni?j pt? lyj^B:^! pi< lytDti^iyn iyny:y;iyn^N dh^j^ dd^^^d^s^p 
T^x ns: "Wi .nyr^^n yt^^-'sni^n p« iypiy^iD:sn ysn:i ^ i^^ 
•02^1] V^'M< Diynyi^ n — yan: nyo^Miv s; iv lyan^ isi 
.-[V^n^ctr yiy^n PN nitD pDiyi ly^iiiD ly^^jsr ^n — ^niD'^nyii 
D'tDD^^5§D^sj<p Dyi px "DP^5$"iiy:i.. isi lyo Di^n irj oyn 
-y:Dn-i» nytD>^Ti p« (^^onyDyiii ^ i^^jnyny:i) ^^o iyjy:^^« 
PD nyD^u"ij<0Jsn ysn^ ly^o 5§ ii? "iyrtD-i^3i5<s„ div rynyj 
-pyii» px iypfc<B Dw D^n: pt^^^^^d pn iyDipy:i t^x ny lyjKii 
-ns£ "nyii^ iyii^^2Mx div t«"iJi^^ lyn^^ ^j^^tDonn ^m lyp^a^ 
n li^j iy:^n nyi^^JtJ^ n d^d ^ii t^pjis ,^^d oyi px .lysnp 
y-iy^n pc :^^vy: n pd iy»^tD:y:i^^« n lyn^^ny: r^8 lytD^^ms 
lyiiy: i^^^yooix i^'^dp^d lynt^ t^n oy ; n^D«^o y^y^vyeo 
n IV ^11 Dia nr^ ^fe?t:^sj<p d^v nn ly^i^^ti^iyT iv ^n ns3 
i<Tt< PD i^i^sny Dyt 15<d ran: lyj^n di^ii ,niyn^ y^y^viyoiijp 
>ii ,n^o iy:^2y3 nynnyi px .yntDDnj^x lyDin^j^iiy: inn 
-nsD yoMia p« t^ns lyoyio ^n Tfe§ ^ton^nt^^n i;?Jt?Djyin .n 



i^s nxn PQ iy^i§:"iisi^T,, n lyD^j^nDjy .^y^atj'^u div ,1717 
"ist2-D>ni j§ PD nyoDnpy lyn isd lynm^n "DjjjSD^ijtp 
PN i^^tj^ji^TiyT pj< -iyD^ui8":i^^vjy^{$ii Pd usm^a iyo>n3tj' 
PQ y^v«ni<!3i«P n m lyDD^^Dnyj-iu lyn •n^-'tj^oyDiyiDi^D 

■yiysjiijp iyi:y;y:j V2V' pt^ Diyny^i pj^ Diyoyp^i^Ti n tyn^^n 
yiD^^toy Tiy m ;2)'?p ^ d^^ ly-in^anj^pr^ 15; in nrs "'■ii ton 
■niynn nb*:i ;s ^inx ^lyn^^n uy^yj nvi v^ v^v^''^ uyr^D 
s ^u iy:i:i^n«!V3J^ DDyisyjoms ,Idi« lyn^yoiD p^? jyj 
.tDpjynyj rD:yp dj^h dj«!doj<:p ii{^ Pi<n n ."^n^v nyD>n:i 
-"•It? nyD"'^rjyp lyi d^d lyro^nsn ^yn^x Dyn i^^p lyo t8 
i? iyT«!^DMi^ ^j^T iy r:vP oyn lytoyny;} oj^n px ,DyDni^D 
-«nB yD^^rjyp « yp^o t^k i^nnys rytD4 oyi .y^vsoj§^pi^i3 
vD^^vyTy:io^x„ n ^if, WiV? \^H^'\v:i Dr}<:^y:iDMn55 y^vfc!!Dfe?^p 
tD^siiy: i^^vyryrtD^j lyn^in v:)'?V)'i »iyo2SEj'^yTy:i px lyni^p 
D^s iy^nj{§n iv pn ^yrr IyD^^t:^J§t^'J^^»y:l ^ lyriMinyj iv 
-j-'^x :!jnyiitJ'i!SD » n:yD^D /'wo^^^^vb^v? ytonni^Bij^p,, 
■yii$i5§2 iyi{$ "lyvyryr-'-'n,, y^^^vyryrtD^j yDMiy:i lynn^si^ 
Dv nyii iiyD^Dt^^n iv in tytoDy^ii^is ^n yD^yii nn ,fy:ijij 
pt? ]v^:''?'-\r\v'? 1SD D«ii pi< ^y^ani n-intD div DDyi s Di^n 
n D^D lynspv ,D^^v p^« pK lytD^sn ^i^r tj^jyo iviv^ jy^ytyj 
"SO n p« isii? nyi px ,nitopxaiJSD yny^n ps lyr^na 
yrti^i n /'ny^i i:^^ni^*y^DnN ty^j^r ^n y^^yii ps ty^^nyn 
]-\^w:i i^2V'''?v:!i T^N yrj^yii ,:i'':v? nvi pq nxinn yn'Nii» 
ly^^nnyi iv D^nyQi^a Di^n /ynyn '^v:i''?:i'^vp iyi ?inj< 
1SD DJj<tDDJ!^p ii{$ mr] pD ly^^nitj^T n anj^ii ,pyiiv in^x 
2JitD^«njj$ iy-i iy:iyii Dy:i»^p y^a^^ lyto^j^ntDjy 1725 pt< 1723 
-jss: Dyi iin \^vr] moD in lytJ^^ yD^yii *,iyiJt?ni!S3 n ps 



,1723 ,24 .3:^9 ,nuiNittiN-i pN nryopj? ]i9 oj^^^^tsj^s n nyr * 
nisi?Dpjr ,iNt3nyn't3 ,'(Nt:jiKt3 p5 D^'S'iiira n fi« ; 268-9 .t ,20 .1 
]i« .684 nN 602 ,589 .T ,20 .n ,1725 ,7 n« 3 n>f2 ,^KBDnn llK 



53 DT''j^''3r-TnD ps lyaiinyntrtsiy 

c^^3 iy:yo n na rj<^3 Dyn lyounsiD lynijn DjnyayiriynnD 

.DiyiJin-in«:^ lyDvy^ na nnnjij 
PK iyijfe<m8D-i^nD ns :Ji^PniDjy ynna yrr^^i n 
ly^n IV tDDsiDJJsjp iy:mmpiyo px VinvDi^ njj<^jjymyD 
^•n ^iTfe? ,T^N M ixn ^ynDDnrx nya^yr nyi pfc< D^^uyiyiiBi^ 
-i>n» Dyjy2ny:MT5< Dyi ti^iK pi^niyj tDin^Dyjjj^ n^^tj'p-ii^^ pk 
» lyny: t\« i^^^i'p-iis^ Pn iy2yii nyi ."oyoD^D lyt^'^DDya 
tD«n lyD^yii ,B^tD lyo^si Dyn pd nDN^Q-^ynnyDD^-'D nyj^^^p 
Pfc< ,iy^5§nyD^D vn')^ n lyDyr^^n t^« p« D2npy;ij>>K p^^s 
110 pn DDMp-1^2 ^m^ PN ^«;d ^niv nyi{§ ^i^io p^{< D«:n 
yj^'Dyi "'IT ,v^'?v)) ^^8^ n^y^ap^Mi nyni^ ,n''? pD piya n n^ix 
p^K '•11 nnyo iy:i:y-in ly^ijynjito rjyii,, ,1724 p{< o^nyvi:;-] 
y: Dyi lyjyii iy Dn^ntJ^ — "tmh lyiy^ lyny^ toyoD,, ."p^tD*j^ 
oyoD PN ."D^n"i5<S5^%, s in Dr^yj,, — DPb*B^^fe§n Dn5<; i:y:i 
-^^ iyii$ ,^yDiyp iyi« ,110 p^Dti^ fe? d^ti^b*^ lyiy^ tinx 
...;pnn»D i? t^i^D i^t? tnn iyjynyTy:ij{^ ^viv^ ly^y^ .../Ii^^ 
,"•^1^ ^{$ofe$ Pfc< mys IS lyjD^^n pd ly^s^'ODiD lyny^ •'ii nrs 
■\>V)'\^ .Pii?D PD tD:fe§nii^iB n m '?H^) Dyi D^-'Hs iy:i]yin iv 
,^^c-p^t<ii lyi PN :i^^v Di$i ,D-iyj^B*^^ n 1:; 115^3 Dyi ]'-\n'ti 
-N tyDnpij<;s D1V pi^o t'cnx — TDifeitD Diyii Dy lyii pn 
lyii^ ^Miv ,np ^ DJfc?pn35<s lyiy^ i^k d^^m nT^ ,.: .i 
••m /""niv n pyii^ tocnyj d^i pn .y^^^osD pn i^q ,inyD 
u'^^)) ,Tnn pn Dns u^^ ^v'^i^'D^ v\2r2')'^vi^)'^^ ly^D lyii^ 
PN iv:r]vr] v\vi i^d n^^P 3ijy:i ^n lyn^m^s jyii lyio^yr 
-:i^ D^: lynt^tn i^^ii^pi^^ pd ly^-uyn^io n idt ^3 * "-iy:n^n 



lyiiyj T^N yiinjaj^j n nyn„ ,^Ki:Dn3 ]ib onynyn n U'-??-'! 1"25 
■IK ty!:D«n"iKB n ^ib Tnn dni iyBn;iy;:x 'ryma t'O /'1"i'P PK 
-Kn'jND i:'» iyi'nis-iyn:K:KB UTioyj ''t t:Kn u'^^ P*< ,nj;n;';jDa'ii 
,^Ki:Dni ,D:Kny ,^n ]ib ,261 .? /"^NtsDni iik nxaDM,,) .lyta 

(.If 824 
inKirn (.1724 ,lHn2Ni^) IIG ,07-101 .t ,3 .1 ,"-nt:„ D'^xEyi * 
ons ^nny"? lyi ^inx iyTiy:i t'k lys'jyn ,iyt2NS pn tt^Noiyn ts'ns 



,1794 Dns ,n»Dt^D5§D ij/DMiJ 8 «T'i« lypnn^Q ly^n m^inyj 
■yn i^^Qfc^ m ;Djj<!^jr-i^ntD t^k oy y^^yii d^j i^q lyrsy: 
■y:i i^Q"'D5j':''^K onyoD^^D V2'<^'?i> m iyD>^mj§ lyni^n d^^^d 
lyti'-'DD^^SD^ssp no Di{^Q y^^j n inyD^i^iyini i:^ DDoyp 
n ^n ^u lyDnyjpyii^ lynMnyjjj^i toijin y^^yii ,ynoDnj^« 
.D^^ms ly^n na tDpn«i3 nvi nyn>N y^^iD^j^p 

ryiiy:! ly^*":! Dioyovx rD:yp T^fe< ynDonj^^ ^«:iio^p n 
PK y^v5§pna«D-Djy^«i) nyn na iy:i^^DEJ^ oyi ti^ix onn^ayj^^ 
'VP'?m iyi .n^^tj'pn^^ p« lynDDnri^ v^^iivi ni n:fc§^::y 
yiy>^D-D^3 n na ly^-'Djy^^^x lyn lyny; toa^^ y:^^ vi< nyo 
nyntj .D^ni^y: mn ny y^^yii d^d .D'-^d nx lyo^p-LDJi^n 
lyj^n n:«^j:y-niyD na Diynyii n ^11 top:ia ,Diy»yp^i55ii n 
,iyD"'mi§ lyoj^^p yiynnyo n nQ iy:^^« '•n inyo d^j ryiiyj 
"•K lyiiyj TDMJ tDjjn^noix t^k oy jjirDcytJ'^n oyDyn i^d 
"sn T>x 1741 t^i? v)^ nx .niyn^ y^y^^nyoyip ^« ,^^d^3«p 
v^Tn v\:i'^v'? n nsQ« lynj^n onyoyp^j^ii n t« /pi^iiyji t:pnyD 
D:n) y^v8iJ^ai{<!p pd s in isd iyD»tj^y:i lyiniji^ y^^^toy 
"81 IV ^ly^iy:! t^« yn:yDyi3 ytot^iy "ly^n ;hytoii§tj^D s tni^ 
nyii^ D"»np:«np pd ^j§q p,« lynni VD^^i^ viv^^f iy:)iJ^T 
ty^ipQ^Jiv inn D«n ^n lyn^^n t^Dy:i iix ;D^>pjnij^Dt5^^ni8 
IVIV' njyji^nD^n p« is^ii fe§ ^^^o ^niv lyij^ ^«tD p^x in 
•»n tyii p« ; yo^pn^tstj^ lyi i^^ D^jys ••m lyij^ ^niv lyj^-'K 
n«2 m:pn DD^ayj ^n lyni^tn lyDoya ^vo'^2^ n«iiy:i lyj^n 
lyj"'^"? TS! n^^oyj — P^^« in i»q int^ pn ^Diyoo^^D yiy>n 
p^"^ T8 ;ntD Dyi D>jyQ 2 lyoJiK ^{^sii p>p lyoyp tD^:j ^i^r 
Di^ii lyoyp T^K Dy lyi^yii 8 lyr^Dytj^s^n tD^j ^{<it ly^D^^D 
lyiy Dfc^n .is^to oy Dyii iy nnfc< m^^p ly^n )'^ too tDiyny^ 
-ii§iiv nnx tix ;Dn^x n^s lyD^^nnyi i^? tD-'j t^^^DtJ^yiiiv "iyi>^K 
ns:! P« 'P^^'iti y^8 ^n lyj^n rD^msy:! dh^k isq tyni<tn rv 



iyp« ya^^ta^ tsKn^it ta^n iyD'?:?n ,]«o ijrjjnim iDDa^n,, n "i ,1789 

pu ]iN |y^nitDtt»irn lyifi ii?n« im px jroii^s yjn'jp p«;j ^« ,T3K'i, 

(.1867 ,2 .3yfi /'nnni3„ ]'>h a^^aansa ynyi ») ".tnn 



55 DT^:j5'^i"'"i'''"»^ r^ jy:jinyDtymy 

n« .D^uisy: Di^n owin lyi^':yD lyD^^Djyiyi Dyn iy:n>^^82 
-Dt<p ym ly^yinyv ,iyj«i^ti' Dn^« idik iyTy^^«iJi§pD j$ ^n« 
-"•^K 1M lys^yn ^n jj^^vyroD^u-is i^n lyoD^j-ij^D ni< d^^j 
cD^ti^^yTy: s n«iiy:i iy:^n ^n tk .tD^^ii nis ny-i:5$ oyi nyj 
ny^M iyo^j<nDn« lyji^p ly^ytt ^n hd pk .i:s^ w^:^: I'-iyn^x 
ni< D^v lyi^^K ly^'jy^MD di^ PtJ'n inyo iv o'i om^^ /t^ns 
^n iyn^:i .tj^^do^uib: t^« ni^P ly^n iid nyv^D^K nn« ,iyD^u 
■Dpyj lyn pk o^uis lyDU nn ^j^t iy n^yj nx D-ife<p s: dh^k 
D^:i iyo ife^iT ^m^p-yoi^p fc§ isifc?:^ t^n oy ixii ,tDi«DK^ lyo 
,to>^v yoMiyj » \V2'''?2 DH^K Dr«t^ lyo nx njvn Pinx dh^k 
ii^p ly i-:^« lyD^yii pi^ik nyo^-'ii nn^fc< \vd w^ i^^jJiyi n« 
■"ijy:iDnfc< i^^irnD jnjiyii ^nnD yvJ8:i n lyt^non^ ^ns 
'H^: Dyjyr"'« ts! :n:yny;D>i« to^j n« m^p lyiy^ rx lyo 
-^••K Di^i .ny;irD s l« iy:r2 8 njyfc^'j s^^p » lynwi lytj' 
-Din D^: Dy lynj^tn ^n D:in ^Diynyii n i^^^oyj^j^J tyn^n yjyj 
"ly n piM^ Dp:y-it^'5<n in n«: nj^:^ iyvjfe<:i nyn^fc< tDin^syj 
nyi^^:iD^D yjyn^^ny: lyny^ d^^3 n *"iyto^^n"i5§ ^n ixii nyo 
yo^s) "Diy^-B^^DD^ixn i^« ^t:y^^D«D ^n^^p^n^ i^jj„ lyi iid 
-5<no 8 lypjyiyii (lyi^Dii^D-^iSii ns DSi^t^^yry: y^^^nj^nD 
.1785 pi< t«>:r "ly^snyiyQ 8 na ijn:n:i lyi lyjyn y>vn 
-i^D onyni^p lynyjnMtj^n nyo^^Jiv lyn pa "lyn^^^D^D ytD^s 
inyty; lyntjn (toss^^^yiy:; 'onym^j ytDrj^^Kni?2) "^dv^^d 
vy'p:r]V is ts; ^lyr^-'iisa di^ii <iyDi^pnynjy:i^ p« lyis^ipi^v 
nyi DPT tDi^tDDnpy D«n n^nto ly^n i^k y^v5§iyTyDnyi:{<i^ 

•DiyiJimniij^ pd lytD^D 

nynjiTsn s ps 3:i2fc?tJ^sn n pk iy^fe<D yiyi^s pn 
-^D ynm n ps D-i^pny^^D nyn iin ni^iiy; iy£^^*nns2 0^?^*? 
,D"i^y^D^fe?tD^SD PD Dnynyii:yn^n n .r^'iv: n iyn«: ^ly^snyo 



|t„ liB /"7K"iy2vtrTT ]'K nino iksix ^'jdw; cnxir n^,, » 
'Dr2>'irn ]^h t:nit:i^ ,(1741 ,iNniK^) "liK*? pu ]i£ lynKnn^*^ 
.232 .T /'n:t<'7;j'K pN "ntrup4jET3t<» nytsDi^jn »m ^^^ n^jBD»n^ 



Dyi lyvn^n Dji^pyj d^j ^»dj^^p iyn»n 4773 pn y^v«T^:8J 
DyDyn ^Dnyjy^tJ'i^i^:! n *.Dnyny:i lyii^n ^n D«ni n^n ny^^D 
iyiiy:i ••its dp^^s w^'^'i »1777 djm D:yDDrjyii di^dsi ij^^jv 
•ty^snyDiSD n lyvn^i PQ iyDi5^tj'y:iDnj< 
-••>« jjirr^«n82 na ^yst^'-'O lytoiynDjypnyo^i S! li^j 
nyi n« Dfisnp ytJ^-'j^Dyo n n«"iiy:i Din^Dy;ij^>s r^x oy lyn 
nyni$ nytD^ui^-nonDtj^ n na ^SQ iyi t^n ,DyDD^D-pnny;Q 
\VD li^j ^11 .i$:8D:)yii .m pd lym^sn ,iypnDti^-^yD5i'y:i 
nnj^^ v^^'^v n rx 4^iJ^i§»"iyp{§T n lyvij^n tyn^inyjj«i tD«n 
-y:ij« tDi^n \vd t^ ,Dy dj^^lj' ^toiyuinnnj^^ lyDJnyvnn iid 
Diynyj lyn^^in DJ<i"n AVPVnmia ^''ix lyo^ms Diy^^yn D^yoti^ 
iy:iy^y:i t^k isd na ^^^d lyDoyia nyn D:in ^yDD^^sto^asP i!^ 
y:y:i^^K 5^m« D^uisyj lynt^n dj^ii AvmvD ns tDjyn n t^i< 
iiD nyriPJi^P n .lyi^i^ni^inB y:injyDti^tDDn^yT o'?^ ly^yDtJ^y;! 
ly^n^Q tOT«^y:i pi^Dtj^ nn Di^n lypnnsQ-i^nnny y:in{$n n 
')iv^v:i n tyii 4759 r^^ ,n« lypntDt^-typj^r yc'^D^^n n ^inx 
-jyosTi^ iy^^3^:ir^{ w:^'^ lyjr^my^ ly^yii iy:iJipjyiti'»n vy"? 
iyDP8Tiy:!D^n8 pn oy .p^^:idi« t^ ni^iiy:i n t^^? ^y^^iiny; 
\V2V^ \v'?H\ lypi^v^rtyrji^p Tfe§ nn'-DJ^^x iynjyi^j^t<n„ « 
liN /'D^^^yon^ v^V'"^ Iy;•'DQyt^'feiln ife$Q Dy>»yi2 lyDJ^pnnn^D 
'^v\yp lyDin^DniD d-'d P1so-Dt3>^nn^< nyn lyv^-'^Qnyta dh'i 
-1!^ 8 p^ lypnDtJ^-iypj^T Dyi DD^iny^iytoJii^ t2«n to^^nns 
px in ^^1 D-i^i^y:! r^^? im ^i^r\ iy D:in .njy^y ria -ij^^ti^ 
-''^x lyn pn iv Diyny:iQnx i^j n^:i iyni<; iv mn ,'?wn 
,DyDD^D 8 iy:5§tDtj^t:)3y t^« oy p« ^-ytoti^y:! pn pq lyo^tojy: 
-n«ivs}$ n^i« ]v'?vvi^v:!i n ty:ijny:i to^^tn lyo ly^^yii lytoji^ 



,mNiaty "iytt'''7nt2Np-e''r3m n* px j;:i''i't33''75 ]j?t2Njj;;in iyny:s ]j,*2 
DjjT ps Ipnx< ytstrnj; n uju t2;5'5i'«iKS i:rn^*J J'Ui^p i^i'u 

(.i:;tD''T 8 ,1749 ,p^nn) 



57 DT"'jy'':i''-T'nD ]iD ly^jinyDiTt^jy 

-DMn{< t:>u-i» n Dt^n '^v:i^V)^ /D:{<pnn«D nyi ns lyit^ riyo^o 
DO n^^i^yj D3M-1K3 iDi« 5§TS piMN T^K iyD^u"is lyi -lyny^y; 
-DD^^3-i8 pn no iMK li^j /Dpn«;"i3 pn na rn^n nvi pd ij^j 
-injs^ iyt::nyvD8 pd nMn:» px "i^^n djh nynnyi .r^vyj 
"1^:3 yr^^m^^^i^ D^ny: lypntD^-iypi^r n pitj^ lynj^n oiyiJin 
-H^^v:2i^ in lynisn lyo^u-ii? pt? lyoD^^D v:)'?v)) pk ^lyj^^x 
-pi^ pD D:j$"'Jv"i^nD yDDsn-nyMT p^-p "iyn«i iyj>n ^lyo 
iyD:y"iisD dst lyii 4780 tn -lynns ryj5<t:*^t::y do lyD^^ais 

*.p^Dyj^8 lyii^iiy; t^x Iy^i^'8a pd 

n VH y^^5?TOs::n« ly^ynoDnj^K lyi pa :iJi^pMiDjy n 
nyi PD ^y^Dir^u » i«:j t:ij< too ^nyi^D^i'-iyoyo pd iyDfe§D 
"yo5$50{^*P 'Diy^Di^p,, n lyii d^^v nyi iv .y^in^yi-ny lyrri^n 
njK^D-^yn lyt^-'D^D lyi t^^? (1624) ni^i^y:i Dyi:n;yj t^k 
i/iyijst px "PJ{<n-nyn,, pn pd "lyo^Djyr-'K nyi lyny: p^^s 
-^fc?ny:ji^ M^: DJ^n lyjr^iny^ pd iy::ipjy-iK^5§3 n pi< o^^vy^ 
-Si3 DjyDj<^iy;D PD \v:ii^n DiyDD^^D n tyii 4791 Dn5§ .lyta 
y:on iyj3"ip:y-iK^sn vy'?2nvw:i n p« 3jnyDD^^^"i5<D ^ lyoip 
Div T^x DyDD^D lyrTi^T lyn ts n-'D iyrDy:i ,iy:iJ^^"iny^ iv 
IV i^^:ny n^: D^^iitoy ^nx nj^iiy:i lyD^m^D ^>^d lyDoyo 
-^yrpnn^D ny^^s^D lyn nyD^y^i px ,:joymi^ lyrcj^M nyn 
i$ ^^is ly^snyD^D D'oj^^pnn^D nyi d^'d D^^ni^ hdk^d 
-nnKD lyn^ytDyi iv lyii^ t:"iyny:i dj^ii p:js'rnyn Dyjyjjnyj 



DyT ]iN 37 ]TK 3G .1 1MN HiTT .1735 ,19 "bnEK ,16 i:Nn /'d:kookp 

c*? i:y ny>TKn n'^x-nr|'trKD 'm nx nx^D^n,, D'i'p'i'yB .1812 
-'ntrxn j:2i'7in'EDi':« ]ii k^kh::::; ,(1S67 ,ixn:N^) /'■n^'epysiiND 
n« nw^DM,, D':KD:^'n "i^*:Tim;; p,iik evii'i^Ni ,Tnt2 ]'.e ;2n 
pB ,p"iyn lytt'jyT « ^i^-^h ,(1831 ,iNn:K'?) "Dnyi:^': piKno'ne 'm 
.]y"iKTiyj t:2''7i2:yEvnN2 t^n •t:k2 ]"k rn'bn ly^'byn 



'V^f n TT lyni^n 1790 int^^ an pi< d«iit .^sdiv lytM^n p\":) 
-j^^Dy;i 8 lyonyj i^ iy:iJiKiivy:i lyjisyj lyayjDD^uisi "ly-i^y^a 
-18 v^vi:^ m lya^^^tJ^-iyiyt^// n w^iVP jj^^ytoc' yD-'^t^D^K' 
■18Q ys^^vyry-DikS rx lyD^iDy^^^ns lyj^n y^^yii nyto^u 
*."tD^un8 na lyt^ns n nyisyn i^ lyijsn 

jjsnjyDSTi^ nyi iy;y^i ^y^s^j'^u lytoDrD^Mi nyn nysi^ 
-y:iQ^iK DHn nyo^uns nyn dj^ii nyi d^d DJ«^:r-n^nD no 
lyD li^p ,a^-:iyrD:!j$^:;pntriQ n na nyvn^n nyn v^t iv tDiyn 
■j^^i? "lyn nya iy:>^«-i5^2'ifc?D ns lyop^n lyrj^j nv\ px inyr 
T8 ,DpiyD8i V)^ iyn«n n^D .DyDD^D-pnn^a Dyi na jijnn^Q 
nyi D-'D iy:iJ82y:i:i5 in iyai^*n i^^t^piijt^ Pi< DJi^^jr-i^no 
cy m) .DQ81P ns ininy:i Dyi d^d n^^ lypnnsa no :i:njn:i 
-ji^8 to^j 4794 i^x ojnn Doyii na lyiDSDOiD n in mn 
ns :jifc<nnanN iyi pj< Dnmo lyn^^ n iiyDtJ^ ^v iynyjy;i 
yonii 8 lyrDDy^sn )'i d:^^d tyo ikii„ ^lypnn^a yoni; 
-■"^n yjy^^^N yiy^n p« d^^^k lyo^uis dj^^i /lyjt^nys) Sii^v 
v:v^''i< yiy^n p« i^r n lyoijy:! lyD^uis n iyn«n /'lyo 
iyii$ /'••D^jroot<!P 'DiyMii^^p,, n tDyij>i:iy:i iyn«,i nx ojyn 
iyi«i "Dsynn. ly^^^r iv i"'^Djysy /'iJ^*K^iD''tDD:^N fiynn,, 
-18B 8 lyin^civ:^:? m yp:«iP lyv^Dt^iyD^ix iv ty:iJny^^DtJ'i<n 
pnnsD n lyo^^'^anyiiE^ \v::i^f2 i^ nD ,y>v8t3^:i8 y^n^Djyos;^ 
•lyjJ^^iny^ na ^JipjyitJ^sn lyD^^vyryj » iin 1yo^tDJy:^^^< 
-»p lytj^nstDjyD^^isQ iyi t^ytDDnsn /'Dni8 in ^ytoa^ oy,, 
oi^v lyoniyj « i^d toi^Donpy to^in oy T8„ ,1806 pq t:yD>D 
-a8Q"D:y^j^'n n iyD:i« Dssti'^yTyj 8 iyi{^ y^vitD^tDorx IN 
.lyD^^nisnitD pd lyj^tot^^n i^^DyrtDsnn t^n d«ii ,tyt3J5<pn 



n .1790 ,9 lynojrtiBrD \\t< 7 udumn /'Drnx ib^^^s)}^,, • 

-fiNB'^VTy:' yD^'bTi'nsj viyi3« -1791 ,'7nQ« i'n P^njr:? i2:?Tjn;!^':i 
iy;jn"i:?nnfi ^yis k iis isTUDnpy :j»B:yp iyn«n i'?yifij;tr i>n lyts 



59 cT"':j5'^"i''-T''"i^ r^ iy::inj;tD:ytt:j; 

"155 yo^nyiiyjD^"ij< i^d D^yoc'yjjyDKnv ,0D8c^^yiy: 8 oj^^tj' 
nyiy> yD^yii iid ,nysyLj' yjyi^^iJ^-i8<D n iid lyosDisyTiyD^u 
,inyD "lyntj: Dsoisyn i^^i< dmk Dn>^>p DDSJ^ipyTy: yj^Dii^tD*^ 
-ij!P ly^siDjy^ DyjyDnyj-MtK Dyn hd jJi?yo{^DMJiv nyi nsD 

.Dmv y^8 PD tD^^PD^^oyiipyn ny^^P^^ nyi i{§d rj§^3 lyro 
■y;iDnn y\:i^v? t:«n oyo^D^P iy>8iDjyv oyi pd 0:35^10 n 
nyny: ::iD''Dt^'S2 ^v'W' pk ;y^:^iD^DDJ^N y:;j»: n iy::m 
-yjyj"iya''K d^^pdd^^^ d''d iisp m-oonyj iy dj^ii ^y:yiDfc<D 
nyiy^ .DSKC'^yTyriyDJ^p^-aj^D lyvjj?: "lyn iyn^5< pyn lya 
5§ tDnp ,DD8tJ^^yTyj nyi ps i^^jd^d y; :n:iyn nyo^^a^s 
'v'?2DV 18 «n T^« Dy V2'?v)) ^')i< .^yoyv « nyi« d^^p vo'))v: 
-^Di^p Dyi lyo D"iyDn"i5<D ,v:v^''i< oi^i — jjnmj^i: yt^^toso 
— ,-i:8^::ymyD pn ni w:)^ "pc^' pk ij^^q ldqip /Doyo 
-j<n lyjj^p rtD;"'V3^^^j iy ^sjt ^yoyv Dyi lynynya^x o^^n Ti< 
PiK mjpn yjyr^i< n .tDSst^'^yTy: lyi iv oiynyj iy r^ ,w\) 
Wi^m Dyi lyn^N dd^ip pk D^it< dt^mi oy ni lyj^n d>^^d 
lyD T8 /iynn^;i iv D:n:i -lypi^DtJ' 8 isnsQ T^t< oy px ,p"i^v5i:3 
-■•^D n^Q pn D^D inyjivji^ lyn^^ny too iy:D8DDiD p^*:) oyii 
iy:ife§TtDjy in oyii ny^^yii /IyD^^t^'S){^ Yv:i^v yt ^h^ iy lyi 
nyi PQ iy:!:iD3^^D"i82 ps ni:?;! n in tynifcuinyDJ^x pd 
PN ^nyrs:^-^yr.5§3 iyi ps :ji^n:«in8D n *."t:DS!*^'^yTy:i 
T^K ,1780 Dni§ lympynjiJD t^k dj^iii ^yntoonrx-pn^^D is* 
-«^jr"i^nD PD lyDP^ii Dyn P2 to^-'^jsn m'w: ro^^vD^^^:i 
nyoj^m^Ji? n pd iy3i^p-D:i:i>^^tDC'nyt3JiN y^yDnyrnr^ n .dt^: 

,1796 Pfc< -iyD1{!jDPi^tDD H pD PK ,1792 PK lytD^^my^-pnaytD 

■y: 'Dnyj^Qtj^ pd yv: ^v^v pd lyDn^iJ^D n lyi^y: iy:^n 
yD^yii n:ii:^Di:?iJ' pn. lyvni^iD riD^f y^^? ny^^x iyt:D5<:r^yT 



.IG .T ,1S0G 



PN DrtDsyLi'i^^n y>8 lyj^n ]/3?];ii ,\v^2Vd pd lyyons y^^j^: 
-yj UN D:)^Dy;i i^^jyD D{$n /lypna^a p« ,i»d lya^yroyi 
PD lyoD^^i'^yTyr-iis^D iyijn;i im iy^«t oy is .i^iyi lys^i^n 
-"lifiD-n^nD yDjy:8Qny3 pa mnvt:^02V n "iyaj$ ."lyD^uij? 
PK piisn /Diyi^^jti' n ^u ni onyj^SD'-^yiisa n ^u ,iyij«a 
-SD nyrD^^;njy nyn ^v nyii lynnt^y^iv v?^:^ wt^-^v^ oyi 

iyt>nt3D^^fe§D^S5$P Dyi PD Dy^VPJlS H lytJ^TV jJi^^-iDiyi:^: 

-M^:^ rDD^"-.-! D{§i nyo^un^ lyDi^-iQ avi m "lyDnyj-iytDJix,, 
Pi< iy:iJiQnyjDiyDJ'i&? y^ynoonj^H pa jJio^fe?in^2 lyi lyt:; 
-:^ V'Dv:^'?^ 18 PJ^Tiy;! i^^pn^ii v)^ t^k oy jjnn^aDin ly^n 
PK TM^n Ts: ,DT^jJ5''jr"i^nD aynyiJ^D pd i^/ yjyo-jy; 
Diyny;iDMK toj^n lyD^uns nyi y^^yii pk ,iynDDnj^« v:i:' 
"i«D pK lysMp PD lyD^Qt^iQ n px tDi^DyiyD:^j<-it^2 pn i^ 
tD^D lyi^m^a :i:y t^x dj^ii /p^t:)Dnytop8nj<3 v^v — lyDnp 
p« yo^TPi^ii w^iiP — iy^LD^D"D:{$^vpnj^*i2 n pq rn^n Dyi 
•nyii t3yijn:iy; Dy^vst^J^Jii^-n^'-nt: vodv^ 
-DM T^K DT^jJ5^:r-i^nD iyi t^ ayt^^ii^n yiron^^Q n 
nyi pn i^f pynQ^iK D'-iyio^^ms nvi ]h :i^jjynsi^ tj^n^^o 
Dyi inn o^iQi^a nyii .ly^to^D-Djj^^vpni^nB n pd lyvn^n 
PK lyj-i^xn^D v^:v2i2^o^VB v>p d^j tDj^Qy:i ly^ oh)) >w^b 
]V?2't DJ^i -ly^ipyjinj^D do t^« di^i inii .lynDonj^x v:iV' 
nvi ""^n n^x^D-^yn lytojny^y; Dyi iiq nmn-D^yny^ iyi pd 
lyQipynj^Q T^x DytoD^D ly^^^iyo^^^ytD^D pa innjyo^^pvr 
lyn lyn^^ny^ p« lyo^^ni^ lyn ^v ,Di^nD lytDn^D y^i§ pk 
iv:iH ; to**:) nyn^^ iyiJ<!tDyo-DJj?;^vpnj$iQ n ps iyo^t3jy:i^^« 
3:nyn:)y n ixii ,tDiJ§T tn^n iy:«t5{i^t3jy iyj''''T DJi^ovn^ntD 
^s;d''Qxp ly^i^'-'iiv :ijn"'"'tj^yv ^? pa Dit^Q n iy»ijy:ijj$ to^n 
.Diy"i:imnij^ lyo-^yvynn pq ^iid nvi ony; .t^^^ni^ pk 



.3 '?yiD'5Np ny? 



na >^^D lyooynj mv onyoc^^n y^:ssD8^p yriJ^i n„ 
!>•>? D^J .D^J iy3«tn v^'^V)'^ ,\v^:vD yj^oDiyij^n nx yonu 
-lyT nD "imD s ""u djij-it lysMp li* ,Dnynp p\":5 oo pk n^yj 
lyD^p 1^ ly^Jij^nvy: dmj nn iyj^>t ni;?J ,D:^n -lyDij'iy 
^n.iyii .lyDMp lyom nyij^ lyo^nii' ni: iy:?py3 yj^^^p v)'?2 
Dyp^^BC' n iyBMP"i$§D i:^ ni< nn-inyj d^^ lyai^n oy lyn^D 

PK -lyn^Mi yiy^n nn lyr^^Bc^ iv — n^y: D^n: isd ^rDistD 
pn^:; n« rn lyp'-trivans ly:l:^t^^"l^:y; iy:^n >n lyoyii nyirp 
nMpnsB D1V iyo^njj^ ,d^^^p ^v d^^^p pb DDsrnn:^' lyiy^ 
Pi< .o^nn fi^K pn do n^y:i p^*:" Dyn do ts; /Dyp^^Bt^♦ yiy^n 
'\'^)i :h^ lyiy^nyDy-i;! D-iyii pi< ^155; y] D"inyDi^*2 ^ni$v ly^n 
-jnyr:^v^o yrj^^s^ i^ ,iyjj^^-iny^ ^li^^ iyDPjy-it^{<nDix nyi 
y"ijyD^nj<n lynj^n yD^yii) yofc?.BO{<:p lyi pb lyny^^^jD^D yo 
"lyB n ... .^n lyD^^n p5< rnjyoc^ ••n tyrosyt^'^^a (lyDstsj^r 
■ns;B "iv PM lyDSD dj^ii n pb oyp^^B'^^ n lyB^ip dh)) Av:i^i 
nyn d-'o im rijyvijsn ^lycynpo^^^p n iv pmv ^n lyBnp 
iy;:iKiivy: njyoc' lyrn v:i'?v^^) lyo^^^i^ yon^^* n pb on: 
lyDi^n -(n^Donpy lyji^p iv nB n^y: D^n: iisb lyB^pis^B iv 
IS ,Dyp^^B'^ PB lyr^nB n ly^i^^t^ynyDjnfei! '•itn r^^iiBy^DU 
lynyj ^n pfc< ...tyny^ do D^^nnt? pn pb p^*p lyD^^nis nyn 
...nyj^i^oj^D v^v^:^ PN ny:yiD-iyjsp .D^m^o nyii pyiis 
nyt^'^np nnx i>^:yD ly^ssB nyirp y"iy>n pb y^y^B pk 
nyi PK nn iy:^^py!3 onyBs^-ypc'Djyn n px *."nmK^n 
lypitD -"n T8 ,Dn« '•ITS ^^Bn ryrn ^n„ ts ^yi^^nys nyB^yr 
iy^ni>*vsB IV n^o^n ri:)y^n do ,Dnyip ^mn nyny^ lyrnp 



.13 .D ,816 ,.0 ,2 



■18D >n lyjsii tu .lyo^uis yiy^n i^ pi^ on nyn» n^am 

nx .Diyjj^DypK'Djyn m Dnyj^oyp^^BK^ n D:in nya« 
jnjyD^^j^D iV2i{,n n:^Dm'^ lya^yiDyn p« on^no ynynjs 
-Djyny^ ny^n i»d hk^ lyoniyj s na D^-iproMj n Djypny^j^ 
-i^nD na iisk' p« oy lyj^y^i >n ^u d^j n^o lyj^syj ,n:imD 

••T lyiiy: '?vvi'D :i^v:^^x ly^n pn ,Dpn«ns in^« inx ijsj 
PN /mP *.nninD yiy^n na t^na ayi na :iJi:^*'t^8n y^^^vyry; 
DD^^SD^BSP \v^')))i :i:^i'>^m)i n y^^y-n p« /lyncDnj^K v^v 
D**: li^J T^« nyD^uisi-tDJsn m lyD^^nns'SJ^p ,nDN^D-^yn nx 
iv\:i'p^ lyn i:^ lyni^y:; m \vd mn .ynjytDt^^j^a p>p iyiiy:i 
-^v:^"'K Dyi i^f ''11 ,^«Qi^:i^D ly^y^viyoi^p pd p^DPSD-yn^u 
-D:yny^ nyn pq ^Jiv'-t^'iiin nyi isd ^yt:>D tyDnunBy:;Dn« \vi 

.iyn^vn«i2 Dyn pq n;ino 
"8P lytJ^Mi:^ :i:i^^^Dnyi:8J82 n t» .d^j lytDS^in^n i^d 
yanjyD^^iE) ^ to^:i in-nsa-px-is nDi<^D-^yn p« DD^^i$t:^3 
lyD-'^v y^8 1^ .Dj«^jm>nD PQ :i:nst^nii< oyn nsa :i:ny^pny 
"Dnpy iynj<in ynDonj^i? lytj'^^jijy nyi pa ytoD^tJ^y;! lyn px 
-y; nTfe§ tDPJis lyj^n y^^yii nyD^^nns lyos^p vo^m: di^d 
-y:i^^K -ly^n pa lyto^^m^a n nyii pa ryDi^^tj^yjD''i« jyii 
-jnyvD!j§ pa ny^yp^^n iyn» nyTt^j^^ lyn ^ii yntDonj^N lyj 
nyn» nyrati>-^yii8i iy:nyi«D lyn ni "iviH /Diyn:inini^'' lyD 
ra^K nytD^^nns yDa^^^pt^^nsa-n^sn n nn s •lytD^^nisjyj-'Q 
^1 PK in D«n nv:i'f n^:i oy Pi? ,iy:^D n pn lyn^^ "i:«^ 
nfe? yDJiy^yroij pa d^^^p lynjyD^nsn » iyjiay:i tonyto^kj^ 
-yj tO"'j in lynt^n ^n dj^ii Dyi ny^^1^^ ,tyj"'n yD^'yii nyD-i^n 



.13 .13 ,816 ,.0 .n /'DiT«<'?;i 
•lytDimi? yji^'^p ps tain^sv^jK v'i't? 1«i ly^y^^ ya^irn ^DTina 



68 DT'»:^"':r-'T"'nD pD lyjJinyncDjy 

■jnyvDK Dns ,^{<q lyiy^ p« *.yn^^i lyi iid nupn yi:y^^tj^ n 
Dnoyj DK^p iy;iMST oyi na ^n«v n dj^h ts-iyuimny;^ lyo 
ti^w jjnynsD nynjyopK^^ nyn nnn nyii Diyoy-ijiss p-i{<d*^ 
DP1K11 oyi D^D lyiJuiKD m)V2 t>K o^-n nyo^ui^ yoDi^na 
.1 .K Dy^vynys^'Ma yjusDti'DJijD-DMiJ n^no dij^bdj^"!:: ns 
■;«!D DDD ivm lyD^uiKJyj^D .D^^yiB-yonyD n ld^j nya« .; 
-••n ^n D^yiJ8n^2-DDy^tJ' m tD>ni;jv8n-tDDy^ty ^n — ,*iyjn^ 
ytDti'iy n lyoyii ^o »iynyj ov lyj^n — ,iynyj d^j dd« lyj 
pip na D^j i^^DS nyn i^d .lyJ8Dt^'DJy lyj^n Djj^or-i^nD 
nyi "i»Q ."•n >^3 iy;jir:>^i<nKD yj^^^niD^^v nyisi Dp^noD 
"yp in \v'?v^^ w ,Dy^v8^vwD» yr-uytst^'tDDa^yr no ::njnj 
^{$T lyo Tyt yvi')2 vh ,-iyny:DD^^3"i8 n na ly^n^ oyi lyj 
ns< to>^prj:ynsj^D'iK ^vy'?:vnvB no ikij lyoniyj j§ iyvni<n 
-i^nD yotjny >i t8 nynnyi lyj^cy; vd .t:^\'?DDyDny::ps!n8i3 
-y^ nt^ D^^"5Dny^yj DVf2V)'\ nyto^ms ^o lynyto'^Djy D:{^^jr 
-ya n« oroiDiy iy^iy:j nyDiyuimnij^ nss t^k n^-no-Djyn 
lyjiy^ Dw yji:n ni:pn y:yDi:y3Jii m yD^^vyry:i inn dv^c^ 
"iny^ ^ni^v nyi iid :i:pjynt;^j<3 nyn inn iik hdk^d n in 
-jn^n v^vi:^ !^K lyi^yrnny^ yDnn n y^^yn d^o ,iy:r^ 

.iyi:ni5?2 i>n tDnny:) tyn^^n iyj:ii 
-D:y T^i< DT^jyovi^nD lyi ts /iyDi:y:i:i^ d2«i Diyii oy 
-ynoDnrx ly^^^jyioiyiD^K iy:iyp DDyt3«i3 » d^s iyjfc<t:K^ 



nyn .isynjn^KnoiK i^'t t^ tjtk tDjnty ,;ijnyp^ysKi nyta^n-iK ysiKJi 
-y;; m y■ly^2« vp iyoiiy;iJ'nK ta'i "jKOi'^p iskh Dyi:D»D-"iy^ 
-nn-iK tanoyjj jniyuir iyn«n oy lyoyn c'O ,m3K'?D-''?yn yi::iy^ 
i2''s:-iy^ \ii\) lynxn D«n oyt'^niN S-iks yoMi:; n lyoxTis lyta 
cs'ryn i< m iy;;':yn |y;Kipy; lynxn ys'^yn ,u3Koy;3"in tao 
"Ennxn ^•i r;^«ii I'O .mzN'^D-i'jyn ytijny'ryjj n lis pi*? oyn pc 
lyD'jyn i!i lynxn Dyn'?u"iyp-iyTit::Kn n »s ,pED k T'K Dy tk ,iyo 
■«2"nyt2n2"iK lyn ]ifi yi^inNsxns ynyoyi:? k is'rny^yj u^'^i t»k oy 

.D:N':T"Tnu y;j»BJ''n n 'ti ,j:nyp^ys 



ns) yiJ^nya v^p do ny^n fx Diyijinnnj^^ lyDjny^^js; oyi 
Tii< ,1710 DJn nni$^ :i^vQ^D nsD itJ'D Ǥ "^d .d^j lyD^^onyjDnx 
-yDynyj yDi; nsi yn^n yjyD5^nmyio''.i^-DO Dyn^ « lyiiy; 
-o i^^jnyiiy;nyDMN lyn^^nyj t^k r^^i n^x t^na lyi ,tyt^o 
TT iyn«in lyDorDDDy^i nt^ \i^i:H'? na onyn^otj' n onyn 
,D"iy"i:^mn»^ lyDjny^D^ no n^in:j^ p^^ i^5§n ,Drj>^i<i^D 
na ajn^vnyn t--^ oy lyD^yn lyjyp in ly^yDc^ iv n:] do 
■DD^m» yiy^n na ly^npivom^ i}$: ,iyDDjym^2 yny^n 
Vi'>:v)'\ n .iyiJiDK^-DD">un« yiyvi^"^ n^^ pi^ pyoyi s nyny;! 
■»nD n inn r^s i«!: lyD^i^in DiyDyp^j^irDJ^n yjyn^^nyj 
tyanya in lyni^n ^n lyn ,DiyiJinin}^^ lyDjnyvD^ ns y^n 
D^D typjnD 1^ Dj^TDjy in lyn^^n /'DiyDyp^t^n ly^^'Djytj'n,, 
i>D ni /:i'oy:i pi^dk^ iyny:i w:''^ nx lyD^-'iis-pnn^Q yiyij^n 
PK * "DiyDD^^o yiy^n i«d w^v^Vi. lyiD^D iv ^tnyryj lyn^^n 
"aiyp ^DiyDn^Dti'iyi ,Diyi^DiJ^D-^i^'n ,DiyD«DDin ,Diyni^:i n 
-y^B^^u yjynyTy;:^* tyno v:i'?V)) .DiypnrpDisp m DiyDb*^ 
lyni^n y^s .Diyuininj^^ lyDJnyvD^ lis Dioj^or-i^nD pd ly^ 
oj^ aj«^ ]V2i^n m iy:)n^ y^nn royDDOD^yni^a D:ynixQ 
lysnaji? n iy:iyp usDtJ'iyin^ lyD^rpini ns:i 8 tyD^5§nyj 

.iyny:DD>m8 yiyn m 
DTOJ?ov-T»nD iyi Ti!$ ,n1^? Dj^-'tj^ lyDP^s yrtJ^i n tie 
inj^ i^-'S^ .ynDDHJ^N lyti^^^jjy iyi pa inDK^ « tyny:i D^v^n 
-18Q n ^v .DyDD^D-pnnsD Dyi \nH m p:^»D-fio^i iyi 
Dyi PN lyj^ii'Djy t^x D«in ,iyD^^ni5§ yiyoyn n pa ::iijo^^k 
-vi^v PN Dy tyii in D^j^n Diyuinin^'' Dyi pa ^i^^d ryDSi^iy 
iyi:ii§ 18 t^i< ,:i:i:iyn{^n lytj^'-DDot^on-i^nD {<! pi< ^'?vp')) 
-^yn lyrDiJ^Dti^ ayi pa "ni^p-i^nD„ lyt^^'-a^D iyi .y:i8ia 



12'ipn'DpJN piK ta^ipJin'nTyn "in p?:j:;u tp^y'Btyn id « ♦ 
-IK ITS ]yD2Ni« n ;Bi:?3^i!fn«s in lyj'Bj;:: Dij?ttj;p'rKii n ])Q 
pK ,1795 ,31 tsDunN /"^NiintyTT DNnjii^UNi,, nyT t^N iyn:;;;Dt3''i 
pB ^ms TM'^n i^i'n ,1792 ,0^1 ps "n'TKiyn "ij?12D:;d'j;'?„ d^t pK 



e5 Dt'^jy^ii^-T'"'"^^ lis iVJ3inyDiri2jy 

lyi^t^Djy lyjsLDtJ'y; lyj^n yD>yn ^lyD^uis yDJ"iy>y;i voodvh 
oyT na i?^d8 m^ ,nyo^ui8 yosD lyoD^ns "lyi iid lyo^^n 
-y: yD^>jnyiiyj n .D^nn-'^yn y:^'^DD^^SD^a«P dk^p oyj^^^p 
lynj^n lyoiDsoD yti'^jfejoynfesP^y n Di^n /D^^:^jny^ yjyjji«i^:i 
-py n HD Dj^n lyo Di$)) i^yrj"iy^ yDnn n ni< ^lynn^yjii^a 
->K tD^^^i "iy:j{<^ « n^D \V2i$r\ ,DDyi2y;iD^ns i^P'jnyiiyj pyo 
yt:^nj^:»*sn lyoyn n ?\mx ^^b^j^d lyD^^p-ini ^ ly^yjyjiya 
-3S2// yDD5§P nyn'^&^'nu oyDJ s pd Djyn n px do^^d 
Div lynsn p^^s "lynyjDD^uifc? n iyn>n Dyoyn pn /'tD>>> 
cyi cj^ Ml MTS n^< .D^^:;ny^ .ly^n Djyny:DMx ^^^to lytDoyia 
-y: pitj' ^n lyasn rvk^ iyt:jyp-iyj{;j jn:^ pd ny-i« lya^^^^yrya 
1^ I^^DyTDsnn Dvi:yjDMx lyai^pns^ vivt ^n lynj^M -lyoi^j 
-jn„ n p&< px ::)i:^^tDkj'"iyo:iiS -ly^^^ij-inQ o^q in lyjiJi^nj^D 
n^o .iy:ji:n{<n ]}ivov2 i^d D''n3""'^yn yiy^n tD^o "ly^^'^jyj 
Dy:y^ pd nati^ n^^ v'>p lyni^p-i^ntD yD^yis pt^ tD^: lyrcy: 
-{<D yjyi^"':i'-iy:D n pd nnK^Q-'^yn n lyii^m^; ^n^Dyrnnnj< 
p.D intDC' ny:ynyiy:ji^ j^iy; pi^ny; nycsys:^' t^x nyj^yii ,iyD 
-»n tD^D D01D3D yr^yDi^: yny^n .:jijy'n^3 lis^jvi^ntD lyi 
,]yt:^^proDMiv-iy^^^DSD 1^ i^^:ny ^vy^ lyrn D^nn-'^ya yiy 
"•n .lyD^^p y^s^vijD yiyijiTi<:n lyt^'Mi:^ lyn^toc^jy^spv )'i mi 
y-iy^n d^d "ly^^n^ inytD:^^,/ i:^ nyijyto nnyo dmi^* lyr^'i 
-:i^p iy:iyp ^n jyv^Dtj^ i:^ lyiyj ^yir^ny: iyi iy:yp DiytoD^^D 
t:^D iM iyyr^K-i8D 1^ nyn^^x ^oyp^y^nrroo nyii^j lyto^ynp 
nMi< nnjis IS p« tyjsD yiyijs pd Dnnn-oto^^nns v^V'i 
tDDs^i^^yTyj y^yn^DHJ^s n ,nip -ds^p lyc^^tDD^^s^^ssP cy- 
,ii>*: ly^SD n tDP^ — iy2n:i ps t:^^^tDy:iyi:s:sD li^: i$i t^s 
-ynnsD-pi^ p,s ny2y:Do^^n-is W'^'))'^ — lyos^P ps tDj^tDLi'Js 
to^yi35<:rnsD dj^h dj^m ^Ji^^^tDy:^' y::)^*y^ n d« t^x oy pi< nyj 
nytD^uns v^:'\v'?v: lyan: y:^^^p n pd DT>jj;?^jr"i^ntD nyi 
*.::ijyTiS3 y^j^^tDD^ji^^Jvi^nto '^v^'iv'i^':} *iyi Ps 



nyjKniK'? n px ■ji'jjyc'^N 1"T"i"^ 1:?-''t iv^i'^P y^^yTN tk 



";ijy"n-iyD pk iyD^ui«-Djy^j^Ti n iid ly^Jirj^-'XisQ y^^nn 
Dy^v»^!^i$D^ n Di^ .Diyayiriyp^T y*^n:y^jyD^D n nx njs^ 
-ystj' T^t< ofc^ii ,Di^i lynMny::^^ lyn^^n yj^yii ,tyiiy:i oy lyrn 
PK iy:^^i<i^D y^s toyoD na ^y^i^ "iy:^^oy;^« lyi \'-im)Vi nytD 
nx ijn^jy-i nyi iv y^v{:?^yi3{$ n — onyijimnj^^ lytDjnyvDyi 
Diy3yn-i«D"n^ n lynyo^n ly^Ji^r -"n d:«od{^p ii« nsn lyn 
-«D yn^n ^ii dpj^s ,tD>>ms ly^MP iv : p^d^^i^s iy>^j lyn pa 
n .pn^D lyDDr^u Tsmk ,y^v»pnnfe$Q lyn ij^q ly^snyD 
n nx D^nn« nyi no lyoyvi^is n rt^ iy::nyi:y yoj^it^y:! 
lynj^n yntDonpx lytj^^^^^y iyi no p^vd n iid j:itD>nnDMK 
"yntj'^3 y^^ pyii t^rtD^n^n ly^j^r oy t«! ^tDiyii^sy; rt^jyp 
Dyvi^ns s ,tD^^ni« pd :jn:)yi'n«D px t:jjnj« oyi t^x iy:i:ip 
tyos^p y^s pa i^^^jd^x oyi ly^^j^nDjy in pfc< toi^n oi^^i 
■nyi 1^ ytDt^iy n /'t^^ lyD^^i^tD^j,, ly^n tDM^ nyr-n^nn^ 
-in lytDDjym^s yD^^jnyiiy:; v^v't nn« nn:ij^ Dyn iySi>D 
n 18Q o^unj§y:i tyn«n y^^yii nyD^ui^-Djy^j^ii n iy^iy:i lyj 



cyT ]is inyr p;o ]«p ,1720 px m nns nTK iv3«B"P"iyTiE5JKn 
;jn'njr"i Dnx'ji^tD nyiaOKD ^m nx Diyp ^m,, ps :ji!iDnN iynij;jj^ND 

]iB nj«nnKB iv^ukt "i^T// : 1720 ps r^T^*; Dyi i:? tann^s^jj mn 
-\H i«s ^jT'Strnn nj;t23y^ty nn^T « t^k ../'Dix'i'nta ]yDj;:nnyn n 
n ''1 Bu k^k;j Djr unjrT lyo m ;DT'nu pyuK v^« px ^yia^n 
/'Dnyp''»'i"pD,, /'DnyniKQ /'on^'ttD,, /'DijrniNp i^royjnntyTi,, 
tytaDJip ynj;iJ« jr:yT < tyiNS ps moN^tt-'t'byn p« "onypnotrtDiKp,, 
-3Kp pK ]yt3K-HDy;jin-iK -ji^p-im ip^u ys'byn ,]yDni3^'nj?; jix 

yoniy; iytti:y;i iyn«n "Diyj^KtyTi,, pN "D-iyn«j)pn3„ /'Diytajya 

yi^^iiays nynT ]in /'on^'^Mta lyoo-intJ'Tn,, n ]i« ."iKta ty'^yi^ 

"ipn'bp y3>'7i3«:KO„ Snx^i lyDnn; lyn einx ]k lyr^n ,1745 pu 

P« uivniKji n IS Tnty T»« DNn .mDN^o">'?yn nyiNUN*? n na 

.27801 -— 246 ,247 ,"iyt3BnpDiJK0 Dn«i)s„ nyt ,t3ns ip^^t 



67 Dn:j5''JT''"^"'''"k^ l"*^ iy:i:inyDiyDjy 

n^no p^K m n^a lyj^Dyj L3ny-i:imn«^ pd jjj^; lymyo^Mi 
■83 V''i n lyjyp y^vso^j^ n piMj^-oDnyj pyu^ oyi 1^5^: 
-D^n n nD m .lyai^p yoynyi:iDyjr>K y^^yt^ nx .lyjjuri 
■lyj^^Dy:^^ lyi i« i« in lyo^^tj' »DiyDyp?«n m oiyD^^o 
lynyotj' lynoonr^ v:vy'i< yiv'^ mi DmtJ'yj mik /iJi:yr.j<2 
y>^: n Di^n nDi<^Q"^y3 "lyojiypyj "lyrtDi^otj' lyi .hjdd pk 
V3'?V)^ >r\yjpn n no ;j^Dnpni^ lyi nn o^n^Dnyi p^cD^^ij^a 
.0^^-18 '■\v'?0V2 PD D^^Div s lyjy: i^nLD pn tDv^t^'yj lya^n 
y:i::} YVWi lyi t8 .::nyi«D lyi 0^0 im ny oiijn tDn^^anj^D 
-pnn^'D Dyi t^^j^ii DJjii *.nyii dpi^di^'isd ^st lyjr^nny^ ix 
-y: D'>: lynt^onj^x ^^ODpyo yo^yosi'yjj^^K n px lyo^^nn^ 
PD D"i«iD n iyDijy;ji^ :Ji:y*ni!? v: n ojijn dh^k 15$d -lyD^Jijn 
Dnyii^ayj D«n "ly dj^ii .lyi^ns o^^nn^-p^Dij' yuypjn iidd 
iy:nyny:„ cyi ly^yDC'tDoyD ^st \vd ts ,iy^iy:i "lyanyi t^k 
::i3y:vyTy: yl^''tDy3{<p^y n d«ii /'pi^ lyrDyrDO^jo^ym^D 
^>D niDx^D-^f'ya ^^d nyo^ui^-pi^ n "iyn«i .Dpyiivsn ojijn 
-i^n ^nmo-Djyny^ ny^n iytD^^mvDM{< nD nyD^^aij^-pna^D 
\VD lyD^yiT ?iMx .rr^ lyD^^vyiy: Dy:y^ iv tDijyiiy;i m lya 
-••^nnj^ v^^vo viv lot ^d .lyr^^i^D "iv in o:-iy^y:i ^n oi^n 
lyijyij'iyn oyi pd yns^Dnx n i^x oy t« ,tDnn^:y: tDiijn lya 
"i^n'D^x PD lytD^tD^uy-i n lyjyp i^ntD "ly^n lyv^tj' iv d5<^p 
■t:25<'^r^cynyDynyt:rx p^P ^n ^^n t^&< ,ny"nPJi;JP lyop^yn^^ 
lyn vi< :i^^'\V'^:v n tyiiy:! t^« dv AV2m^t22v to^: t:)^^'?^^^ 
cDt<i3y3 Dijn DftJii o:"n^:yn lyi "ivo p^to^^^s "ly^ynoDnrx 
Di^ii ^lyc^ti^y^ ^{^'o w^^^v D1V tDi^n px n^n pn lyDSD y^s 
-j^K HD .33^;yii«n i«^:v-n^nt: 8 ,iyDn:s yoyi \i$? lyo 



,(104 .t) iy;i''?iny'? ]y;:;n 12112x120 iyB»'iNi2v:iNT'^y oyn "jyuineK 
]j?p"i«i2tr"iKfl IS ly'jKB y'7« ]'« /lyny; T'« pyTix-i2Snn i^t tk ]ik 



■yi Tt i^D lyt^o o:iayii{^n yrri^T n ivd^id iv i«^p iyxj«;i 
n tyj^^DDj^j n« :!y'n lytj^x n^ix pni:; nnypoi{< d:^^k lynn 
lyojnyvDfej ayi pn ynconrj^ lyi na yt^D^tJ'y: ytj'^tD^^^a 

.Dnyijimnjs' 
lyDjny^^Dyr Dyi na p^d^^j^q y^ynDDn:^i< yij-i^j^or^i n 
yiji^^iayi yDnw ^ ty^yD^i:^2>ix ,iyny: t^n D"iynji,-nn«^ 
Dm ,iyt:Djyn n i^nD Ti^d ij^d ^j^t am ^Dy^ni^DnK 
lyn .y-i^^; lypnynDJj^n iy-i hq pj^iiy; ij^tDy; lynna lyj^n 
,:yjiDyj tDiy-i:imn{^> no lyto^D px lynj^n ,^tj^Q^ .oiynyn n 
^n lyaj^n ,iyjny:^ pyii lyoDjyni^Q v^^^nvw^ yiy^n t{$ 
lyn lyiyn lytj^^ i^ .pist:^^ MTi§ iyrj^^«-i^Q ^'n m lyr^i^^n 
-:y:i{;j^p m ^n i^d lyray:! 1555 p}< .lytoDrDODyn p« d^ldsj^ 
inyt '•n lypm ny^ijynDiD yD^^:yDi^D n« y^^n n T55.. .n 
D^j to^uivs n TT ly^j^n Di^n ,iy5i^;yo w^iiom^ inn /'^y^Q 
^ly^moij'nyii yt^'-'DD^^^o^s^p n n^iN* lyD^^m^ iv ,L3:iy^yj 
Tin 1MK ynjs;^,, pj^ ^Djyi ?nn« ly^niDt^^ayn iy:jni5§Q inn 
-Dnt< PK lyayii i^a D^^^i;^fy:l p« pi^ pyjy^p ^y>3 » jyny; 
/'\^^v:i iyD^^^f y;^^i^Ds p« oy lyn^^n ^n ^n ,iito lyD^ms 
W i^\:i:i^'\ DJ^"'{i^y3 DJ^*n to^^v "iv^v^ PQ Djyos^i^a Dyi is2 
^.v ly-ijyr iM ly^j^T nyjyni«D-pi^ ytDpmy: n t«: ,T^"i^tDs::j 
PD ;jn>^:KnytDjn^ nyi iy:yp jyv^tj' iv >n o:ny;vyTyj nyi 
^T -lyjD^^^to^s^p ynnmpjj^p n iin lytoDjym^Q yiy^^r 
-r]V^i nyi p.D :!^i^.'ij^n n pny^n^^D 1555 px 1552 pq lyitD^tDD 
^yD li^nys p^x oi^n ]V^r])\:ii>^2V)) ^ni^v n lypjyn^^^n ,^>!:) 
njN^ r^nx Dy3'»"'x ?inx pj^ tDiytDji^ n px ^ni!^ ^inx ^yvnt^n 
-QH n^N* jy^nitDti^nyn jy^m.NjQ dj^t toi^j^on^ lyoi^ni^Q Pf< 
-pniDnx t:5JyQ^i!^n^?3 nyi to^^n 1563 pk .D:yi nynj!} ^n»v 
5$ to*D nytD^^mriM^ y^^ pyDMi^D iv in nnx lyouyj i^^ 
-y:itoDyQ lyn^n v:^'?v)) ,tyvyTy:i yto^j^ n .n^rn "ly'nuDn. 
n t^D ly-ijytoEj'oix n nytD^ix ,iynj^n ,p'i^ dio^dp^o ^ tD^yoK^ 
ini;?. DD^ip pK pyii tDD^-iny: \^:ii$p];:i tD': jyr^ns yijy;^^£DK^ 
m lyri^-Ji^tD lyoni^ Dyn 1x2 ddj?^ i^k ly-i^^^ yomj n 
Dnyijyy^ i^n^ in iy3»n lyui^tDK^oix ."\v^:vd Dy:y:i:nyj 



69 cr''Jt?''JT'"T''''"i^ Jis iy::inyi::rD:y 

HD D^^?Dt:se:t:iJ' n w^i^r) "iy;r^-iny> iy:y^i dio^od,, lyj 
/Dsj^ny: lynt^M ^m ')) .iy^^*i yD^yn nyjy^a DLDDuyj o^-'v nyjy^ 
^^D HN ?yiJ5<o pD tD^^v pi< ^^D ,i{;jny3 -lyjyjjnyj lyi lyayj,, 
."n^ iyrDy»:D^:t2^ymKD iy:nyny; {5 /Di?D"iya^K hd tD^^v pj^ 
D^j^iyj tDyo^^j^pj^? "lyiy^ pd nytojn n in lyajjin in«^ iyiy> 
"lys yrDDrj-ifc<D yD^yiis in iv njyQmgD,, px lyoipD^jiv 
TT lyospv PK ,rD5o "i«D lyrDy: ly^yn >m dj^ii ... lyjJST 
lyaijn /'d^^^ nyi pd on: n nyiij: yctj' nyi hd^: :njyt:yny;3 
t}-i{jiD "lyiy^ PD ti'^tDpj^D pi^ Dyi ly^yotj'tDDyi: D^ijtry: ^n 
nyn iy::i«iwy:DMii$ \:i2i^?v:i lyni^n lyoi^tj'sa yiy^n ; D^^ms 
-jynon: iyi iy:iyTi mjpn y::yiDc^ •lyD^^iDti' yiync' nn 
,pn f'UT PDiytD lyi :i:y!^ ni ,nDK^D n im lyj-iy^ pd \:i'>'i)yi 
mvD ^«:t "iy3yjDD^u-i5§ "-wiv om) ly^J^^nny^ ^n^^v n p« 
v\i^'B'o n .ryry: pd ::iQ^tDt^iv n iy:{^ipy: lynt^'n ,iyt:^{$n 
ij'^DPSD \v:\'\ lyv lyD^^iytD^^^yD^D oyi pd lyvjsjmi^ 
ly-ijyDSDonK is; i^« ,D^tD"is V')2]:: d^o ,]ynn*^y:ii^D lyny: 
finfc< iyijynj» t:ts^^y:i in iya«n dud) ,did^dd Dyr^oy^^s 
.yii^nys lyi pa yntoDn:^i< iyi pd ^^^d lyDDyi: oyi 
y"ii<n"i^D^nyi nsa n lyn^oipDn d^: «i lyDisi i^o 
lyiiyj o^i "lyii^ «^ t^x rv^Vi nyt:^nn^n nyrT^^i "lyi ^2f ,y:5<iD 
■"•n ^v lyii^ ,tD^^v iv:^ pd p^ijd iyijytD^^ai{§ oyi i^d y^^or: 
pi^ny; Din^DyjDnn i^^pini ,D^ni m nnx pn /D^^^d yj^n ly: 
■vyryjit^D p« toi^v^Dnt^p ^Hr\ iy ni nts: "lyni^ *.i2D{§np pj< 
-y: "lyD^^iytD^^^ytD^o -lyn pd lys^vris y^yitDjy^istijiD n jdd^^ 
,PDnyi Dij^8i*iy3^i< pn dmp n^o lyji^p ojuntj "lyD^^DDj^'^^'^yT 



625-6 .t ,5 .n /'oyD'ns lyj •ntyt'i'Npnjs nK n«t2Din„ 'DiytrTixi 

,«D:«ty»»: ^ik nts'byn,, ."nni-"^ P2 dmik iy!i:Nj:>K„ 1776 pK 

(.65 .T 40 .BKp ,1 in 



Dyn toijn iyDijy::>j Dn^t^ D«n tD^yo^^^iKs lyi d«ii djji t5$ 
lynn^; Dyji''Dy:^« iyr^«D« oyi rx tD3^>viyn^K nyjD^uiN 
Di^)) /P^D-i^i^S) nytDi:! nx D>^prDDyiy:i iy^!stDjyD8iJi2 lyn px 
lyr: Di^ii n y^y; t^ ^^Jinyjvyty: lyrto^n "nn tDiyDMiND 
♦/'n:rn y'lUDn « iy:np,/ ly^^t D^uns to^o Bi^ in 

Dyi na innji^ d^^i D^nynyji D^n D^njs yi^ytn Mjy;! 
-n;y:-«^: n nyini iy:iQy; n^a .tonynjimn^^ lytDjnyifDj? 
D^:^ nji^^yss nyD>ui8-pni»D n iiq oy^^^^vi^Ds: yoyn 
\v:iVP /'02m^o lyoi^iip// lyi 1^ "iyij§ ^Djyos^ij^a di:; ,r:yp 
PK .pi^ ny^n pyjy^pisQ lyny^DD^uns yiy^n am oyn 
-"lyn n i«: lyij^n tDiyiJimnj;^^ Dyi pd DD^yn ivt^i^^v lyi 
T8 ,:i:'ivyTDMfc<-iJ^Q nyi on^ D'pyujsnyj lyo^^^i lyoj^^p ynjy:^' 
yD^^jnyiiy;! n ^^ orD^yisn i^^? n::«^D-^y:i nyro^^^a lyn 
PS Diynyn n in lyrj^^xi^D ""ir^ .n^no pn ps lyDDjymj^Q 
y^v^oys fe$ iya:«^"iyn 1^ nD ,1726 t^« .tDyoiyoj^D m Do^ni 
yiy^n pq ly^nn^sj' n p« tD^-'pDoiiy^c' lyi iy:yp :i'>:vp div 
rs nvnyn Dnn"'Dy:i Di^n yD^yii ,Dny^ijynDitD n D^nn-i^yn 
-"iinp yny^n DDinytDjix t:}$n "^•'Dij^p nins,/ pa tDytD^oj^p j? 
ly^j^T DJ^n /'i^cQi^ lis; PD ly^pjis,, t3^unNy:iD^iN* DJ<tn px oyi 
Dnynyii n tDjnj^iiy; Dj^n p^ ,iy:«nD-tD^ntD^ n ly^^^^jD^it? 
nn lya^yn iv tt ly^n d^: ly^j^t ^n /'DQ:1p1^f nyn i}<5,. 
iy;iy^-ij$D,, n^ytoti^ iy^{^T ij^j ,iy:iJ^rr"'xit<Q y:i^^vyry;inix 
/jyDDy^^D pn n«D ^yii lyrDyo^y^yn ^ ?i>ix oyiiinp yny^n 
y:nyny:i n lyr^Mi&^n i:^ ^n D-in: pn njyto^ t^yn ny^^y^^ 
nyDDJ^ IJ^J ."l^T nyn pq tD^^':5:>tDDyiy: nyi to^i^ ,5^^\-i 
IV Dy^vfe?^yQ^ v^v^^t Vi'o oijyivy:; in lyto^m^ n lynj^n 
^1^065' PK o>nD,/ n lynj^n ,i7i9 px .diij^oqj^p hj^ tinh lyi 
iD^D Dijyi^y: in nyvy^s yrDn^? n px i^j^idd pc "oiynyii 



-nil,, VD'n'i'nNs n its i^nsp ij^^njiratr i:;t va dnt * 
,1688-1750 ]is "TntD its j:»u''^p DiapNita,, iyn« "DJ^^nn-yiD 

.pyiax'^n'n D^rynopxa iNDysxiB px pK 



71 CT'':j5''J'''''"f^^"^^ 1'=^ iy:rinyi:iymy 

113 lytD^^ai^pnDNE: n \V2i^:^ 1728 px .1555 pD "D"iy3yii 
PN iyt:Dn-D:yin2 v^i^PH^ n i^ oi^^ysy; n^''ti'-iyDDyD^N^: 
n P2 iyoDy::{^ns n nMx n^ytDDj^ ^'2 ,D'^yi2'yj >m ^u 
-L^Dyc ,^{>*»D lyoii'-iy div dj^^c^ oy ni pn nyDjs-'oDit: onytDD^v^ 
lyi p2 D*iy3yii n ind n^toi^'DJ^j'o-pi^ iy^?<"iy3^^ 5$ ly^yoc^iv 
nytD^"'mb*"pnnfc<D n lyn^n ny^yst^ ini<^ rvjxi^v .rm«"i3 
■pntD cyi fi^ix t:i^3"iND y: tDjyo^^njo pD iy;»"ipy:DMiK 
".yi ^u t:'^y^3'y: ^n lyni^jn ,175G ps n^^uy •.□yjD^D 

ly^ •'-iD nytDDn inn lyr^na tD'-^any-p^tDtj^ pd ::'i!:^tD:^N3 n 
"{si n Iy■i^^:l^nyt3:'nyl pd yp^Dp^-i3 n ly^ytDtj'sjj lyjijp ^jsr 
n Di^n D^D-iyi j:«^pj^^» pk nyr^^n 15<d lyo^ms; px ovo 
cD^^ni^y:DMX 4756 nynr^yiij^: lyoie cyi /'DJi^^i'yD lytDij^iip^ 
n lyD^yii d^p /'oyo^rpi^ Pd oyoD^D nyijj y^yn^^tD »„ 

.lymsi^ n^Myi^y: lyrn iyo^^2*iK 
■"i^i^iiy"! s lyroipyns^D t^« in«^ V2''?^v ytoDpyj n px 
"lyi pD p^tD^^i^s ny^yntDonrx "lyi px :3nyi:y yiy:jj{^v 
-QitDy^ DPoy: iyv:^:rN "lyo^^ais n t:j;jn yD^yii ,a:ny:vyiy: 
D^jjDDtjtp ii« PNH n tDj^n -in p^j< PD itj'!: Dyi i^x .jy^ 
n^x y>i'pyt:«-is iyD^^iyt:^s^yt:^D pd p^d^^^s nn^K lyLD^^y:; 
ly^it^ii,, nyi ."Dt^^M"': ly^rrDj^iDD^j^Dnj?., na p^ld^^j<!S s 
lyi^y: t:^: nn«^ v^p ii^3 i^x ,1756 tia "ops Diy^rii ntD«^p 
D^o pi^^iy; iyD-ii<iinsD t^x D:yDs^-i5<B lyi lyii -DSi<"ip pk 
ny^y^Do^^n-iy; n .Dy^v^tDy3-iy:y: px oy^v^tsys y^^n^n^^v 
tD^^Di^Nn iy2i$n ^vt:^^^ n dj^ti DytDi<-i n ts ,Diy^p"iy lyn^n 
ny"iip:i^P nyijyDPsii "Wi ns lyuyoK^^ix n nytD:'!^ ,iy:^n 
PD nyto^^m^ n .nsmn^DDin'to^J Di^j^ons n^^trpiyi^ i^x 
"'.nyo lij: ^i^r ryiya *iy"i ts ,t:nyi{5Dy: ty^jjn ,D^n nyijs "lyi 






:3iv^tDt^'-iyDJiK n iy:{§ipyj lynj^n Diyayii n .nynipjij^p lyo 
ny^n p^^ i:^^^ \v'\v:ivn uvi m "lyD'tDjyr^i^i:^?^ n no 
■^«ny;iDM&< ly^Jsjr tyoDjm^Q yD^^jnyiiy:i v^]i''^t t» jjnyijjSD 
DjJijioD^p iiiij ]M^n VD'?vr2)\:}V'^ n .ryryj V2^)i nv)) \vo 
DjyiiJ^nsD tyo mn n^^nn -lyn^o lyt^'niv D^ypsiiyj im Di^n 
cyi iypi«o£^ix2 ^i$T Dm ,Dpy^ j^^-is vyiy; « lyD^-'mtjivD^fc* 
T8 ,iyai:y;:» tyo mn nynjj Dvy^iv ;ryTyj lyiJi^LDonpy 
Yvm iyi *.iyTM"i^2 i^t ly^n lynt^n lyjoj^pnn^Dj^tD n 
lyi nx ; tyjji^jnsa in^ n^iiy:i lyany^pni^ r^x 4756 na 
m) Dyi ^Mt< T^^5 tDT{^^y:pyiit$ tov^x in Dj^n Djyo^^-ij^a 
.(onyj Dy mi inya ^j^t) ""i^yQ-^yoy^,. na 
na "op« Diy^ni hdj^^p jy^i^^n,, nvi iyn^« tio^p lyi 
.V": n 1^ lyyi^x yo^^ n na :iJ^nyn^x oy-i tDjyD^^vxn 4756 
n« Djy^iijTi y-iy-!:;8 ni< lytot^iyn ,D-lyr^l^' .Diyayn n nyn 
s tD.^0 Dyi:ynyj 1776 p^ m iyn«n t:yD-iyQ«D na lyo^u 
-pBt^ lyi na ^^nn^sj-'^x n om avih^ oyn iy:yp y^^^^t^ys 
ny3^^:nyiiy:i ny^n i^ DD8iny:i jdj^h toy^^^o it^Dsyo pn ptj^5§D 

D:i8TDjy Tt /^^D"nym n lyDi^mj^Q di^j^dds p^i)): toiynjin 

**y^v^DyQ n tyonyjws^N i^^as 

lytD^niv 8 DinnyjJi^ t:8ny:i pitj^ tDJ^n P''D^^i<i3 ytoiyijyyj n 

yD^yn /'y^JSQDJ^p DiytDD*": pni<!i^D^nD ii$n:}^^„ n .n^nD 
lyD^^pmoni? Dyn d^-d 1663 px iyii<iiiy:i Din^tsi^pj^x t^« 
tDQ^yn lytoti^iy iyi px in to^sn n^no Dyn iyT'^i:!yi iv pyn^^ 
DP^^DJ«tP iy:njytDti> p« iyji2y:i Diyijimni^^ tyt5:)nyvDs pq 

-D>iK TT iynj?n yD^yii ^Diyt^D^-'o yn:i^jy5{j^iy-ini n d^d 



.27 .1 /D^Ki 

4 nynDyn«i) .7 .t ,36 .n /'D'7K:"inB'n djkoo^p tin tiniI ** 

C4776 



73 cT^3^*^:r-i^nD iid ]y::invi2tri2jy 

w^'pv)) p« ^nosp ny:iJ»^ -wrti}.! ivt .ni:pn v^i^'t^ \)^ DDs^yj 
iva^yn iv iJi^yotJ' y^'^iiyjy is lyouy; wzHn lyo^^ais n 
■nn 1753 p« ijy m iv iyni^"ny: DDKi3y;i t^n /y^:e!EDi$p lyn 
na mjpn n oJoinyDjiK ytj^nsojyDS^nssB yrj^^in^DDn^ is 
lyo^uns n yj^yii hd :iJip"iSDtJ'iSD "lyi fi^K ,y^:ssD¥P lyn 
Div'??'-\v n^^ny^^D lyj^n 4y:iJ^jy2{$n yiy^n v'?^ D:iV'?vi \V2i^n 
'2^p'']2^Q n iSQ i:y:^DDy^sn m uyn^^^sn,, d^s nJ;jTiy:i 
•y: Iy^^t^'DJy t^k y^JSBoj^p lyi na Dyon^ijo^iK n nyn /'\vo 
iyv:sjrK lyansinsD Di>n ."n^no Tisq i^^nytj',, d^s pt^ii 
-^N ya^n^n^^v ii^j ,Din"'Dy; Di^n n^no nQ nijpn yD^^vyryj y^s 
'D*iyD8»jypJ>*T„ lyi nc ;3njn:i ny"i i^' ,iyiJSD*j'D^ix-D:i:sjiyi 
iyv:Mi«n2 n:s^jyD"'D n p« Y)^ iyrD^n:y:y: is2 yvs^vfcjDs 
n ^y^v D^s D^yDti'y:! m Di^n v:i^V'\) 4778 pn ,"n:s^j:y pe 
nyoD^DtJ^sn s P2 ;jnn"'DJ^^8 n pj< ly^r^iny^ pd jjipjy-ic^sn 
^lyDunsD yJy^^"'t^nsD y^s n na 5'DiTID ^]:'^'])p s .yDsrpi^ 
nni^^ ^Miv ynDpyj n p« t:3SDy;i lyni^n lyo^^nis n d^iii 
D^ytDti^yjc^iiv T^« ,2:nyjvyTya ivi pd nt^ nyn lynp iv 
p^^:r iy"i pD D^^DJ^^s Dyi mn * «jsbjy-i3 m pd pi^i^y^ 
-iss s iy"i«iiy: t:^nyiny pi^vsn nyDsn:)rD«i: Dn isa t-'x 

■lyLD^IK .D1M^DS5»D''D ""M D^D tiJ^H Dt^tll /eT^^^:iL3^0"Dt3JyDS^ 

■D^^tDjyDy nyn ps tDDS"nny:DMis lynj^tn Dy^^^oii^p s ps iy::on 
lyD^^nss Dnp mp D«ii /'DyDD^D-D>ni:j^« PQ nsi: s ^''? 
-'iv^v:i s .12^^:^ iyrt::^>n nyi pi< ly^SQ ytoDjiy n w pyii 
iy:i:s:y:i3nn c'^tDPSQ p« V)'? P2 a^^n^otrsn nyn is2 Dpy^fc?i5 
y^s :n:yn^nDiyDJiK nyny^Dto^'-m^ n nyn ojiiy^ yo^^iiv n 
lyi ^n Do^DC'y;iyi^: dh^s tynj^n ."t^in^ px n:^nD yny^n 
Di^n Di^ii nyto^^nis n iss D^itotj^pniv s — ,:i:'iTy^ ly^m 
-y:ipnw Di^n m Dsn;roi$J p« lynnoiK y^DJiy iv tonn^cy:; 
"lyD^yD^Mi^iSD p« lypnoc'jypi^iT yD^^p^^^oiK n lyDn^^ii 



.115-21 .T ,"d:k^:i> T^ni: n^;* ci^^i„ * 
.37 pK 36 .1 /'D^KJTwn Di^ooKp i:k ttkh,, ** 



yiy:«i^5^i^«;iin n na nn^Qyj n ly^n-'D iynMny;:i^ nn^^D 
lyj^n ,^tj^o^ ,Diy:)SDDin n .nyny:!DD^''ni^ v^V't ns iy:y^£) 
na ;i:'ipjyitj^sn lyjjynoti' lyn nn Dv^t^y:i iyiiy:i nyn^ r^n 
iyn«n I603 m isee ns lyvyry;! n d«ii ,iy;!r^-iny^ ^n^iv lyi 
.tDMyjB« Dii,n "y^:xBD«p ony^j^iDV^^Q,/ n n« lynntj^yjn^^D 
IV DiyotJ^y: D^j nyD^ms n D»n nti' iy:3^^vyTy;i nyrr^ii ivi 
\V2\'?p-']''>'-\\:} ns y^v^iyiyQ y^sj^^visj s 4771 dii^ 4ynjn:i 
"IVDMI8 :i:y:i pn^Dtj^ iyny:i t^^? yD^yii ^tDiy^ti^ Dsnn n pt^ 
-"1VIV tD^j ^^Dn nx yosriM^ ytonyDyn:ii^Q s 4775 p« ,iyrip 
i^D .ni^p 8 ^v Diyny:i d-i-d iyn«n d^ii n d^uis lyi iv lytj^^ 
tDfcjn n TS! nns ,tDDfe$t^^yTy:i nyrr^i lyi lyjyii :i>:yn tyo^-in 
■ynD"i»2 n y^^y^i ^ni< /'iyDyi:ij«ip„ y^^n^inyB tyD^^nyjsjj 
yv^DtJ^ n Dn^^i;y"i lyni^n lypi^v^n yjyn^^t^^isQ n ns lyD 
tDDfe§Dy; iynj!?n ;i:^'? iyvj^:i Dyi iyn^» "iyiyn:sii„ n i^q 
-y^Dn^iv iyn«n 4777 t^x ,D^t§D^yny^ ,m n^ntD i'isq m:pn 
•n^^^D^D iiQ iJ^ii 8 D^:yQ 2 ns :i8iD">^n iyrDyo^y:iyi s wdi: 
T8 ,Di^tj^ D1V i^D tymp iyny:iDD^;m8 n ns Dy:is^p n na 
y^^yntoK^ n iyiiy:i T^t< y^vt^iyiya iyi no yD^jQ^.x-tDS-'in n 
^n«v n DV^:yi:ife§n tD«:n lyrj^yii ,ryTy:i Dyi no :iJniT'QDin 
Dsn Di^T .lyto^sn D^yoy: Di^n nytoD^-'D iy-iy> Di^tii tyjji^^iny^ 
b; 4777 pN /iy:ijy-imv:>ns Diy^D^^D-nyrj^DDin n toin^oyj 
y^8 .iy:jiv^:yn:i«n n iyo^^5» ^«tr lyD^y^i ,Dpy^«;-iovyTy; 
-y: D^ytDti'yiiD^ns lyj^n yvsr^^js^ii^-iyto^^nns ny-i nD nin^ 
AHi^t^'? no DDi<iitDt^y:i iyn«;n Dy^v^Dyo .'•n iy:iyp lyij^tii 
nx ^niyT ,D5§nDpyn /^loiyiv^ nytDoyt^D ,^i§DDnn ^i^sDinn 
Dny3fe§DT^^£) iyn«i-t3in Diyt^D^^Dp^t:^,, n ;^v'^v'?b v^vi:^ 
n D^D t5rj>>t<iN;D i^^jnyiiy:i in lynt^n "Diyn:yD''nfc? n« 
-DtD^-'nns yti^-'tDD^^^D^B^P n no iy:i:nyni^Q n mvi:> ly^yry;? 
n io^D i^^os T8 ,L5y'n:yD'y3 tynt^n lyto^-'nis n .iyny:i 
nyDiyn:in y^y^o ry:^n ,tytD>^v ytoi:i n« ryn>>D„ jyjuipjyntj^^n 
:n:y3iT nno nyi nyn>i< nyi:)i§i^N^von» ty:i:iiN'!ivy:i die^q 
pm3>^« Dyn iyDJi« iyi"ty;i nyn«i nt< "r-'in. n .":iJirDoytJ^{<n 



75 DT'':b*^iT''T'"'"^^ r^ iy:;:inyt:iyt:3y 

.ryry; k lyii^iiy: t-'k tDpy^j^navyry: nyi nK 

HD DD^^DJ^^Ksn iyny:i o^j lynj? ru li^: t^« Myo^^-ijyjy^y: 
T^K iyoipy:n«Q .DP5<-io:i$p ly^na nD ynji^yo t^k dv lyD^yii 
o^n^2iyT DJ^n nyi:i§ nv\ M$:i i^no p^j^ mi nTi< : d^m dj^ 
iy:y^D -nyiiP^J^P ly^^^DD^^^D^Ej^p iv: iyi ns ::ipimi n 
■jyii 1M .D^nr-'^ya v^V2v^p n nn{< ^j;jDD-:i^ px nyo^'-ms i 
]VD Tst ,n:-iyi5^D n^^jnyiiy: .^'?'n nsis D^^^k'^oys ld^d lyn 
ynnj^^-iynn is nn^DJ^'-s ,iyj^^«D y^o n lyojijn-isD ^{^^t 
^li^v nyn iid p:^pJy"lt^'5<3 ytD^s n lyD^snanx iyi«: ,D>^v:ny^ 
t::iy^2 "T^n,, n .ty:iy^ ^i^t nun-^yn nyiy^ dj^it ny^jri< 
-{<^p n lyDinyoJit^ ^j^t dj^ii ^oyo^DJ^p ^ lyQ^D^^j^a i^^jnyr,yj 
•lyrtD^nj^n iv yiirip yjyny:iy:ijj$ n njiD ly^is nyi d^d ,yj 
DytD^Di^p lyrii^T oyi isa ty^y^n lyny^DD^ui^? yD^ij n "lyaijs 
-S!3 ly^y^D D^)) rD^iv P£i yn^n yijy;yinya^i< is iy:jy-i2 
nnDD-tDii^BDpy lyijyDp^Ti nyi po lyj^t^'SD n \ni^ t^ ^yT^ni 
1M lyo |j$p D^mji! nyi pq iyi«:Dyo n ts ;nyii tD^yD'^yjsi* 
lynn lyonyj ^»t oy d^^di^ji^ ,D''tJ^nn ifc?3 s px lyny^^D-tiK 
nyoD^^o ]v^'?^ nyi pd :J1P3yn:^'^n nyi iy:iyn ts px ; in«> 
y^^j n D^D T^N iy:r^-iny^ ^m nyi» ••'•'n:^ n^x lypnyiitoj^n 
«D^: ii^3 pit^ nstot^DKD lyDMia rciK D^u"i{< P2 Diyanp 
n p2 ni:yD yD^yrs; "in n^itD n:yni^n .tvi^n i:^ D«tii 
oyo^DJ^P jyoD3^^ij^nD oyi n^D ^^^28 t^x nynyjDo^^an^ 
-••^yn n pd ny:y^3 n d^o IyQ^t:;^'^v^^^K lyi^yj i^^:yo dmp 
•i^^^yoDiK ly^y: ij'^tDP^D lyj^n ^v2V'?b yrt^^n n .niDx^Q 
yDDny n nt^'c^ — y:^^p s tDi<ny:i tyn^^n ni3x^?o-^^y2 n 
nyi PD lyprt di^i — lyni^n i«!P d^^p t^k oy ^y^^yv. d^jii 
-yjDiK lyni^n y^^yn /lyi^yotJ^oiK inn n:rn iy>n ps nmD 
^n .D>ui» ^V''^ PD DyDPvopn^^is n DnyDynntrs ny^-^n 
,tD:yD^^n5i:s "lyi px ; ^yo^o oyi lyjyii myo j^ DD^»2y:i lyn^n 
Dii^py: ^'2 lyiyoyn v^p \:)i^r] ,niyt: Dyi inyryj Dj^n iy D:n 
jyDSD IV iy;jiKTivy: 3:n^3yi "lyi D»n ^Dt^' ly'Dit^B -tyj^syj 



lyi lynj^ .iyDp«i"iy:iny2nis t^« ynDonj^K n yD^yii ,m:pn 
lytoj^K -lyto-'un^ n hd n^no-Djyny^ n tyv^^ lyjyn Dy^n«"i3 
iy n^? ny^n d^j nx dd^^^ d^: lyi^y:! t^n iyj:ij:n^2 y^^j n 
tDnyiJimni^!^ nytonyv:^'': iyi tu /DT^^^yro-': tyn^^ny:i t^k 
^^^nyi 0Jiny:ivyTyrpnn8D na ^yto^D Dyi ty-iJiQiy D«n 
n /ioi^isn Dyjy:^^« ny^n ^mk iyn''^nyj lyD^uis n lyj^n 
ny:)^n na ::i^yDEi^ s iyny:i t^n '«n iv Djyosi^nsis ns :i:i^yDtJ^ 
lyn ns Dnnnjsn ty^iy;i d"": noj^ t^x d^sjii ^D^-'njyjy^n^D 

.t:P8io:j^p jyn2 112 yn«yD 

in lytj'^DJ^ns; Dyi lyjyp v^^i^vt:^ ny:^''»y;^^ t^n oy nyD^yii 
-y:ii« DJ^n n ^11 DyiDJ^j to'-^v y::s!^ « :jny:ivyTy:i nyi hd 
iyT^iife§n tonyii ,niJpn yD^^nyo^^^yo^o n lyoyinpyns lynnn 
-jyn^n lyoi^y^D^sD^sD n ns ^siQ lyDonnsn nvi inn 
nyt:^8 *iyn w tyn^jyrpm^ in D^^n lyo ly^^yii t>x nynyii 
n lyni^n 1765 px .Dy^^^♦«^1Jy1 y^ynoonrx nD P^D^^ija 
lyn^^iny:! lyrn ^n tin ,Di^DDyD}$i3 Di^y^s^xD^SD na Diynyii 
.i^n lyt^^niiyfiDnx ns i^n^Di^SD^x nyi ny^^iv t:>ui8 \m 
-i^iQ rx Di^tj'i^D ''n iynj;?n ,tyDi$D pi< in ruyn^^^panj^v 
nx Av^r^i^^ m p^d ns Din^aya nyt^DJ^DDoyii iv oy^oyv 
-Dn,« pQ Di«is»^i< Dyi iyt:«ni«D ^i^t tyo Tfe? Diyi»Dy;i tyn^n 
yD^yii ,iynnD"i« tyoipyjii^D tyj^n oy .lyDpn^ia v^''i:v'? 
^»T iy ,D3yo»^is2 Dyi iyjyiii§n iv DDJiy :iijy: lyiiy: tyj>n 
iyi iv:iH ; jjnyi^iD iyi d'-d jjs^^pj^-'k p« ryry:) s tyonyjij 
■Dn« to^nyaisD D«n "y^vpyDt^is. pk D^yDnysDpy lyrr^i 
.1769 t^x D^^:^n in lyij^tn lymiDix n pk 'Pi^ oyi lyto^'smv 
-:i»^ lytoDixiixrDi: iyi ojn^y^D in^ti'n lyo mn i^^uy 
-:yi^n lyii^uj^i^ n iy:i^^ti^yjii^a ,D»itoD^M!^D->''V^^i^Q iy:i^i 
i? lin lytDDjyni^Q yiy^n ny^ni^a ly^^t ^n ,Diynyii 
,iyniioix P2 iiinonK tyto^niv « ps pni Dyi lytDJix .ryrya 
a^^tj'iijD lyrti^i Dyi iyoi3y:i:t^ tojyo^^i^B iyi t5«n 4773 r^« 
n lyD^DtJ'sn ly^jjt ^n nvv>yi n orDDyD^iasn osn pk 



77 DT''^J5''^i*'"T'''">^ r^ ]V::inytDtrta:y 

Diy^yn n DJ^:n "i^d -lyom: t$„ .yi:yD^ni<n » lyiiy: t-'k 
D8^p '\V'i:v^'\iir] nyi is /tD^nyviyi ^n na nyj^'-N ni ,t:j«:Ty: 
Vd^d ^n lyti: lyDKD lyrio /P^«d d«!i ,n^D nx .jyvyiyj d^sd. 
fN ,|yyiPivDM-i{§ ryryj Dyi hd ,:iJir:^''«i^D yr^^niD^-'V n 
.nn^Div3"in on^x hd ,ii5^:r ynjyD'j'jsa « p^j^iyj lisj^nyi 
-^siD^SD n ^u -inyD d^j n^D pyn ly^^^i^ n« U;? t^^^v nyn na 
Dyi Dj^*D'kr:;< .lynnDi^^ nx Dp^noD hd Diynyn nyDi^y^D 
,Dt^:5<3yo nytDjy:s:o"iys y: dmj< odpsii oy ni ,n^a lyny? 
n -lyDDn n "i«d DynDn5<D d^^ii /'ii^or,, n osn lyo ly^^yii 
iy:iji:ii^TDnK Dy^yn dm^ nyo^m^ n ^11 t:"i:j nr^ DiytoD^^D 
n2 lyDD^^ yjn^v^^SDi^p n tD^yDtry:iDDyD Lrm^nys pyii oy 
yD^yii ,iyDjyc^^ifci!3 n t« ,ii^^p t^n oy .DyD^i-D-'-'a-isp^DL^' n 
,1773 nx 17G5 na tyvyryj Di^y^2^^t:^2D n iyoi:y;:i^ wii^n 
V'^nm'?'^ lyc'^D^^fcjB lyn ly^yi^ ^^r]v:i o^j pin:i§3 p^p w^nn 

T^K Di^ll /'DJ^t^^O Tl« r]D'?V))n Dyoyn ^HD^OD DS!18 lis 

nc nv^y::sny "ly^t^^^^jy "lyi d^^ ni^^iy:i iyo^jyj:«t nytoyei?' 
-tDjysyi^D T^x /'te^^n-^nQ iyD^^"i^Di§j» m dp^'\^:h? ty^na 
nyD^^^: 1^ lyj^n iy::"i^i:fc§n yr^^yrs .1770 jr« lyii^iiyj ^t'? 
-"lytDD^^o D'ntD^DD D^is! lyii TS! ,Dnii;jDnx i<Ts lyii^Tiy: to>^v 
yntDD^i^Dyi n ns Djyn n ih^ iy^5<Dy:iJ''ni< t^x p^v)) 

^y^oi^jijpy nytj'^D^^i^B ny^ynDDn:^^ PQ tDDnj« y^^: 5i!T«i d^^* 
AVO)'?^ ytj'^Dp^ns n iia y^v^p^^iyjy:! y:yDi$"i5^y:D^ifc< ts m 
•lynntDy;! ^«d v^vinvD V)\^ ^n to«n ;jnns2ny n yj^yii iv 

■^^P ynjytj'nyn n lyn^n tD"iy"ijimn»^ P2 ^no nyi ons 
-y:> P^tD^^fcjB iy^ynt:Dnri< ny^o nyn Pi< lyn^n yD^yn avd 
DM-12 D^o ,iyD^2i^"iQ"i^y: yiy^^ny:Di« pd ^siip i^ ty:ic 
,yn«yD lytj^-'DJ^ji^py ^v: lyi nni< p^toy; ni^iii S! m Pti'n 



.4 .T ,(1811 ,ikt:«'?) ,'?'?««' 'by^OKD iiu /'n:K'7:j>K p« 



nyn nsa :ij'irDDyi8n iy^i§i«D m ny^yiDpy^ytD^K is i:^ ^ii 

Dyi nyDJix n«iiy: di^v^dp^^s lynnD fx d«ii nyto"'m8 
D^j ^inyTDMiN Dy iyj«tp i^d ni nx /lynjytotj'DiK tiD pm 
D^D /^y^Q^^jns pJ^i^y;! t^^oyj d^^k fx .ntonn nyoniy;! s ini^ 
/Diynyii ^n^Dt^^nyirD^sn n tyii .D^^PJyofcj^tj'tDjy lyDDys 
•"•n inyo Di^iioy njrn ny^n n^K DjynisD \v2i^r\ y^^yii — 
nni^^ inyv to-'D D:ynni§D lynsn ^n dj^ii oyn ns ^yom « 
tDyii lyD T5§ ,ty^yt:)tj^i«!D DJi^py:i d^j i«;j in iyn«n nx pniv 
— ,iyi^j^xn ^n DtoyD^D-pnnsD oyi lyr^^iyi ji^Di^no^sp 
D«n /DjyD^^isQ rx in iiq lyiyn tDtj^^yj 18O8 px winn 
.as^{i^ii^3 ny^n iy:iyp DDnfe$n s D3snny:ij>n8 tDytD-tDJ^p s 
T8 ,DJn3 Dyi ^i^K ^ytD^m^ Di»^ro i§ lyo^totj'sn ^«t tyD ts 
-DIN T^N Dy nx s^vns PN i^nti^^iyi d^j t^toi^n^,. t^n oy 
DO ^}<tT lyD ly^D^D yD^y^i nn ,Dy iyin^Qi!^Din i^^:iyD 
,n^v^t3pfe?iQ \:i:i$.pv^ H' Dy tD^j^n lyo lyn ,n« ; ny^ponx 
T»,, px ; "lyvjynpyDj^p yDD^^Dj^a n iv Din^Qy:i Dy D^j^n 
T^N iy::''^nny^ pa ^ni^v n lypjyiti^sn oyi y:m :i8^k^i{§d iyi 
Dn^N ^i^T "Pin,, n lyii ^to^i^ii pn li^nr^i^iyrDO lyvjsjr j< inx 
Di^ D^^prtDDyiy:iDi« yoDyi; n DD^iny:i m d^d ,iyony:jj$ 
-y^„ Dyn i^i lyn^^sn i^d *."iyto^>nifc? div ni di:i nrs LDJi^pnasj;^ 
V'^^v^'^vn D^s D:)yDN^i«Q Pn Di^^a^toy riav^^'?)^ "rys-'iyD 
-"•^n n^iD^n ty^^y:i t^5< v:i'?v^) rV^H^HPV iv^^'t^^'PH^^ pd v^^i^VD 
D«ii ,toytD^»j^P Dyi 1{<D lyr^nisn pd yD^a yDni:i n lyoipiv 
Dy .pi^ D1DTD i<! PD iytDD3i:i 1^ lyi-'ti'Djy lyny;! \v:''f 
iyto>^njy:y^y:i p^p D^nysy;! do d:i^dd«ip m tii^n iyi lyn^^n 
-jnyiiy:nyDnN lyi .yj5<iD iyi lyn^t^ Diy^py:i2ni$ 'l^v)^ iv 
Dyn px iyti^oyDyiy:i vt:i^v'?^ inn D3sniNi»D ,i:y5'y ^vt'? 
Djjn *M8i5 pN 1793 lyin^i'' n lytj'ni^ aynp iyDiy;i:y^ifci!3 



tiK 1809 /Dijnim ]Kt2taKp nK DiNiy'iayB jk uiKByn,, * 

.1811 



-ytt3«i«D lyny^ ?'« 1815 pN 1795 lya^niif ynjjnys n, 



«• 



79 DT"^jJ:5''jr-Tnt:) lis ]y::inyt2'^t::y 

-'^: n ns tDS^^myn^x ,Dy^vfe?^y58i na n^^^^ i$ D3«nnyi 
ytDcny n pk .-iyo^^3*i8"^yi^st3 n 112 oy^vs^^iijDs yoyn:n:y: 
li^j Dy^v^oys ty3«!n oiyijimni;?^ iyrDv\s nyn iid pnj^^ 
lyni^n v:i'?V'i^ M^i^^^i nx "i^^c^y:PJS^ no DDJ:?"i*Ju^yj oy^v^oys 
PK ly^ssyj "iiDD T^« Diynyii n ps pi^ lyi t8 /iyT^n82 
-pi^ lytD^ytDtj'yiitoDyD n^^vyry:; s o-iyn^cyj ^^j D«n ps jyaisn 
-iny^ pa ::ipjyi'^i?2 s pn DyD{<n D^^msp^Dt^ pd n^D'j'DK'D 

PK ^i^DSnyi^ll PN .1800 PK ^fcJD^D«IJ pK ,1795 PK -lyjr^ 

"ivw:^ I'^i^Wi t33^nry:j^n^ d:i^^^kp ^m^ n^n px lyrn isos 
v:i^V)^ ^vo^i'u^D'rD s pd jjiD^ot^^a "lyi lyjyTi lyopy^yt-ia 
.rtoDr: rDyD:yD^ynii<D ni^iiyj iymjy;DMK T^ni:yo^^v iy:^n 
■yjDnK DHn nyD^yii 4808 pk oyD^oj^p nvi pd D^nsa nyn 
piK^ T^K ,v^v Dyn iy:yi"i nny ^ni^v yiy^"'ny:oiK is toiyn 
■vyry: s: n^^a D-iypnTPt:is:p n pd ov''i'\::iVB .Di^tD^v iyiiy:i 
tyj^n •'n D:n ,iy:r^iny^ ^n«iv nyn pd ::^pjy-iEi'fei!a ^vy^ 
Z'tDyDnj^p ly^y^vysD,, oyi pd n^^iiy: Dv^to^j'-iyoJiK onsn 
■oyi Djy:yjsn lynt^n ,iyTMiyj-iyn^K -"n oiijn \vd lyD^yi^ iv 
PK or^viyn^K lyr.y: d^j r^t5 li^J t^k iKiny^^ .^113 lyn^yr 
.Dpyiivsa D«:n nyD^yn /topy^i^isvyry: t§ D3is*"iny:i:^nK \:i^n 
•lyar^nny^ pd ^hj^:^ n iypjy"ic^i§3 iv ^ly^sr yiyi:8 ly^^niv 
y:y:^^K Dyoyn pk ,hv^VD'?v lyi) ^^s oiynj^Ji ivo -wma 
iyDi^-iDy:iDM"ifc$ t^k ,iy^:rK d^d D^yo^iiyj tDi>*n oy rypnnsD 
PK D^\n^nD ly^ynDDHj^K pd wdh: nvi pk dh^k iy:yp 
'p.D^n pn n^K lyjiKiiy;! Dj{^ooi^*P iii^ pi^n n iDi^n 
t3:i'''itDjy nyt:^u"i{<pnnsD yD^yD-imviSD n lyai^n ^^■•inyi 
Di^yr.y: in ^lyvyryj ytj^nD lynpivoniK lyDinKD v^v^^'^ pk 



n:^ mtrtD^Tpn^K iik nxiiD^n,, ,D"iy8'nNi n'7K"iKnt2) /'Di^^Jin ]p 

.692 .T ,1 .n /'DrD'na 

''71' ; 1804 ,4 I*?!' /'Diyt2:nB-«p''7Kp lyoyjintrTn 'm nx tKB^o 

D'TiKD:Kn„ PK i3yi23nKi ,j;ny-) D'j«Tnj?ty tin nyT .1806 ,17 

.534-8 .t ,9 i:h2 /']y^^2yi >'B'n«is:yDK'?isi 



-fc^n ^n lyni^n ynyu^ r« ; Di^nD yDJfe§D r« DyDSvpi^ n 
lynt^n y^.yijs pN lyim nx ; ly^j^^nny^ ns ^nj^v n Dpjyitj' 
n nnfe§ aviv.^ lytsi^ai^D nx lyr^^'^D yoMiy: Dinyinj^s ^n 
n .i^ntD Dyi n^^'topi§-iQ iv nny^ iyi ^mk lyiiy: tyj^n dj^ii 
,n«i^y: tDvi:»n d^j rijyDtJ'^^iD ^ns lyj^n iyt:iDfe§t3D yrrt^jT 
DDij<iiy:i D^j it^*:i ty^^c id 8 pt< lyn^n nnx^D-'^yn n ts; 
nQ Diynyii n in lyn^^n I802 t^t^ iyn«i .n"'ODnpy ^n 1^5 
182 i^-tj^pi«> tiQ Dn^n yiy^n d-'d Drj^^fc^n^a i:8^:jy-niyD 
■«!iQ cnn^iii^Q t:{«:n "^yD^yn ,D8Pt$in8 18 na :iJi^yD5j^j« iyi 
-y; yD^8 n lyDyiDiy^^x I8Q D^nn-^^yn n ty:yptoJ8 tyoyv 
r« t:»n DjyD8^i8Q lyi T8 /lyiiy^ r^x to^tD^iryi lyi .lyvyt 
iytDitD\$DD yrtJ^i '•i t^j^n ly^^yii .ryry; 8 lyDijy:!^}^ ^':v'?''^ 
■^n8V 8 'T'lx,, *.:yDyvisnB n ly^ytotj'WQ^ nD ,toinjy5DiD 
Dn8D va Dij^DtJ' lyi no Diyt:Dflj^ n na :ji^D8n83 lyD^n 
-y:i iy38n i^d d^^ii 18^ipi^v iytD^8 18 rx in ^m '"1784 pj? 
^«iT :iJ'iiy^"'Dtj^8n 8 T8 ...pi^iiy:! iyDM^K^8n :i^»^tDtJ^:^^8 t^8» tnyr 
iy:!yp n^v^ Dyi to£8iP P8 iy:ijyin iv nD a^V)) D:y^y:iQni8 
-ny n *:i^j^2iy \m 3^t::yp iyn» /'i-intD tia iy:i:)ivy^i8Q 
lyn lyii ;i^n:^i<isiy inyo iyiiy:i lyrn lyvyitDsntJ^ iy:in 
238^PJ^''"'8 p8 i^n ^{^T Di^ii o^nynyn-pi^ 8 tD:8TDjy ^n Di^n 
Dyi .""n tynt^n ^ytoD^j^p-o^yny^ n ^imk lonyDyn iyi d^d 
iiij tDii«p,, D1V "^8ni^»yD,, 8 D:J8^iyi .I804 i^nnyQ tyD28 



ycmiyayBty n rx iyi2^«ny;i3K laxn ,*'136 .p .3 trniNtyn 43„ * 

Tin tpKnyjj lyfinyjpm^i 1809 ]^n i^'biay lyj'^u y'ifKpniiKS 
.455 .T ,2 .1 "DKn:jjiiip„ ny? ;109 .p .3 wnmn 49 cyi 

i'?ny!2"iK'np„ ty'^lSl pw topnnyjiyn^N lyny:? t^k dnt ** 
.■^Dnyp^'omiy nay ntsn iik 'lay^'DNto nyt3'ic«;i'j>K0K nyi pe taiKsyn 

,nynoyTiNi lyialS oyn layijnjy;;,, /'n3Nt'?;jiK nw DiyjiyiniKp^ 

."1784 



81 Dfij^^jm^nD lis jy::^^^^^:::^ 

D^yD:^'y:DDyD m^ ^v:i'?ii)) 4S05 p2 (^^^DmN-iyirniv) "n^o 
PK -i^nonypm oyi it<D lyr^ns-CD^^aitiip^cDtr na n^'ot^Dwir: » 
pi?ofc<P lyrTi^i Dyi pd i^':vr]Vi^v:i dbmh n ly^i^ *.j-injny 
|yiJB!2y::i^ in t:i^n lyvytyj yD^5§ n pd jjnn^DDin lyi -i^d 
'>)) oyiDi!?: .Dii^tDtj' iy:y^ pd DiyratJ'-^yn^n n .14^:1^^: px 
y»'n8t:3yt:i<^iii;B ^* nn«^ n^^Q iy"i« "i^D tDin^syjjfej lynj^n >n 
,yyTy3 oyi iv tDi:yiiy: tt lyn^n ^lyvyry: y^"*: isid y^v^r)^:s 
.DytDi<TPi^ n lyo^tDs^'sa 1^ t:D5<^ y^iD lyoDn n o^j di^ii 
y^tiJD-iJjj K Iy^yDt^'w:oDyD imt^D lyD^nj^j^tsiytD^j 5$ i{>*j 
t}»n ny2y:D£:^^Di{< pd Dyt:^o«p i$ d^d isq3» it? nn ytD^n 
-n>«D lyny: \:iT^ v^ yj^yn nyo^^nls n ps y^v^^v«iD« n 
nyi p« ^nyayir^yiisn lyi pd iyi:y:y: y^ lyn^x o^na:^ 
nyi i^D Dyv«"i3 lyD^^vyry:! J? iyjJi§Dy::i^ ,nDi^o iyDr:^"'Ni^D 
-Dio^^nns n lynt^n 1812 t>K ."u^i^^vo nytDii^np n^^^j'sipis^,, 
PK iyo^it:D^:t<o n pd nyt^ya^^fc^P n lytsntot^^sn lyny: 
PD "DJKK^yD iifcji on'ii^p;. lyi iv y^vyi^ys^ i^ Djj^^-iyn lyn^n 
iyc:^iDD^:«o n ts aytD^^iiny: ^i^r\ t:Dny: d«i jitnny 
PK ,ns:oii'Dt?D-pi^ ^ lyo^DtJ'sn IV D^^/oysDi^p iyny:i i<^ iy:^n 
y^ynsD fc§ lynytny: D^ytD^y^D^jiv t^k oyi d^o :i:8^p:^^fe< px 
^ytDtj' i'D^K in lynyin D^nr^^yn n .iyT>n3-D>mfci!p"'DLj' pd 
ofcjn ly^yiiDDyijiD iyn» ; ly^Ji^usmyD n pd lyrivyjpniv 
-jyin IV .lyDD^p ynyiic^ "lyojix ^yj^ixTivy; lyD^^nis; n lyo 
-^ni^v n PD yrvj^^K yny^ lyrtoytoK^fc^n \v'?h^ Di^n .nny jyj 
i^D^m PK oiyijin ni DyiDi^j .Dyosi y:yJ^^t^'ynJ|^£ y:)^n 



U*i2y^£0«B piB ynjTD y:yi3'i'yT t< a^iUNn ^^rnDpKs "ixd^ekib * 
TJi« ttRH "ly yr^yn ta^o ,iy;ji'?n2NmKE-Dy:fK"i9 y;uw n yjs'i^n 

]1B "DyoK^B 'm ]'« tsiKSyi,, nyi ,iyny;Dt2"n"iK pK lyts'oi^ 
tt^yBtyp;ii2DyB vh ny m /'DyD'ne iik "b^pD,, oyn px ^'r^yn t2iya»tn 
-:i'?iiKn"n<c n p£ tssnwi "iyD»'?in'EDnK i« .ttsny; ps P«ny;j 
,^:ii /"i»'7ipTD "bNp'fiKi^KB'B (T^cKpD,, DyT pK TT ic:'£y; ly; 

,1858 



y'piiv tyo»itoD^:i8D n lyn^n n«i^iy:i Diyny:iDnK lyj^n nny 
-y;i DO "lynjj lynijn ^n ; ;yn d^u iyj>n lyr^ns n ts .Diy^piy 
•ijyiju lyDisD i:^ ""n jJuyni^isQ yn'ni:^QiD p^*? ddsd 
tD;»TDjy 1M iyn»n ,iyDns:DMi< ^oyn d^d nyny^oD^uis n 
DDi^py^BS lyD^^ans n oiijn y^^yi^ ry^ynsD n iyonyjivj» 
nyi iyD';py;ua''n8 oyn ns t^« oy .iyjnpivD>n,8 djiq 3,ooo 
oyn pK lyDipyji^Q r^« oy lyn t^n om) .P^nDD lycoyn:! 
-fis in mn viiv2^ V2 ^^^^nsP pq ^niotj'nyii nyiy^ .n^nD 
iD>m«! n lysn^iiy;! w^nn Diynyii njyrnD rviya ^tD^yDtJ^y:; 
"DD^ms! n lyn^n p^noD ly^i^n ^m i^^j .rtD>^vD^^^:i DyoD 
-vi^B lyii nyo^^m^ n d^d lyQipi^^anji!^ iyn^^py:i in iyny:i 
DytD^Dijp-p^nDD lyj^^ Dyi on^Doyis >^v^^j^3 n onn ::'>'? 
Dyjynntj'yrDO oyi iyDJi« nmy lyDJix lytD^sniyD dh^n px 
oj^rr^KisQ PQ ly^ynnnsiQ nvi iss (Hi^'? p^do^p) ryty;! 
-ys nyiyji^-'vi^i^iiyi ^v^v* px lyai^nD^sD n dj^ii lyjyii 
niK yt^'-'D^^^Q pn ny^^i:; ,tDjn«Tfe?n pi«d^ iyny:i iyj>n ynj^n 
yjyn^^fij'nsiD iv D^^"»D"ii5<n83 tyo tt«n lyin^D ^j>2 n .jyrist 
nyn m ;n'ii^in tny^Ds r^i ly^Q t^Q iyj^oiyD-tj^o:ijyQy:i 
p^noD Dyn tD:iyn8a ,p>xisd nvi ly^i^inyv dj^h qs^p iyjn«i 
Dyi ty:iyp lyD^ms n pq lyDDSP n i^f nio fe? D3«Dy:i px 

*.pi^ ny>n pd lyprr ty^-'^iyns^ixDix 
nyDJiK D>3 tyj^n ^n D:!n .niDK^n-''^yn iyj{$ij«^ n 
rK^02jyDya pk iy2:i:i^«sisQ yn^^toDny:i nn lyiJ^sny^ Dp>n 
-Tst^3 yny>n •<)) :^j<iQiy pyoyi; p>p D:)y:iy;sn do lyn^^n 
-i^nD 5'n»^ 8 in tyn^n I812 p« isio tyt^^^iii^ .lymn iyii^:i 
-^yii /DSPNins 18 w'pv^m'^^i^ nD ,Drj»xi8D d^d^^di^d 
y^83y5'DiK« lyroay^sn 18Q DiyDD-'^n d:ii^^pi8D mn lya 
D»n iy:ijipya do w^nn d^^ii lyt^jyo ,DD>^n d^t /'lyti^jyo 



• 



njjfi ]yjiUKTDn« D'niNOB^ian px ; 1809 ,29 ny» n« 1808 ,12 
-yi nj;B<m:r ,1824 ,''ny:ityNO ^3:; oawT'ttitj t« yyisia^ttOKp,, i:;t 

.59-64 .T ,Bnt«i 



83 DT'':t?''jr-TntD pa iyj:inyDtriD:y 

-nti:i n di^i^ /'y;y:pp» yDt^'•^y n rnsn lymx px lyayin i>d 
1810 pK DKPt^^n^ 15$ IV iyny;y:nyn^K iy3«n ly^yryj Diyn 
iy:jy-in iv D3M3{§ nyi d^o ,(d^j^j ^n^v na i{§*iJ^ji^*n y; nsD) 
Mn D'D iVD^m /'lyjr^nny^ ly^yn DitDsoD,, nvi dcsip p« 
-i5< Dyi na ":s:i3^^d» lyjyD^^i^Djyo^j iyr:yn -iyn« nnyo 
nj^i^yj oin^Di^a i^ji^jt lyj^n ly^j^s y;^j^^K pt< .oj^pi^ii 
i^K tDi^^3fe§Dy in iyn«n y:D^yn /OnytDD^^D \v:v:> jyoyvi^-iB 
pK .D^^v ly^n Djyny;is{!j d^j iyai^*n ^n v^'?v)'\ pn ,Di>nD 
DJ^n lyo ; \'\HWi lyji^^ny:) iyDyv«:is n tyj^n ly^^D y^JKo 
,t3i^n lyo v:^'?V)) nv^iV^P n iv lytooj^p v^? Dr^m^j^n d^: lyn^^ 
lyoDJ^p v'W))^^ ly^n^v iv DEi^D'y^iv /to:{<n lyij^* nyi pd 
«;-ii^njy^^y n^^^ D^n i{$: iviyi .n^*^"ii$D lya^^n ^n nyn 
■D^j^tj'^D n PD ni ,Dn^nD y^^J t^ ^yi^t^'DJiy y^vi§/y2« i^ finx 
"S!T>^y n pN iyD{$^K^y:j^^s too lyj^n .onyDtiiDDJ^^::^ m tyt) 
nn iy^yTyriy:^^D yDn^y:i lyni^n isii px .lyvyiyj yt^'^toyn 
lyD^tDtJ'sn iy^«iT ^n nyo^n n iv y^v^toys s d^d Dnjyiiy:i 
n tyn -ryry: lytJ^'-Dynst^^y Dyi nyojii^ n^*tDc^D^^-p"i^ 8 
lynyin ^y^v^Dys n tyonyjivsnx D:!^PL:jy in lyni^M lyoDn 
Dm"),, ») to^ny; pyDyn s pa Siy^yin t^ ind Di:y^^y:i in >n 
,Dr^n^sn ^ny£b*n Dyi oi^n ^n^njy^^y nt^^ .("did^ij^d ny; 
iy3{$ Di^n iy ,iyQny:ivDnfc< V'^i'ovB n iy:jniv ^n ^i^t dijii 
T^« oy yD^yii P2 jjiD^oi^^n lyi i^^sj^ t^k Di^n t« ,^:h^v2 
n .ij^^DtJ'i^Q Dyjy:^^K ^vt on^ ly^ijsn ^n iy:{^*p oyDsn 
D^yiTDjy in iyn«n pt^ p:)i<)) Dyi lyjstDtj'i^D lyni^n lyto^n 
nn'^ Tfe? ,ni$iiy:i i^^^^p i^:i t^j^ oy .pi^ nyi iyD^*j*^»n iv 
PK ri^yony: ,iyDiD5<DD yoiyD^yisD v:v' iytD:i5< lyoyv^is 
18 TN ,tyDDnya n pd toa^t^'iyjiiy: y:^D>n:^"'K n D^j^iD^in 
iyiJ8 P^P T^N Dv .ly^^D IV DD«;p px d^uis yjy£ii^iiy:iDni8 
yi«Dy»-no5<P n tyny^sn^? iyi«i ni ^lyn^^ny: do ^ynonx 
n Dfc?TPini tyD^D ^i^t iy ,D:yo«^i^5 div in lyuyii lyii^ 
.p^HDyj mx >n lynj^n dj^i .tyvyry:) yjyDny;pmv do i»: 
.vytya "lys^^iyt^,, iyi t^ /DsiD^nyi ryDDny^oix Dyi ^^d 



PK rj< »ri^ DVT lyo^Dt^'sn i^ idd^d n lyo^n n tD^;i d«ii 

t^K /n«!iiy:i tot^^^iiy^B^ 1Q1K sTs: ^'M^ T^« Di^-n rryryj lyn 
lyti'^DynsT^^y tyD^n:i Dyi ns ^^^d p-ix ^11 nnyo too iy*iiy:i 
yiynjis n i:t{<i^y:nyn^N Di^n juicnpniv v^t n« ,dids!dd 
ri5i^ DJ^n "DyD^D5<!p '^v'?v^'^vbd>, s .Dinn^noix iy2fci!n:i^i«£) 
■y:ivyTy:i lyi ns: in lyt^^DJ^ns p^% rs ,tDytDDn^n isii px 
iyn:yDs^^i$2 lyn P5< iyn« ,i^nto tiQ to^^T'nD iyi pk :jn 
pn PK D>^v pn lyijyinsiQ iv Dnmnrx lyny^ pa D^^n^na 
,iyjyn om ,iyj:'i:ijn^i n d-i^^ m tQi« ayi «inx D^ms 
DO li^p iyDyiyDO^i< yjy:i^"'K y:>n tytDoyno^ ,^>>dtin pn cn^ 
"ly PD tys''VjnB y^^^nyj^^ :injy:i''to^«ioi8D do riynipi^iD 
; y-iJ^"'Dy:i lyi P2 p-f:i nt^ pn^^Kii Dyi i«d d^^p^dd^i ivvi\i^ 
nyi{$ ,Djyiy^'y"io ivD^^iyi^ DDiDyn Dyn ^njy^yDtj^pyiis do 
pm Dyn ^diis d^^^ lyvip s t^« rn3iynynfe$D do i^^d^? 
nnx ]v:^)'^v\:i^ njyjy^Dnis p« d^j iy:^^Dy;^» lyi tiQ 
-pniv n ."T^N Dy lyii d^j lyrt^tT iyi pq :iJ^rD^n«n lyn 
DDiSDy:; Di^n d^d^^idd Dyn pd iyQ«i;!^n;s;s-pi^ n ps :iJiDn 
1SD yiny^ ny^o nyn pd y^vi5§i^^pyn y^iQDpn"o>''» yrtt^n n 
; pi^ tiD .oi^''Dti^;j§n n tyiiy:i yjo ft^ oy m D^n^ nT^ ,ryty:i s 
Dy^v^Dya .ty:!J^^iny^ ty:iyii nopn n lyi^^nyji iyn« lyji^n oy 
ty^yiQ y^o n 5infc< :iJiD^nnDn« tix ^^nn^onin ^v^^f mv)) 
"••« ^n lyj^n i^^ijy .iyDJ<tiDti^^v:i^n» Diyny:Dn« do lyni^in 
,DyD^a{^p iy:D^nDi^Dj^"'s tifc< lyoni; » iv tyi^iiiy: lytMiyjiyn 
-D^PDin ,33o:yp iyn^^:iD^D yj^n tytJ^ni^ D^ny:) mn ly^^yii 
-•^^Tpy n .nynyi:) DD"'^£j'n nyo p« ^•'S Diynj^in lyo ,mD 
PD JiiD^NHJ^t nyi tyDDJo iv pisdk^ iyiiy:i iy:!^n jdiv yDno 
lyn PQ ty^jnyii^D n d^^ ry:!:nyDynDn« d^» .tyvyry:) n 
■D^K n iin TDjyp t^n (ti«ii .id) nyi^yvni^sD lyn .d^^v 
■••m^ n P5 Dp3iB-o;s!DtJ^ Dyi iv n«iiiy:i Dinypsn lyajij^^r 
IV DD-iDti^xn tyiiy:! psd •'^n fx ny^^yii ,DyD^Di<!p lyn .lyD 
■yii tyDi§i:i«i«s n tia iJiD^t^^a^ yruyDti'^iQ n n^^iDii^Q 
t^n ty^^Diyn iv n^iD"-! tyjiay;! do nn mn ,iyar^iny^ ty^ 



85 CT^j^^ar-T^nn ps iy::inyi2U^i::y 

■38D n D^D iyD^mv:^^8 njyiS'n tD-'j j^nDSMN lyri^^pnni 
-{<^-i«3 D^v y^v^njyD^pyi {< nn iyDD^oi>*:{^py nx lyojstpn 
iy Di^n ,iyiD^^3i8 n na iy;i:nyi«:D n lyay^D^jj ^«t ly Djyo 
Di^n "ly D«:ii ,Dyi in D^^ijyjy^ij^D nyi hd DnyiiyjDMis m 
-ys ijrjiyiJin -DD^^oyj d^j Dy^VKi:yc{^py-i p^p iyv:s:J^K 
p^K PK lyo^snyj \V2i^n Wiv^v^i n pd ly^DJij iv oy^v^D 
-Dnii^nyDJiK 300,000 ;i:^'? pd ly^^^tD y^s; pd lyoi^nD'^^j^ns 
ny^n is:d 2,000 n lyjyp ,:i:iD^{$nJ{;j "ly^n "is2 iyiiy:i lyj^n lyo 
nyn m lyoi^^tj'yjjs dd« in iya«in Diy^D^^D ;:jisnpmv 
n p.n jji^Di$ni$D yrj^^Djysy is .lyD^mfe? n pd ntj^pa 
ii« D'D^D \-n 111^ jy^Di^nD ijy D-iy"irj'DpyDiJi<o nyoD^^o,, 
/'pyi^SD 'DJi^D^^Dni3„ lyn pn /"lyoDraoDyn njy p^ijj^^ 
cv^Dcnyi^riX p"i5<dc^ lyai^jn y:)^yi"i ,Dy^vi^{$Ty-i iyDi:yjj{^ Di^n 
-y; lyiJi^DD'Tpy Dyi pd :jipnsDt;nsD p.k :ijnyDy3Dnj< n 
n \V2'?V)) p{< /oyD^D^p 5§ t:}<:n D:sn "^yij^? "lyi pd .ryr 
-i^ii lyiiy; \V2''t 'V\)i^^'?^:i pn ^y^Diixo p'^y^n^N "ly^D^^D 
-■'nD PD iyDc:ij iv Di^Djy'oins c'^jiyjy nyi^^:t:^D vvi:vy'o 
nyn« nyijyrnnDixsn p,&« ny-iy^^ny:'Di« iy-i„ lyjyp pn d^\i 
,ii^^D:t^ DJi^ti'nyD DJ^n isu px ."y^vi^^v^^Ds ly^oin^DisD 
-nynnD nyi pd Dyo^oi^p nyi px :D:ynyj d^j toj^n ^v^'?v)) 
Dyn iyDn^,vpmv Dpyj^isvyry: s DDsiay;i:>n« ,y^DyD lyn 
-yjiM'j'n n:y DiyoDSD,, n .ty^r^iny^ ly^yii ryty: iyvjs:i 
■ife? ist nin n«ny:i Diyny:iD^ix iy:^n "lyDDroDDyii -ns lyt: 
■Q« t:«n "T^n,, n lyni^ /^y:iy"iDSD lyrtj^i oyi iy:yp tDSP^ii 
inn PK MyDJ8Pnn5<D n lyDD^ij iv jjij^-id ih^n DDS^yj 
-iny^ iy:yii mjpn n jyj^n "96 .p ,3 t^'pn^^-j'T-i 54,, ryry; Dyi 
iD^o iyDi<Tiv pK ,tDiDfc$DD Dyi PD H^^iy:) t3'j'n^y:5i^ ty::^^ 
nynjyny:ivyTy3 "lyi pd nyn^-'^niyn-x ytovy^ n t^'^Dpi?D ^n 
PD tyn^^nyjiyn^K i^t^ D«tii ^nm^-Djyay^ nyi pd :iJiv^t^'S3 
':t^\^\^2 \V2i^n lytD^spnDSD ynji^Doixno n *nyD^sf'yt3^o 



yuiiy'? n i"i« ; 1824 t'2 lyiNnv^ U'snyjpms uo ]>';yni:Dyi2iB 



DT"^:i5^^i''""T'^'^^ lis ])\^:i^^);^ 86 

■y:i T^to:n:i nii? v'lnv'? y^o n Di<in d^^^ ivi dj^ ans 
oyn ns ly^^yi^x yto^s n na i^r Dyi i^^qj?! D^^^n^c dj^h 
iyiiy:i v)^ oy lyj^n dv-ij^ r^ ,0^'?? tyijyi^'iyn Dyi no pjyny; 
; DiyDinyoy^^j n D^fe§ DDi^ito^n i:ii$,n lya lyDyii lyo^ui^ n 
lytD^ni^ s tysyiD iv t^tj^snyn^x DtJ^^:i{^j toyorj tyj^n i^d nx 
nc toDyn dji^t,, ts ,DDJiy d^d tony^piy ny:D3];ii ,tDyD^»j^p 
Drnp iy DJ^n ,^fe?D^Q^P d{<!1 lynjyiniSQ iv ly^jyo lyny^ 



.1875 V2 IP 

pN E):yTpB tay dnx'? ^^^ ^"^k nx taDycn'n,, D'tannn * 

.59 .t ,(1824) '"byB^sp-iKU njy Dnyt2DK?3 Jii'Bp:?SDyn DiytaDupj; 

-Dj?3D« ]yD i«p i3nnjj;jj?^y;iK ly^nNi nyi px iy;!ii'7iiNmNS n 

1813 ])s "d'?«:im8'tt DiKDSJNp UK Tixn,, n pN |yj;'?K53K3 ]ya 

-yi n«ujyoN'?nK3„ o'liKDixn px px ;49 p« 48 .n ,1814 pN 

p« iyny;yj» taiyn DiytsD^^D n ]ts nif nyi .27 ]in 25 .1 ,"013^0 

-BN 'm T1K iNtyinysK nr; ,t3pytrnn« ,ptj»TTn« im„ ,tDy'i)s?3NQ k 

-so«B,, DyT p« iya'7«ny;aMK ,(.t 26 ,1814 ,inijn^) "dnk^ D'tajy-iB 

Tjsy DiymtrtDpyfiiJKD nytaoKO ^m n« DiXB»i'7NTy"i„ n .3 .n ,"iii:y'? 

'm ]K lytaDi'ttaoyu njy iNiix'? n« D>tD'D ^m tin ^yoBin-iu 

]yt3i:yTy;iy;!y;j nyi tau ,(.t 4 ,1814 ,iKnjNt^) ''4 .p .T'^by 5 lai^untaD 

nKS t3:yf3un« ly^no^Nnyi lyi .(2 .n ,1882 .» .n) t3p:iBiJxaa» 

n<ifl«iyBNNp im tin la^'O'taDy ]y„ ]'n tapmy:?DMN T'n ta'^n^ns 

; (1810 ,i«niN'?) Diyo'^KtrtD .; ps ,"piani t)'nj nij nujjyniiD 

-nn lymsj nycxnji^uNj,, nyn ]'n .578 .t ,2 .n ,"DNn;j'j:ip„ nyr 

njy D'7yp't2"i«„ n ps "ix'jBayTpy nyiya'ryT n t^t tajisy:; "pyuNi? 

-jyox'bnKB jjJoiyanN nxs itayi^DNO "« iik DJNtrn^uyi '?Nny3ytr*TT 

-D'N im pK Dp'jypyD itn tsiyDirTTmNpjy n njy ,5iy''7y"^ nxia 

m .1813 px ,D«nj3it3N: px apmy; ,"DTi5KpyD tin u:yonNn3 

-BNtt'^yTyj! "lynyiriypxT ps ytJNiynys n lyny:^ dn*t t>n bj^'b^ oy 

lau nTN ,y'!?pK ytynNtajyrDK'jixB nxs ,y"iynj« inx "itrsx ]Mi ,]yQ 

-ifl TIN ,1813 pN ,;ijninjj nn'x px ;yi:ipyt2KnB-Tnnta i«s m 

pa <3:iny'?snN "lyn ins JiauynK^ nyn a^o ]yn:mxs ]):'i'iv^ ta^i'^ 

.iy;:i'r"iny'7 iy;yn lysyryji n 



87 cT'*:^"':T'-TnD ps ly^rin^tDirnr; 

Di*T DO tDvy>i><D ny ni iJ8^ niK /D"iyD5^y: "iyi« DroDy^iiia 
-ns Viv' HD yj^^K T^N ,yiynJ8 n^ Diojyj^^K omi nyii?? DDyi 
Dyi na y^viD^DDJt^P y^^^P^^J nx y^^si n disii ,Dyoy^ni 
D^fe? iyt:D8iDS3 1^* "ly^JstDnn lyny^ DJnyiiy:iv i:^'? oi^n njs^ 
".yi Ti< A^V)) t::y^y:iv lyniij no oy .*"03yTDiny; pn 
i^K r^K^^r5-i5$BD^fc< lyr.yj do icik pxa t^« ds^p nyijy::^iyn 
nyD^i<^yD^D pd nopn n .v^nv'? iv: pn pd ^jnjyio^ nyi 
-jj^p "ly^n-: pa ^Jipjyn^j'sn nyn px "lijj do Dpnniyj lyntjn 
"DO'i^ans n pD lyii^t^'-i^y:! d^v p"i5<D-DD^"'n"ife§ i'dmk nyiiP 
Div DPbn:ojj>*p ly^nD pD :jipjy-ii^{<a lyi pi< imk ni^: nyay: 
yoDyn n iy:np DJ«:py:i lyn^^n y^^yii ^nyD^^ans n pd lyii^t?^ 
irDpy^j^P iy^i:^m^2 iin n«j D^ms! ly^n i^s iyi:ijjn»:3 
nj^^p iyD^«:i^ lyD^uis n lyn nynnyi .^yn"'"nn:^{< DisDt^jjj 
DJii^ry: pii<o^ mts in ^n lyc^j^Ti /y:i^^ n lyjj^Dt^'isQ 
-yii n^ ,::i:o>''j<-isD iy:yp lyvyry: n pa ::i2^trsj^ lyi lyjyii 
pi^ nvi lyjo^D'^'fe^n di^i^ .ly^yTy: y:y^ pd ;:"iD^i<nDnK nyi ly: 
ni^Dj^K nyoyn n •'ii Dp^ia ; lyjr^iny^ n typ:y^t^'i$n p« 
lyDJ^^tj'Djy ny:oy^i do lyiiy: iy:^n lyDD^^iisD^a^p vo'-\'d 
-w nyi i^K ""ii AV'iv^v:ii "ii^c^^ouo«:p-^D:ei,, n iyD^smv2n« 
Dy ::^'? ^11 inyt i^^a ly^'yn i^d .yiyuii! n pd :ijiDnpn 
^n« :njypip do ,iyD^n:ii?a iv Dijti lyD^^nns n lyooyj Di*n 
->n iyj3ir:>^xis!DnyD^u"i5< iy:yp lyvyiy: n Di^n ^dpsid Dyi 
-yj Dp-ii?Dti^i^D i^^Dj? ii>o iyr>T PK ,DD^np px ]V2''?2vy lyj 
nnosni:? lyny^ px ^dp^^dd .D^''p:ijynDtJ^ ly^n t^« n«ii 
nyny:DD^''ni8 n pd iy::iiyi{$D n iy:iyp "iJi?D*^nyini lyD 
yDtJ'iy n .D:^n lyDoyD k d"'o ]^HW:i DpmiyDJi« iy:^n 
;y^iy: lyj^n Diynjimni^'' iyD:nyvj"'0 Dyi pd in^^*^ rvjxiiv 
tyDDoyior-n^nD pd :i:o^fcjDnb!D nyD^^vyTy:i 8 pd nny n 
y^^y^i oDii^ijDn^D Vi'ii^i n .nyji^^vi^i^i^y-i px ty^ynyi d^8 



.12 .T ,1806 ,4 '^T ,"1:8^^:18 pK ■nytspjjeu^o 



n^ntD ly^iyni^D lyn na toiny:) lyn iv nx ":iJirj^^«i»Q ty:!yp 
.^yD-iasp ivoDPv:i oyn na PJy iyi pn Dyii ,j:i;iyii8i i«>jr 



7'): 



89 



(1799 — 1S25) 

-nya 5$ d^s 1824 m ^vn^^^ yii^nys n ii^d tD^yo-j' ^^liyiitin 
"•^nyna^iKDiK nx :i:i:^t^Dis2 -iy:yD{$in-iy*jJiN-D^: ns yiJ:? 
■py n ly: lyDB^infeiJn \h? dsjjit /li^^jr ViV .^JipmnytDJis ny^ 
-jyjoi^-i St Dvnsn .tMyiJimnj^^ iyn^i<n s m invr^ loi^DDn 
-"i5<D yr£3Deij:yD^o n .:yD yoi^iy yin^K ns yijy:y^ vi^'^ 
n'?v^ » nc ^ypj^ii oy-i pk ry:!iy lytDj^ntssta na jji^os!t 
""i -nynij' yo^^ny: n ,iyt:Di§p-iy^j^p{^DJ$i3 *iyjyn«t*i:i^2 -lyn 
Di^i — ytDo^^n vi^VD''^'? n no iy:^DiyD-tr^j:ijy-:y:i y::j<^ 
n« DJi^^jrn^ntD yiyto^y n ns Dy:i{iT n r« mife?D t^k v'?^ 
T^K DJ^ii D^^v « px MyD^yi^ P2 ,^«nyL:s:o i< n^iJiv D^yt::?^ 
tDD^^^ Di>*n Dy ,p^Dnp nytj'nj^oD^n pd Diyoi^yj iyiiy:i d^: 
T8 .3:ns:r"T)« iytj'^:i^^i^ntD''D-a^sn s: 'nv^) w^^^^i d2hpv: 
n^o ly^yii mo^ jy^^^topj^D y; ini^t iyvjs!:)rx d^j t^x yijyjy^ n 
fi^K ::3ipini yD^^DyTt:5<tD n iyj^ij2Di^J ly^yn i^d nya inyi 
lytDi^m^a v:i''^'iv^v:i n pd :jijynNn lyj^^DD^jj^^Jvi^na nyn 
-*x Dtrnyny:; lyni^n Di^ii nyjnist-r'pi^ Ps iy:iJirj^^x"istD n^ix 
ly^yii VD .1824 w T^n n^i^D lyorj^^xi^a iyvjfe$j lyi nya 
-••^v y^8 IV lyrn iyn:5<a-iy!r)-iy^yTy: y^j^o ty: Avr^v: ny^i* 
lyj^n yiy-i3i< id 5? t5§ ,yv^v: nvi p.2 to:ypiyjx ww: wo 
tD"'^'?ciS6j' y^is n TS! pi< -pj^^iy: Diyt:*^yj t^'ni^^DrsiBD rn^n 
T^3 lyf'n^Q t^Ti^^yj to^j 1M toi^n "lyvyTy:) i^^t^^^-'j^nDi^p,, n ps 
TT Di^n DJ^ii .p^D^^i^s nyn pi< :ij*nyijy nyn:yD^n;D^^ii lyn iv 



■^,yii ,1799 — 1800 ns lyvyryj vi^v'w:^^ n d'-d DjyD^^vy:iDnK 
-jiK inn /lynDDHJ^x y^s ^i^x pi^iiyj D:iy^yjDnn^ lyj^n yD 
liQ yDD^tJ^y; lyi i:^ nn^s i^^n^Dfe?: ni« Dyn dj;ji .i^'-t^'iyD 
-nsQ iy:yj lyvyiy:!/, ns n^n ly^^j^j nyi 112 JJionpniv lyi 
nyn pk ;:n^D^3 yDD^icDpmj^^j? n ,i824— 5 px "jj^rj^^x 

.::n3yiisn lyi ns yoD^^i'y; ^vn'^^Q 
'^v D«i^ ,ninB^ — i^''5i'nytoji5< ny-i«^P s isiss t^k oy 
-«in D«ii ,iyt3iios;DD yjyi-'^ti^i^Q n lytj^n^v — D:j^^i5njj^ njs^ 
-jnyvDs Dyn ns ^id Dyn iv pn iy;i:^rj^^Ki^Q iytDi?m^2 tyn 
"w^ \H^^'^2'2t2i$,p. Dy:^^Dy:!^^ nvi m ,DiyiJin-in«^ lyD 
-■"^ Ds^ii /'lytopi?,, yniynnD yrj^n^nj^^ n r« .1799 ns 
-I8D nyn t^k 4824 t^x n«^iy:i lyanyjpniv nx DJi^oiyi lyj 
nyn pk ist^u » iyiiy:i ly^i^a y^i5 p« :jirj^''i<ni§Q ns Di^n 
T8 .lyDiJyjjyi lyi^y: p« oy .ynDonrx lyn ns :ijn^^ijyi 
-yn 1:^ lyDDnyrryty:! n n^^ D:iyos^i;sQ na poy lyi t^k oy 
D:«ipya DO Dtjn \vd m ; D^mj? pd lyiJ^Dtj'w n n^^i:i 
lytj'^D in ty5'«T ,Dn''m ni toi; "'nfe§ ,iynJb*m^D t» lyrj^i^iyn 
nyD^^vytya i§ D^n:ii<!D iyiiy:i p« oy y^^yn ni§D ,d^3id:dd pi< 
DO T^K /Dpyiivsn \v:iHn lyDiD^DD n d^^ii ,^y^v lyi .^yD^D 
,pi^ Dyi lyD^DK^sin iv i«j ,iy:Jir:^''i<n«D lyDfcjmi^sD )^ m)v: 
yD^^vytyi n ,ty:iJinytj^ nyiij ty^nyn^jB^ lyi^^DiiHD iv 
osins yrnynyj n iyi« DPsiDJ^ip-DDjyn s pq :jiin''QDin 
pyDt^ "1!^ iyj:"ipj"'''«i8Q n;in px .D^^v:iy^ lyn ps ::n''{^T 
-D1K lyiiya nyDn ty:^n lyDiDSDD yrt^^i n pq ly^y^v n 
,n»iiy: tyosmsQ T^pmon^^ i^^'jnyiiy: lyj-'n px n^^^yty:! 
D"i^D"i«Q TT lynj^n d^ii lyj^^xisD ts ,di^d^q n«n oy Di^n 
-■"^yn n pi5§dk^ ni ,3:ny:ivyTy:i lyn ps ly^y^v n tys^yn iv 
-DDyn:iD ••n ty:i^n ,tyji$iDi«D DJi^py:i do dj^t tyni^n D^nn 
•i^^vyty^DiK D^s ni^iiy^ ddsid^i do iy:yii 
::oo^"'t<i«D PB B^D tyDtJ^'ny Dyi ts ,«T^t§ Dj-'^tJ^ Dy 
— rytya oyn iypi8DK^it§a iv DBssj^^yty: n— lyD^ms lytj^niv 
D:n .DiM^ny d^s lyooy^ji^ an^ya^nit?^ ^i^D y^» ryo dj^h 
K'o^yD lyj^n iyajiao^"'KnsD y^^yts ts ^T'^j^-'K^insii Pf< oy 



91 pyDD'^Tpv i»D rj!2sp -ly-T 

n "lyiiit ryry: Dyjyanii'v:^')^ dvt iyD:iK ^^d ,y^^fc<-i^sD 
ly^^yn p« /^ytD p^*:" pD d^j i^d lyo^m ,iyt:iL55<DD yDi^'-iy 
-^§3 piti' iy3J>'n "i^D .^s:y^"DO d^« Dji^^pib^D i^n ly^i^T ^^i 
-yirDjy^t^n n in iynj;?n 1726 pk mi ,'?v'B^''2 div ,\V2'^^ 
^ iy::^^iyi iv hd d^j^-'Ki^d y'po^vtv i^'ii^o'?')) pd D"iy3 
■o^n2 n ,D-iyL5D^''D yiy^n lyjy: oss-i lyD^^rjyp div y^v^'jys 
n T8 iyp:yi ps o^m /'^^djij;jp nms,, lyi ."iy^i:yn-"PD 
Pifc< D3KiDi?a pK lyDijyj Diijn ,^s!:y^"DO ly^ijsn d^>V2V^) 
-y: lyj^-n lyny^D'j^^ms n lyii px .v:^^^'?? ly^n i:^yi:ii:mMiD 
,ryTyj oyi ly^^j^DDnx D^f;r.y:i do m t^'jt^'py'nj^D iyn'^3 
P£ t^DstJ'iyTnn,, n in oi^n 1756 px m /inyry:) 1^0 lyaj^n 
iii^ Tii^*n» iyi i:^ y^'j^^oya » d^d Duyiiy; "DnyayiiDiD-^i^i^ 
iv -lytD^n n PD DDj<*D n iypib*D'^i^D ^j^t n ,"DJ5<ac&<p 
-8^ii<2" Dy^o i§ lyiJ^ipyj lynj^n >n px pi^ oyi iyo^t3*k^t<3 
-fcitn DyDD n .:!:s:^ii^2 ly^n 0^0 :j^^pj^^5>* p« /'dp^ Djyo 
1710 ly^ni^ /DiypntDtJ'-iypi^T n pd iyiJ5$nis3 yn:yDti' 
n .pi^Tiy:! Di^Dyvi^iB do i^^vyiy:! ^i>*^j^^p lyj^n ,1800 t'x 
t? iyjj<tipy: \V2i^r] Diynyioyi^n ny:f>n:i>'^ n pd lyu^^i^'D 
-^yii lycjiK /'lyDpfe? Di^y^D^i;t5"'SD„ n inn n^rson y:j^>tDpji;3 
-^yjyi lyj^n Dy^v5$TON:-ii5-iyD^m55 n pa iyDfc?jy!^yi n y^ 
D^yor^yjDDyc lynj^n v^'pv)) nyto^n n 1^*2 iy:^ti^iy j^oyo 
DyiDi<t: 4808 pK i^^s^ .iyT>^i3 D^"'nit$p^D:i' n toinniyi pj< 
ns2 T^x iyi:"irj^^«is!2 ly^yp ryty: pd D^^'^^jyi^ii' n ni 
p« ii^M5<^:i PD DiynyTi^yiii^n n tyo ^nn n'M^w: dpisd^lJ' 
pyiiv Dyi D^D iyr:^^x"iJ?D iv in i^^ioyDy D^^i^iy 1>^:^'5<p:^^ 
/j^D^ny-i Dyi d^» ,p"i^ pd :jiD^Dtr^3 yD'-^vyry: ^ ivrn iv 
■■'^xifc?D n i{^: DO p« .lynni^^fe?! lyiiy;! pvj^ t^n lyD^yn 
lyn^^nyj r^x yDysrpi^ yDn^DL'>i?n i^^vyryj yi iy:np v: jji:o 
p.x iy3:yin iv ns ty3:3ir:"'^K"i5<D .ryTy:i p.d D^^DDy^xn-DO 
.v'?v 5) "iy:ij^^^ny^ ty:yii did^udd,, nyi pd ly^-'^D n DD^iinp 
y^5§3y^-Do» iy:^D;:y'ki'^n iv lyD^^m^D ynyi:^? nyn^*- ,(4 .p 
ini^^ D1V Tu o^^v "IV D^^v pD lyDipy^ii^D jy:^n "iyD^>ni» 



mnjiifi^ PN \v'?v^Vi nynisa na ni^p « to^in 1749 pk .isis 

nynyD:j<!p js* i^ ,1750 p« ,o-in"'Dy; lyn^in lyjJi^usnn^D n m 
Dii^^^u "lyi LD''D onytoD^^D TD^m px lyD^^ms :^D^m pa 
*.ni^iiy:i Diyuyy; lyj^n nwn n ly^^yii ^inj^ /'y^vj^n^^aij^p 
lyT pfc< D^y2^^ii^;y:i d^: -lyj^^p n«ij DJ^n Dni< lor^m oy ni 
PK lyr-'^i^n in lyn^^n Di^ni lyj^^xi^a n p2 D^^-^D^^vyry: 
lyni^'n y^^yn ,D-iyDD^''D iy:j^^p-i^D iv pv))'^ nvi \^'d 1811— 13 
'^v^^2 lynj^n v:^'?v^) nyii^ .D^'-^ny^ p^P DD^oyj^in d>: 
p^« .iny^ iy-i pi^-.« m)v: to^: lyj^-ir dj^ti nyto^-'ms: Drto 
nyn n«D lyj^-'xi^Q n tot^s^yrnniv D«;n lyo DJ^inj^D n^nij^ 
^t^Mi .nsDiyi iyiiy:i pdd ^^n T^fc< Tyry:! Dyi ps :i:ip-i«DK^ny!2 
"iyiM^t:ssD^D p« DiytDD^^o iy»ijy:i:>n« in t^« lynj^n ^n 
1811—13 pK ty:i3irj^^i^i8D n ,^ys5i'^u di!? -lyo^^p y^^ pa 
lyj^n ty:ij''^-iny^ ty:!yn lyvyry: n pd jiJipi^DtJ^nsD lyn ny^^iv 
-■•n y^^yii .lyo^^nns pa ^ii di:i ^its DiyDD-'-'D iic lyj^o-^i^sn 
Dyi 11D nyiiPJ^P nyn nn n^iiy:i lysi^iDy;! n^^^:i yi^u lyj 
^m,, ,** (D:ir^iy^''n) "ytoD^ip-ife§D,, yj^n px Do^^j^tD^s^p oy^^j 
/'l^tj'iD^toDjiN piynn,, nyii!? /'•'d^jvoo^p Diy^ni^i^p i>^{rpij^> 
yD:»D px D5§ny:i DJ^n riypiiyj^j^ v^^ \V2i^r\ n^o lyD^yii nnx 
-^yn ,iyLD3Spnn^D-iytDD^^o "y^j'-'D^M,, iy:i:^^^^t:5{^ ynn^x pa 
Dyn iy;yp lyD^ms n d^o D^n '•^n tD^n tDcoypyj lyai^n yD 

.Dij.j)D^D-pnn^2 Dy^o 



D'iNDm' ;1750 ,22 nynoyiTXi /"?iDii«p ixooNp hk iap« ♦ 
-]«i IKS D2yt3D;':yii lyTimxn ikiks ly^'u Dy .422 .t /'iMnitj*?,, 

(.1863 ,24 lynN'jpN /'iv^nii,,) ."dij?t''^J! Tjy Diyiajna 



«• 



.taiisnj;'? yD''?i}yTj;j ]'ip ti:Kf2j;;3-in ta'i p;nKn v^'i'yn ,iytyjyD jyj 
]KB»'':ini2>«p IK taiKsyn,, oyn is 10 "lyou jiKn:K oyn pK tspmp 

.1825 /DKK^ 



93 pyisDMpj; nyis v^i^^p -lyr 

yn^yo n .DjyoKuiD "lyus is n^ix lyjstotj'y:! ij^ n^in:}^ 
D^'-PD^^vyryrDO lyi iy:yii yv^v^ ayjyantj'yrtD^j Dyi pa 
T^K n Ml /'nyiiPJtjJP y^ns Iyp:y^t^'5<3 iv» iyj:i^iJismsD pd 
n^T pD toj^n nyoDn n pd nisjiiyj LD'^D^^Dy:Dn« ly^Dys'j' 
PD :jir:^^i<"iat2 t^k d^j yD^yu i^^^^yiyjoix DD5<Dy;i p^^s 
D'D ,i«ij iviyi .iy:iJ^:i^n5§rDD^u"ist n in-'^ijy-i iv lytD^uis 
.vyry:! Tdih iyjJij:nsrDD^u-i8 m Pi^ Pd ::n^^ijy"i lyi 
iya^i^DivDni< D^J jJi;^j^^Kis2 yiy^ ts nt^^p lyny; oy t^k 
-jyjy^y:i:« y;n«n n lyjy^i lyroan n pd iyj:ijyTii$isD n 
■:iK ^i^^DPSSD r« PN ^nyop^iw lyiji^^ynyn s d:i.n:id WD'^n 
■Minj^K ynyn:^ r« oy yD^yi^ ^n dpjiq ^pj^i^y; Dpn-nyiD 
D^: i^iK nyni^ DJ^n oy -rytyj div to^^'^Dsmj^nyrDo v'?vii 
-u^^«nj<D lyjyp ryty: lyjyant^yj n^^pmoMN v^i:> li'prwtiVi 
-:i^p u in„ ^yto^D Dyi nyojix .1305 pd didsdd "lyi .iy::u 
-nsD w:''''^ lyii — "Dij^Diysoyt^j^LD ••n in uy d-i^^idj^i^^dd 
,(2 .DD .1 Miv 33) — Dyp^:iyn«^ lyj^n lyii px Diyiyiic^ 
p^KiSD i§ ^Ms< "ismjyii:«i d^5< pj^iiy; DDs;iD5§n isis p^ vi< 
oy Diynn^D ov^V'i) .pi^ ayi py^yn w Diy:^Ei^-^y"iisn pd 
D^ nyi::iK tj^^jjjyDy; ini?^ '•^iv iv n^^i^yj D^^-iD-nxij^D lyj^n 
i:y D"!y^5<rt:p''i'i iii^ D^Dfe§n^sDj{^p iij^ ^^^n„ lyi .rytyj nvi 
-yD""^ PD iy:ijnyiitr"ifci!D iy:yn Dpy^{<!iDvyTy:i) "lycDtoDstip 
,(15 .p .6 AMv 3 p« 2) 1549 pD (m3i<^»-^^yn PK iyto:i?"i 
nD iy3j"ir:^^xnsD ^')h D'pv''^v:i lyny: Dtriyi:^ t^x ny D:n 
i^^tD^n D«n ,iyDjyoiD:ijp n nfc?D lyr^ns n lyo^snivD^iK 
y:yajny: pd :iJir:^''fr5"isD v^v^ toi^msD v^t p« iyD{^^^y:ij^^8 
lyvn^'^nsD iviH im^ ayn lyto^snivDM^ n^ mDN^D-'^yn 

.iyi:it:c^ n 
nynt^noDsto n ^^d px nynyjDD^ms n ^^d d^jii d^t 
"lyi t:^D in lyv^jyin lyjyii Dp:yny: d^: nnnji;? pd ]yn»n 
-"IS PD tyajirr^snsD n iy:yp rytyj pd ddsip nyi^yrjya 
T^K /DnyiJimni^^ lyojnyvDs pd ^^^t: woii^^v Dyn p« nyo^n 



DMD&J'jyDSTi^ p« lyj^sy; in 1720 pt? lyni^n onyDD^vo-iyT 
lynj^n y^^yii nyo^unj^i iid DD«i^iysiyp lyDin^Js^ni^ l« d^d 
n njypjyiK^«n,, DDjny /Dpsidjj^ip tyiropy^j^P $§ DiyiJ^cya 
n IV D^: pi^^n i{$i toijyiiy: in ^n lyni^n /'nynpj«tp y^nD 
ni /ly^ip^n \v2nn ""n n« rDjyD;§^nfe>3 div n^j .iyDDny:i 
-yjnn^n n iy-i^^^:yi iv,, ryty:) Dyi anyryj oy lyn^^n n^o 
'"'^''^stoiJ^D iij^* D^^^n n na iyvyjyi:i n i^i< Dni<!^^^D wo 
D«n *.(17 .p .3 .t^n 8 nc D-injyns ,13 .p .1 .dd .1 .mi) 
tynyin ,1725 px 1717 ly^mv .lyto^t^pnn^Q-litD n lyn ,yjy:^^« 
-ms^^ p.« yn^yoiD,, n pa \iv)) tornnDixsn iynnny:i:ii 
,Dnynyii pk Diynyp^j^i^ n pq "iyDDi?{i'^yTy:i pk \V2)'?? yn 
DyjyDijy:!:}^ i^ iyt:^y;ny:iQnt? px mjpn D3sny:i lyn^n yD^yii 
tynji^DDMpy oyi l^d^ip px D^^nny:! d^j •'n lyn^^n **,T^nQ 
Djyai?^iii!s Div oijyiiyj :iS^siiy d^d m \v2^n ^n ij^j »ryTy:i 
-18 PD iy:!:ir3^^«i«D yD^^vytyrto^j pyDt^^ iv,, rviv: s i«ij 
.1 .tj^n 12) "Dy^v8Pnn8D-D:)y^i^ii n t^x DrtDQyt^sn lytD^^n 
lyjyp 1800 px 1799 pQ lyvyty:! yj''^»y:i^8 n iv tu .(34 .p 
ti^^t:P8D DjyD8^i8S iyi DJ<;n 4y:iJ"i:!^J^^8i8DnyD^ui8 y^8 
-^n px ly^Jirj^^KisS) iyDi>^ni8D iv /tyvyty: toD^ai^s iidd 

*** .Di>nD yiyun 



-O'lp pB DiK'i'^ita iyoj?nnti>T*T n iyjjr:> .n ps d^t^jniq "ij;t • 
yiH Dy p« ;t2j?iaDnKn iN^p 1213 t'« (10 .n«D 8) 1721 px trnni 

.53 .r /'ciDiyo 

1210 iyi2«Tl!? ,y3'7yiT ,715 .T ,18 .1 (1717) "D^XinntrTT D3K0»Np 

]i;'?j;i!iysD k i^ lann'sy;; iyn«n ^lyinx' yjmyapsty n pN yiyniK 
(.1726 ,31 pyo ,648 .t ,20 .3 "D'7«:nMB'n„) 1726 px laytD'OXp 

Day'jNn n pi'7uyi dku ly^fyry;; n /"by^styni on ,nyT *** 
PN ljr>nyi«3Qi< Tj;;iyp ; (1725) 34 .p ,1 .trn 12 ,j;nuDni<K 
-KDttin 1^ y:Ji:3 ; (1728) 27 .p .1 .trn 9 ,DnytaDTty ps ly'bniMur 



95 {'^ytDDnpj? nyis ciD«p -i^T 

■■•i^^^a i< v)'?2 ,inyryj oy lyni^n I'd ^11 .iyiiy:> iyDiD6<DD yt^^^ 
■:^ A'V^v: Dyi pd pyi^vDsnn div lyjTjy^yj s nno^i' lyrs 
n .lyvyiyj ysj'njy^"i^« yotyny n y:iijn ^ss lyi t^k tj'nyi 
-^fc?Btj^ y-iyp-ifc§DiJ' ^y^2 8 pin« i«i lyr^ni y^^yii pd lypmonx 
-ifc?D 1^ i:i'D« T^fc< Di<in ,nyD^^a"ife$ pk nytDo^^o lyt^Miv ;i:^d 
■-ly 11^; "lyn .yDsi p« V'y'?v^ pd i^^tj^-iytojix Dyi lypjsi 
liH^'iV: lyD^jyj:^^ t^« dj^ii /iyj:iJO^''xi«D lyjyj D^ostt^D lyoK' 
.tj^n 3) 1729 pD w^ "iy"i /D:yofe?^"i8B lyt^njy^i^x oyi p2 
Dyi ni<D L^'^:y"i{^ns3 n)^ p^p lytD^snojy d^j dsh ,(14 .p .2 
pK lyj^^KisiD lyoi^nnsQ Di^n pk lyjym^D-pi^ n ps nt?^ 
.2 .tj^n 17) 17-48 pD DPS lyi ."i^^tj'nyDJiK ini^ Di^nD y^s 
pD ^«!QDnn Dyi nn pi^^iyj iyDny:iDn-i« rx ^v:i'?v'i) .(2 .p 
^inx Dp:yiiJ'»n mts dpjis im Di^n ,Di;?n-i{<D lymynnD oyn 
■sn n lyoj^^tj'yjj^^s lyni^n Di^ii 4y^:iyiDKo-pii^"it:tj> yiyiic^ 
Dvijstn lyrn yD^y^i .lyp^ytj^ pq D^n^-'^yn n pd ajicj^iosi' 
^lynny:^ ymyoyBtj' n p« nyni^ .iy:iJi^D5<ns!2 n^itD \'^H^^Vi 
5^DP«i3 yt^'^3:y n D:^»Dy;3»j lyo D»n .d^k dt^^i oy m^ 
.c^n 3) 1763 p3 ,(17 .p .2 .trn 31) 1758 pa lyvyiy: n oni^^^ 

PK 24 .p ,19 .p .3 .t>^n 20 pt< 19) 779 pD P« (23 .pyD ,34 .3 

iyD^S!nt::y p« V)'? ps :jid^dij's:3 nyi iy:yi^ V)^ lyn^^r (36 .p 
-i«!D nyi yD^yn lyt^^niv ,ynDDnrK in isid ni:pn vw^:^ 
.DSD^nyi lyD^^n^DSJ 8 o^^ ddip iyjjir:^^«"i«2 ^I'-.x dj^i 
-D^j nyi ^SD lyny^ pn t^n DiyiJinini*^ pd ^i^d nvi ''2 
-yj ,"i3j<^i^K pK "-^D pj< ijj<^:ijy px >^d ,Yv^vi nyjyant^'ya 
n PK ,iytDitDj<DD y^y^vysD n P2 ei^^i iv ]^h'\'\v: d3sii 
-lya 8 PD ::"nyiiti'i8D viv t» ,Iy^^^6^'DJy iy:iy^D lytDDn 
nsQ DD^iDytn lyni^n ^n d«ti .;ji^n:{?n t? iny^yta iv p^k 
n^n^ 8 ifc<D ly^ynmsD VP o^: oy lyi^ i^^ss ,1^5'vyTyrD^i 
D»n 2:ny:vyTya n .vytyj oyjynntj'yrD^: nm ryjyp t^k 



.3 .tt^n 17 ,DT;3:?iiiyT'T i^i v^^J2 ; (1749) 27 .p ,2 .vn 22 ,D"i:;3 
.(1795) 111 .p 3 .B^n 36 ,'>nyr«on'gKB ]y:jyn ]i« ; (1777) 55 .p 



39 tDp8„ lyi mn 1799 p« .'?v'b^'>'2 nvi D;^«Qy:!D«J i^: 
-^yii ^j^ntDiJ' nyDJ^i< D^vDc^y: i^^pmDMi< "81 .p .3 .tj'n 

•>n T8 ,iyn«t tDj^^t?^ oy .i:i^v'??^v i»^P 00 ry:ny rx lyj 
•n^««: ns opii^n lyniiynyn^ nvi d"'d lyumfe^Q lyiiyj tyj^n 
-:^'? m i^^t^Pi^^ 112 -lyD^ui^-^-'DDpyD n lyojix dto^ov 
-yjDin c'oy^^"'^ dmi:i p« t^« Dpyi^isvyty:) lyi .i^^t^'Sip 
-"IV y^^^rjyp n :n:yrip ,DjyD^^-i^£) loin n^iiy:) tonn^Q 
Ml DyiD^: :yD r^^Jsi^vn^^ny^Q ni inya do pn ::id^d6j^ 
oy .d:j^dq{<!p 11^ p^^n p« n«"iiy:i D3fe!!nny:ij^n8 t^x iy 
T^K Dy lyD^yii 1^2 D^'-njyiiy^y; rjyii tyn"'^ny:i nynnyi vi< 
'H\>''^^P \v^v:vwn„ n iyn«i ,iyDpJi3 yj^n ty:iyp DDytoi^ns 
y^v^oys i§ iyny:iy:j^n5§ toj^n "iJ^iJ^t^ iij^s ^Dy^''D«;D DiyD:nD 
DSP^iins m D:s^tDDM^^s:n ^Hr\ px ^y:iyiD«;o nvi iy:iyp 
D:in ts ,\:i'r\:v\:i^Vi \V2i^n ^n .tyj:"ivyTDn« v^V'f ly^y^^vi^^D 
-»iK lyti^^nyi iv do,, i^^n DinjyDyiQ Dpy^i^isvyry; lyn 
-I8D y^o„ lyssti^sn nyn^s iy D^sn /'ty::"irj^^xi«2 y^^^vyrya 
DO ^v'i) Dy T» nyDP^i^D tyDD^DtJ^^noiK st5^ pq DjyDyin 
tyD^yii lyn^n iv lyD^-'ni^ m nyi« ^yryj s n^Q ly^n pn 
PD iyD^''njy:y^y:3«i \vm) lyD^-'iiv » d^d iyns:^y:i t^« oy 
tyni^n on^nD y^nyn^x n /':J1^DDyt^'»n iyi{$ n^nD t^n 
tn« T^« Dpy^j^isvyry:! lyn pj< ,tyDoy:! do i2)'?vt:i^ V'? 

*.ryty:i 8 ti«"iiy:i ty:i:)ny"i;)y 



■:«*?) py:i<i!i'tDyB n iis Dyi^N ps ,.ti .t« .n "DiyiNtf^iDyB im 
-iKDysxnB p« tay'i'fiDNB nyiytt'^yt « ,(.t 19 ,1800 ,iKii«' ,int 
D'tDDKtrn .n» tsjNT ,":nnmp"iy» t'n oy,, .pytaN^'^nin D'^yuDpKS 
1800 iiK 1799 lis yiDD'B'yj nj;tt>ni<i2Jvo«'i'"iNB np ]iti t«„ ,D3ysyicD 
yjjnKT n nyi'K ytttjnyn t'n oy nya'byn itsj laDnKn p'p ^la'i t'k 
^KViN,, Dyn pK BiKonyn un <u iy;yn nnx isnyii dv .lysyry; 
•jK^iDnp MT iTK nxtsDin,,) ".lynnx' y;!'TKT n "it?s "lyiao'irTiy"! 
]yDMiy;i « lyunyjoonij istjn vy^y:? nyn tk (.208 .t .3 .3 /'kh*? 



97 K^yt:D"'Tpy "i^s rjD»p nyi 

,1799 no "iy::irj^^{<"ifeitD iy:iyp rvry;,, iy:^^Dyj^8 lyn 
mn nt^iiyj o"iyDyay:DM« ns DrDytstrsriyiMT t^« d«ti 
niiJiw Dy-i D^D ,(Gu .p .3 .mi 4o n« 39) i800 ns ryiya nyi 
-y:j r^K ,iy£5$"iJsn{<s-Djji^D^Dis!D v^v:^2)^vyo^: v^^^'K Hd 
yiji^DDMpy n pd ;:nM^D»DyDD^D n mi invn DijiiDy lyii 
piMK Di^no y-iyiJUfe^ia na jjiD^nnoMK ly^n "lyii^ .lyvyryj 
K iyD«!iD"ifc$D Di^n iy .ynDon^^K pd i^yo iyv:»:i oyi 
nynyi y^siDjyv n Di^n lyns V2 .;jn:yi"i yr^DMi nj< y^o 
tDDnyrDJt^^v«^yQfe§ ife? na y^«:-i n tD^y^sjryj ::n^:yn y^spiss^ 
pi^ Dyn m o^ui{< n lyi^yj y;i: lyrn dj^ii lyjj^iD y^s pk 
lyatjn "lyo^^mt? lyi px lyDD^^o nyi n^x .lyn^n nyi pa 
ivo^^n ^j^T Dy DJ^ii ,Dy-i lyjyn iyr:^^fc< DJi^py: do in 
n T^N ,tD^''mfc5 :j^d ny^^^iny is ps pi^ ji^d iyt:Dy-iy;i s 
■^DtJ'Sin lyn nn n^i^yj ^rto^n^^n rD^onjy t^^yjjn-p-isD 
-'?v^v:i P2 t:jn: Dyi nnx i^^j^^t^'insii ,::noyT lyi P2 j:id 
.^jiri^yin pD nsDC'Di^o nvi dm^ ,to^^PK^^Dp8"i2 "lyri^^toDsit^ 
•••n /"lyDDn-DjynnD n inn pi^ pd :jiD^Dti^fei!n y^^^DP^itD n 
-toDnrx nn Dyn y:njn innny:i ps dmis t: vi< ,tDJ^^tj^ oy 
lyn^^nyj i«j iy:^n p^dp5§"iq lyn P2 lyniBt^ ysy^D djh ,iyn 
'?H^ lt§T n ni .DyoyiTp^^ yD^^:ny'ny:i n pn* d^^v y::8^ 8 
D«i T^K D"iyiJinin«^ tytDjnyvDss pd mo Dyi Dns /pn do 
lytD^uns y:^n pt< t:D''^{<D^si$p nvi lyc^n^v in lyjjn y^na 
-yi Di^ .pi^ Dyi lyD^Dt^sn ps yn^iDy^ y:^vj^^i< n ni^iiy: 
PD D^^p:i^D3yiy:oix yn«ii3 n tyii 'lyiiy:) dj^i t^x d^^jo 
.ri^iynyiji^ tii^iiy:) t^« lyj^irj^^NisDnytD^^nifei! lyDi^nij^ta 
PK,, ^'^vi^vi^n m^'? Dit^ryj Di^n /'lytoD^^o lyrvj^^x ]^„ 
■"•^nns yj^n y^s lyaisiixivDms d^^v lyiy iv ^na lyiiy: 
nnx — ^nj^v p&< "oypiD lyii^ Diy-i:in — ^i^rDi? nnx lyo 



lya^yn ,(1799 ,ti'^) .n .t« .k "oyiyTTm Tiyn its iroy^*!' '8'T't 
.(1735 .5) n«in»''? p^'jnKS n>'i:D:;trt2:K?3 nyT pK tt c^tv^ 



nsD TT Di<iin Dn^K d^^i^ /pi^ ayi iyDijyj:ij o^j lyn^jn ^n 
"18Q K i»D Dj«Dy:i iyn«i mn wd .iv'?m'i i:^ ^n t:^«m 
Dy:y^ tyryi^i^Q ^j$d{§ n^ix iy^«r lyo^uns y^s t» /lyDyin 
D«ii pi^ Dyn ly^ni^v i^ ^n D;i8tDJy in to«n Di^ii nyoD^^D 

*."nyi«D IV lyo^i^c'sn iyn«n ^n 
-yjob^mts lyiDJ^ansE) D«n ryry:; lyn rs /Jidx t^k oy 
nyn« .lytD^^nns pd lyj^-'Xi^D ni di; ••its lyj^^xnsD-iyn 
,{j;iK^^DnKBDii< pyii Din^Dy:Din iyny:i ^«t ny lyn i^^ds; 
/DP8D Dyn PJS1 fe§ tD"'^PD^^^:imK n lyn^^ay:! r^s i^^j o'?h\) 
iyrv:^^« 18 fx oytoD^D ly^yntoDnj^x Dy^o Dyn p« d«ii 
-^ni^v r:»:i si ni rDDya nt^ dpjiq iyiiy:i p^^'s; "lynyjDD^uiK 
D^J D^^"?j^tDDyiy: PD DJsn n nyn» r^x jJirj^^t^i^Q yD^n 
■"i»Q."yDE)»m:8oc^ lyij^ ,y^^Dti^„ n .tj^^x^^Di^sois^ lyiiy:! 
tiMK ,pi^ Dyn lypmwnyDjnis: nyny:iDD^''m8 ps :iJirj^^{< 
iD^j rytyj r^nn lyo to«n ,i« dt^^i hd^dd d^^is iv^'pv)) 
VH Dy yn^yii tyiiy:i d"*: nnx fx oy .ly^^nnyn DJi^py;i 
8 tyray:! it^ nyoDn n lyn^^ iyt38it3D^:i«D n ivd :iJir^j 
-y^snJsiPD "lyLDjypnyjs pa ly^sD px i^^D5§ ,:in^'i5j^ nytoD^^o 
-•'DK'nyDyD n D:i{^^pnfe§Q too D«in ^v^''? .:iJirj'>^Kn«2 nyr 
n Dyijn:y: v'^\:i:v^v 1814 p« lyni^n y^^yn ,DiyDD^^o"iyn 
tDijn ys^yii /'t«ior :jnitJ^t:pyDiJ8o n:y ^^oj^jpiyD n^y^sy^,, 
nyii^ "imD p^p ts ^'pvivi lyDD^DDni in^x n^Q iyt:^i§nyj 
DO lyiD^yn 18D T^nsi py^yn i^^p ly^n^^v too ^«t tD:s;pna«D 
-i» lyiiya t^« dv ni .^yp^tois lytDDj^toy: n^y^ayty pk t^n 
d:id 100 pQ Pi^nDtj* s d^d riyin«^ y:imynnD n pt? iyooy:i 
-s« lyD^^vyry^Dix lyrti^i Dyn lytoyiDiyn-'N ^^^o oyiy^ i{$d 
oytMD nyn ^oy^Dyisyi pid y^j^sy iyvJi§j lyn nn **i«o 
-i8D PQ ly^yimsa Dyi isd iyD^^y:i \V2ii,n lyD^-ims nyn 



-any pK ,.B.t3 ,Di'n6iyT«trnn«5;iNU'DDj;'T cinx 'y"i5y8'T'TDiDJ«nB 
.(1825 ,jmnjny) "1825 ,18 nynoyiiKi ,Jin 

.1814 ,23 py» /'DniN n'?y'flytr„ *♦ 



99 pyiDDMpy "1«D TjD^p "lyi 

-"USD lya^yroyT "isid DD^iDtJ'i^n nyii ^«t lyayjoo^u-is iji! 

T» /tnyryjon^ oy D«n nyp^t:^^«s lyj^^jnyny; nyi isq 
-"iyayjDD^^3-is i» lytJ^^iiv ijjd^j "i^^^:-ij§d v^? i^Di^n^ t^k oy 
/lyiiy: vi< 'wd^'W lyi .nyD^-'ai^ ns p^«"i^2 «! m v^nn^^ 
p« T^« nyo^^iiv lyn ; muy y^ynDDnri< ij? /DjyDDDyn 
'H^ nvi lyoJiH -lyDyini^D lytr^o^^J^is i< lynyj ly^siD y^s 
"lyn yti'^^jjy n lyaj^n /y^vi^i^i^yi nyl^'nnv:8^D lyi ns lyo 
p^i^D lyDDijiis na :i:irj^^K"ife?D yiy^ toDyiDtita lyoK^p yuysj^ 
-■'^Dyj^s W^fi^i Dyi p.N* .D^\"^rn^-io^.N lyDDyi; nyi t^-'o 
IV ly^pniDjy t:o in '?h^ D^\"?D5§TD-ii^nyjDiK t» nna ny: 
na D2«ii'-iyjy:yj n lyv^j^Dt^^yjDnjw in tynn^n ,iJ<^^ynyi 
Dyn na ly^nnyini iyi nt< pi^ ly^nn iv dd*^^d^3S!p dvi 
■yp tyvyry:!,, n .Dy^viD^DDJ^x yi^'^Di^npi^oyi iv -iyp^D^^j>3 
iy:^n,. ,t:i« o^iyviyi d^^^q d^d:sid m /'j:irj^^K-ie5D ly: 
lyri^^iyi iv d^j hd ,rt:iJ Di^i^Dnj? 15<Q \imyv: nDj<"ijDs:3 
lyo lyi^ ,yD^yn nyD^^mj? n pa ly^j^DyiSD^x y-i:y"i^rK'n n 
DDSoy:! iyv:i$:irK lyD^i^ii »Dnv pk nr^ tyo^^n do ^n ^«it 
-n:» PN nyoi^p /y^v5<pnnii!3 n^no ly^^jj^^vi?;: pd ^n 8 
-i^t lyD^^ms! n rs! /Di^:^ div Din^cy;) Di^n di^i ... .iitD^ip 
Diji DDip pDiyn .tD^^H'^jyo lyi pd y^D^ymi^ns^a n tyj 
lyiy^ nnx toyoD ,p« lymtoD^o ,iy^nn^>n iy:n:yD:i> nyi 
PN lyto^^ni^ n PQ :iJiDnyj5§n yto^y^tJ^ n ,i2it< ly^^^jyo 
-^8D lyrii^i iyi A^vi:^ div Dy:^^« ps D^nr^^yn v^vt 
ii^:j lyii Ts ,iyDi:y:j« pi^d:^ '•itsi lyi^y: t^« nn^^itn lyc^ 
ly^n 1KD pi^i^y: DStj^o'i^D pn D:ii^^p"ib:D iy:^n lyo^^nis 
lyit^ pi^ iy>n pa :i:n^^i:iy") iyi ny^^iv in lyrj^^^^i^Q 
tDO T^i< ^^•'DiiN ly^n iv^'i^ ni t^k .lyuiDtj^-DD^-'ms; v^V't 
.in^iiyj Din^ay^Din do t^k ?ii^id'^ n ::yiD:r ni m AV)iv:i 
n IV lyrn^jDn-i^ do nocni iyDD:iy^p oyi ly^^^p mr\ 
"SID P^'^ pDi^n^ T^K D^^prDDy"iy:i ps .yijyi^-'^ yD^^p^^jcix 
-Do^D 8 ]v:'^P D^i^pv: ""n lyni^n lyD^yr : iyiiy:i do yj 



n^ny:iD^K inn do ^^ioj^^*? n« /pynD^ix >n ^^tr d«ii ds!id 

liK Dy^Dyo n^ix D^D2ti>o ,iyD^iDD>j«D 15<;q pynisiD ,iyDyv 
•''^•?rD:Dy-iy:ioi« yn^;nj n ; DDny:i lyri^^r^yp lytoD^yn pt^ 
tD^^ii /lyD^inoti^ v:^''>?v^^ n ni< ly^Jiri^^^^^n y'DiN^o n ,iyD 
,DT«^n82 DO lyj^^p Dyi n^i^ ^lyoysti^ ini^^ y^^^Dy d^d in 

*."nny y^oyn n tinx in^^D 
-i»D lyiy^ T» ,iyDnyj:i$ do ly^ynDDyiJia ^n^i lyo 
iyi Ts iy-i«i ,iVJ:i:^i^DistD iv lyaiJ^inyDJix \v))v: fx p>k 
rJ«;i pn DD^im^D d^h d^--^ iyjy> na lyin-'Q li^orn^nD 
-yDDi« T'^jnyiiy:iyD''i^< iyi pjj^n s .tj^oj^ycy;! pn tyny^ 
Di^)) OH"^ m ^^v^^^^B ^v^''Pi2V lyn pq y^v^^Toj^nj^ iy:i^n 
■ni?D 8 l^^jnyiiy:i lyo dj^h ,iyiiy:! do ij^iipj^siq t^^*? t^x oy 
nn Di^n jr-nn-^yn iyD''iiy:i s lyj^ii m ,DT^^yrnniv r^^« 
V'?^ T^K Pfc< D^^prDyD pn PQ Dj^DDy^sn :ioy:i iyjiDy:j 
ly^^aya vd rv^v:i nvi ^Ji^yn^^n px iyj:yin i^ D^n:; lyiiya 
-oyjjfc? Doa^ tyni:?n lynyjoD-'^ms y^^yii px ,iy^fc§D no fe§ 
**.nyD^^n"i8 ynyn pd ryj^'-xn^^Q n Dpipynynn^? lyii^ \vd 
n DjypiyjK ni^j do lyn^^n DiyDD>^D-nypin iy:ii{-oj<t^ n 
oy ni lyni^n ^n ii^j ***,y^v'iD^DDrx-"^yQs:^D„ vt:}"?^ n»:i 
-nyjivD^x nyD^^ii px 1785 tojn ,Dyiipyn tyjicyj d^n dt^^t 
■"liji l» D'lK nyD^^mi? n ps lyjs^tJ'iKQ lyD^siDsn tix lyo 



.27798 — 7 /'.D15M0 Dn'bs,, * 

y:MT ]ix '"jyB^tttts,, oyr tsi«ttiyT p'?p2yis pisxtrniyi *** 
-INS nx niipn„ n ]is ,1734 ts-i'txT ,y'5J?p « .1725 pK mapn 
:'?^»5Ne't3 ]i5 -iyii^;iUio n pe ]-i:?n uiny;iQN ]jr'?NT dkii lyjiuyinw 
-iijo Dy'Dn'^s p« lu i2JiBy;i /'lyTo ps ,D-iypm ps ,Dny!tyT ps 

.22799—88 ^ytssnpoia 



101 pytsD^rpy -)«s rpfe^p nyi 

-DM^sn ly^iyj ly^^'t vD'Pvyi nv^^^ii^ m DiyoD^^a ^ii^v 
-••uisivD^ix wo^^^'WBivP y^ropysDy-i yiy^n hd djs-id 
,::d:ipiv nyi pk d^uis i82 ly^Ji^n^;^:^ n iy;yii d^^^d \vd 
yD^^3i8y:D^iK i^^DPrs n lyoipy^DMiK PDiyn t^« oy p« 
-D^^D n PD lynnt^'yJ"lyDJ^« /1805 ps (nsoi^'Dso) "^^\':>d„ 
(oyisuj^n) DiyDSD-DSD -iyj{injj;j|^ n .lyD^uis n px Diyu 
P« p« ,1813 p« y^^;i§rjfei!:n{;j yojyp-iyjK ij? ^^nv: lyaj^n 
PD i^H^'^v:^ iyDi:yjjj$ lyr^ns pd dd^^ » t^« inj^^ lyn^yroyn 
-Miy"i rx CD^^-T^ns nyriJ^T "lyi .lyD^mj? m lyoD^^Q 
D^j "li^: D«in lyr^"? px 4819 pk p^ 1816 px \'-\iiiwji Din 
nytDK'iya -iyjj>'ij{^^ n .:j'i:^i>*2"ii$2 ly^^^vyiy:! ty^yn Dp:viv:i 
iyoi:y:jj^ t^k dj^ii /lyr^ns pD dd^^ ^„ D^nvi isos px jyni^n 
."li^J t:"i^0DMpy lyD^yn /"lyD^unj? p« lytDD^^o ly^^'Miv n{^iiy:i 
y:y"i^^ij'"i»Q n pD D^y'^>•':L^' n imk ^ii ,DiypnD*uj'jypi^r n 
1794 pQ /iyiiy:i D^nyiiy; lyj^n n^"'ti^DStn:rtD«i: p« -^vi^^vi 
1)) t3i3 nts DiyDD^^D ,iyDipivDM:iv in i^^D:yDy 48io V2 
nvi y:iiJ lyj^n dj^ii lyDsr ty:yii iyi^nivD-in in„ oyo^^a-is 
'd:v^v nn py^i lycniiSD iy:y^D iyDD:ipjyoj<Pv n ; "i>nD 
-i^nD iy^fc?p{^^ iyi pd ny^-'n-^yip^^oj^iB n pd .lyoji^Ji? yD^^ 
,1824 T^n 1807 nni^^ n PD ,Diy^tr^D nyj{^DDyi3 n pd i«^ji^ 
PN yjyjii^ni^D-DO s Dnn^sy:; mn t«i'Jv n t« ,rtojyp r^« 
3:11:^^82 px iy:5§Dti^y:i T^fc< p« ,nyDDMpy yt:rDDy^»rtD^j 
pfc< .n^^ti'«pJ5<^ Y:^:i nyn^x lyoD^ti^f'yTyr-iy^K^^D yiyu^ to^D 
-"ii<D »inx mxvin p-^p lynnt^isa d^: in lyrcy:! n1Jnt^'^ n 
«i ty^'"'T ov nyn .oyj^^p ly^yp y^^s^a v^V't iy:n^^D 
-Dsn^s yD^^Djy^y px lyDJj^:^ i^d iy::i^ni$vDnx ynyinyo 
^nx ni^'i)?] yonn; « ,pn jd^j ••n di^t ^^t ^j^j; p^-^ iv ,p« tyjji^ 
-^y n ^^3 y^vn5<iD yDSj^nny^ « ife<n5?D t^x oy pn nyn 
,|ytD^^v D':nytD^y yiy^n pj< is: ,ii>*:Tfe$^j ps lypniT^j^n yiya 
« lyoynsDms t::iy^D iH^jm^ntD yirtDP^ nsi:i ny^n lyn 
Diji D^y^D ,ar^"iny^ Dy^^: iyiy> pa dt: lynn pa D'pm^'^VJi 



DT''i^'':T'-T'"'nto lis ytiD''tyy:i 102 

D>u li^jynn^ Dyi lyDnyjifeiiD tD:iy^2 nun-^yn nyn .pna^D 
rn ^Dinnyji^ do D^^ms: lyi i^^ im dj^h lyj^^*? n« .ij'^d 
-8T08:ni;? n .lyn^^nyj D^on«:i i^y; oyi na t^k oy lyjsn 
Dyn PD \'^m'> v\:i'^''\v n px t^j^ onypnTntoiKP n ns y^^ 
-^i^D nx yDDp-)i§Dt^ n ns yj-i^x m)v^ :i^^:vp Diynjimn^j^ 
-Dsntosn,, ,Dy^QD^£) ty^iQDpmj^^s IS! p« .DJi^ov yDDOi^P 
pQ "DnyDjnB"{^p^^«p lynyjintj^n,, n iv tDi^oyns iy:i:iD 
•"i rn^yo ,(1815 nyDDytJ^DJSD) "DiyDD^^D v^vt pa Dyj^^« 
\'^V'^:iti r^j^: nyj^-'X,, — : nrst nyto^m^ n iv DiyoD^^D 
-^v^VD ni DDi8iy:i tynj^n i^d dj^ii ,dj$-i tyny:iy:Di^j i>d tyn«n 
Dnn^2y;i D^n oyn ly^^s d^o r^^s^t?^ nn^x pn ,iyQi8iipmv 
-••^"nv 8 1^ :!:nyni^Q lyjynntonyn^x p^x Pq lyD^ni n»iiy:i 
nn^K .ly^i^iDiy-i ix ny^ic^ iv n^-ny:! r^x dds;^ n m ,iyD 
i^^DS ^i^DDQi^* PN ,iy:r^nny^ yiynix tic ^ni^v n dd^dk^sd 
jy^^^o yoMiy: Q{^-d:i}^t '^^^^? -ly^yryj yiytjiK pD ^n^^v n 
lyDPivj^ni? y-iy-iJ« p^p do Dnn!?iyT pn ,Djyn yiynix m 
px ^lyj^tj^^DT^fcun y^fe? si$ ^'?v^i:^ in-'x .dii^ ly^n ti^j^ 
ynyr^iN ife?;Q lyv^sii n pyDtj^yv iv ni d^^i '•its i^-'Qs Dny:i 
Di^Dpn p« /iyr{r»D"iyi:^^>v n Dpjynt^fe?n in^N .iyri« 
,in D:ii§TD:y nn^x -lypm ^^it tyo n^px yiyDj^n i^-iss 

D^JMIV PK ,DD^^ 155Q lyD-im^ IV ^rD-iU XPH T^« DV nV2 

DT^Mi in^K .y:)yj^^« D«n li^D iv iy:ir^nny^ yiynix i^^d» 
PK ;do i^''8 ly^yay:! ^n lyii nynytD^x yiytj^x pni!f 
-w .TJ^K "i«D tyD^^sij^ IV D"'^yiQ ynjyD^D^aiiJ t^ns Dsy^^ 
yDi: PK D^-ipDfe^TDii^tny:; y"iy> D^y^n^-iv Dny: in^« ,Dvy^ 
yiy^^s IV WVBDV^ m :ijidds ry^^^v iv Di^DtJ^Jsi p« ojoni^s 
iy:i:nn^^^y!n y^^^^ynyss d^d ^n in^^< D^yijsnsn ,D^nr''^yn 
-D-iD p-ip T^K ,r^^ D«!i ?nMx r-ijypip do ."jjidd^i^s tix 
-miyDJi« IV nj<:iiy:i DD^^yj do :^t:i:vp iinss nyK^^DWDVD 
lyrcya pi^n mp lyo pi< ,p^«ifc?Q 'DiypnrpDi^p nvi \vp 
]v:''t p^nn p« i^x jJo^j^fiisQ tiQ iy^»Q yDi^^^r^x ^niv 
-in«^ lyD^nyvj^o pa nnj^' yDtj'iy n p« lyr^sD^ynyo n 



103 r^y^^'Tpv nyiD n^yip lyi 

; lypynv'T^no tkd DMKD"in /'^oy^^Di^D iii!Dni<;oi5D« uidh: 
d:''*^ dv m lyatjin ^yy-iv^Vi'D': lynyj t^k n D:n ny^w,, 
■D1K -lypnfc^DC' p^p D^D D^J DPipyj in^K »inK D''nr''^yn n 
-j^rK t:i^n ^^v^>j;53 nyi ns tosnn lyi ly^i pk ; to^^PjynnDiv 
-QbtnsiD s IV \vr2'\pv: lyj^M d«iii nyo^u-u? n Di^Doyn^ "^ho 
.nmy ^mk ^n lyDnyjDMiis lyaipy: D^nn-^^yn n lyj^n ,:2)'? 
^y^v "ly^n D:n ,D"iy^P"iy ^n lyaj^n ,l5^^"?d^^pimi "lyi px 
iy T^K /iyDyiytor« yjy:^^« yiy^n lyn^^oifcUD iv dtip t^k 
■yp iy2yjDD^^2-ij§ n ps lyoy^^ytoj^x n lyri^^tDij^D w i^ik 
jyiiy: T^« D"iyDD^"'o v'?V'^ ^^3 ."iytD^^mi§ yrt^^jyoniy: jy: 
IK PD ins^^n Dyn lyoips^n lyjy^D ^n lyii tsi ,D-in^£y:i:^^8 
nyi PD oyD^Di^p div lyp^ii'iyDns: dh^k >n lyjy^D nyto^^ms 
li^jiyi PN o^tDDn T^K iy n^ix inypivDi;?: /"•oy^^DfcjD-n^nD 
oi^Diyn T^x ^5<D p^K ."yDD^DD«:p„ on«!n dj^i ly^soyoi^'^Mis 
PS iy:5^^{i^yi"iyDjni$ toj^n DytD^oi^pn^ntD lyi lyii ,nijniy:i 
tDD5§ iyDi^nD{<3 nyn o^^n Di^n .pac^n y; P2 t^jiD ^m t^3 ^^iiv 
n lyayn nnjny pk ^ii dij ^its i«i:i^^ pk pk *."t::iQ 
-^i^2-i{$D n^D ruy^i^n xiid d^: ,iyny;y:DMi8 ^ns nytD^^ms 
/lyr^ns D^msp^to:^' pq lyoD^^ yDPmy:i ys^^in^DDMK ,]v::m 
PD loytD^Di^p 8 P2 ^{^05$ n«iiy:i D^yDtJ^yisnjiv lyj^n c^n 
■DDy!*^j^^Dy:i i5 PD ^J^oy: PK nyo^^m^ n pd p^^:r"i^nto nyi 
-lyr^^^iS nyn» **.D''nr^^yn p« nyto^'-nns P2 Dyt:^o«p ly^^^* 



-KO ]TK "iyp"iyni2:Kn lyjyn ttyta'DKp,, i'iks ]y;3i:;i<TDnK • 
!D-iKEp„ Din ]\H ni^fipi lyny^y^ii'i'N t:n^'.i oy ni ,1824 ,"ni'i»w 

".|KB"iN^CKDK D:1''iD '?VB'«D„ "l>n I'.E (1860) Di!:;*'iDKD T n'J ]K 

■yp jijma'i2pyET:Nf3 "iks oyo'ns itk pn ;-nn:ny '>ni„ ** 
eiMK "I'T u»2Kn Dy m„ ,(.t 126 ,1805 ,;!m2:ny) ,"p"i«n By:o 
".iytai'm« n px Divt^c^ n B:j'3'»Kyj ■T'7i22Kir2''oyj nyi 
,T'N y3'?yn ,"y:K'?'i^„ « t:in;i»;!is lytt^'iiN n !"-«•"! 1825 I'K 
-yj iD3'^tt2yEinK£ ,nni:i t:r:'i:trvjis iyn«n DiytD^D n m Dyisw 
-Dp«B i^DyBKis ]iK -IT ]y:'2yj yi^^n .nyt2'»mi< n ns ]')H'\^ 

.pyBK''?3i3 D'^yn 



DT''3y''jT'-i"'nt:i lis yta^rtyy:; io4 

s lyiiy:! t^k /1824 nx isii px n«iiy:i Dpmyj lyj^n iyn«;i 
-y:iDMii§ /iyDj<::?s id s d^d ,t}>ui8 yD^^DJn:i m ynsnDD^p 
"••^oife^D iv ...nyto-'uift!! nfc^ DiyD^^D nD oyD^Disjp 8 iiD lyayj 
."n^no pK iyD^py:n{$D ddj^-iv lyj^n Di^tii ,doiddd n lyn 
"y:iy:D^n« lyj^n "ly^D^^tj^ ;i^^vji$,, ns< Dy:fe$^^^i yjyn^^ti^nsD 
.n^toDnpy rytoD^^ yiyi:^ nx ; Piyi^ nvi t:« iv n«iiy: lyn 
Tsi n«iitj^ MT5$ lyiiy; t^n rvw^i nyi na jjnn^DDin n 
o'Dvr\„ Dyi na lyn-'ntj^ lytj'^jiyjy lyi ,d^mii li^T-n^tJ^n 
^^Dn„ T^« 1800 pQ ryty:! nyn tis ,tDyDann«;n mn Z'tDyD^Di^tp 
lyoyii pi^ifc< ,nnK^D-''^yn n is!Q nsDtj'Dn nytono 8 !yiiy:i 
-m /DnyDDitj^ n n^^oy^ — :ijipim^ si lynj^n D:?«Ty: D»n ny 
yD^yii ..11 .T» .« D-iyi^^:t5^ /Diynna^tij^ /OnyD^Di^Bss /Diyp 
-•M-«in» p« lytoDssi'^yTy:! ynjyDtj^sn v^v^^ tD8ny:i lyntjtn 
PK : tor^DDnpy tou ryty;! sis i«j tD^«ii oy ni mts /"lyt 
n DJ^ PD ID 8 18S iyiiy:i i^^:iyD d^j ti'^DPSD ^i^^ to^yiii Dy 
^^3n lyj^n yn^yii /iyDDi<:ti'^yTy:i y^^yr^s in^ inyjiv:«t Di^nD 
lyjyii n .iyDDfe?K^^yTyrD:iJiv^D{^iyD:i« -yr^n m "typJSiP 
pi^ny:! tortoDy^stn pi8d^ \v^'?m Dyi^^^DyrtyDi^P n tix 
0118 pynjsii y>^yii /lyD^^nn^ ynnyiJ^HDinsi y:in«T n pq 
-QStj^^yiyj yny^n lyni^n do ly^^t ^n lyii /D-i^iis njyDir 
."Diyn^nDDns! yjyDiiyriT^ n D^nsi lya^yn d«ii ,iyD 
"i^p-iytD^mst n lyin^ny D:iyoy; D«in lyD D:in -— nyn« 
-DS^iJ'^yTy: «,. ly^nyj iv .DnyiriDin iy:)fc?n:«^ n ^ii nrsi av^ 
-no ly^ynDDHj-'K PQ tyo^^v i^« px /'tyosnv nyn t«^j i>^ 
D^-ims ynyi^K n p^d n« lyiyiJ^ii yiy^n iy:n8T8n iv lyi 
Dsny: n:yDtJ^ iyny:Dto^un8 n lynj^n ,i«oi>-i^ntD 8 pd 
-nsQ ly^^^vyiy:! s d^d ajnyiJ^D viv' iyjy:iy:i8n iv iODso n 
iy:iDy3 w^^n vr^ ya^yii pn ,Dn^nD y:y^ pk i^^ss ojij^^d 
«n lyj^n ,DiyD5j'>fj do lyj^^Ni^D n .D«n iy» rs /lyT^nisn 
PK .ryty:! oyi pq :i:njyio{$ iy:ijynDK^ lyi tic ly^i/^sjr^^n 
-^ynyD pd iyjJi:i^t<iDi8D y^^n^n^^v ty:iyii i^d wv^"? i819 
,nyD^''ni8 yiyiJ8 p« D"iyDo:yp^8 .DiyDSDDin ,Dny38D 



105 pytDDMpy n»s rioyip nyi 

^yi PK ,DrijyyrLio d^u-is ly^n lyii^^iyn^x nj<E d:^ici^3 
1798 pK oJirj^^Nij^c PD lyDy-innsD Dyi -"i^d lyaij ;'nD« 
i:^«„ nyn pk ni^ny:i 03i>*^p-ifci!D ly^yryriypm ^irs iy:^n 
-^>y3 n TS! .lyiiy:) t^n opfe?D lyi ojnyiit^'ii^D nets "^^^ya 
iyt2^"'D-i8 n PD nynn^D n n^: top^t^^y: Desnyj lynjijn D^na 
-ii!^pj« lyi p« ny3 ,iy:iJ^^ii^-ii$D vw'i lyjyn lyi^nwDin in 
,yt::i#^py:j« sij^d n lyoipy: iy:^n Dy,, t» ,iyD^^ny:i ov dj^h ya 
tyin^Q n d^s in njy^yo'^ij^D .tyo^jy^yi d^s dmidisd 
lyj^n "lyto^ms! n ."lyan oy t«p lyo m -ojy^si^ij^s fe< ps 
■yrD;jiv^Dt^'iyt::"i« iyTiJ^D^s y: P2 iyi^^:itD^o lyiiyj nox2 
■lyn PK iyD^«ny:i2"'iK„ in tD«n dj^ii ,D-iypm tiD o^jfiK'^yr 
,tD«in yD^yii /'tonoD ld^^d ,11^'^ d'j^ddjh .dd lyny^ /'pfcj^,p„ 
in^N PD// /Oiy^piy Dt^n yj«^pjt^ lyi pd tDj<pi$r.-ifci! nyi m 
-y: D^: in ^inx ^yisD pa io^d p^p ly^n o^^pD^^iyonx 
lyn^ ,DD8{i'^yTyrDjjiv^D'jnyt::iK ly^nyj in D«:n n .iy:«iit: 
tDDSt^'^yty:) n t^« ^n iyDJii< iy^:yo yo^y^c^ yoniy:! ny^^iv 
-ji^p t^-iD p^K-iS!D iyD^^^^c'2^ DDDyn s iv lypjnynytDr.-is 
lyDi^^'^^yiJi^ DO in lyn^^n d«iii n ; lypyi^v yir^sti^SD 
i^^D» PK ,Diyi«!Dyji}nK iviyi wd Di^n osfen-j-'^yTyj ly^n \i^ 
ly^yii ^n nnt< t» ,tD;i^Ty;ji^ ^n dj^h lyo p« ,iy:!r^"iny^ n 
^n lyii ,iyD^^ni8 n d«i pd iy:i:nn"'D n iv lyDijiS-iV t:>: in 
."iy:inp do D^'-nis p^p ^n ly^yii ,0'"'^ "ivf V'ibh ly^yn 
p^^8 iyny:DD^^3ii$ n dj^ii ,Dp^a oyi nni< ruypip do 
D^n ,D^yiJi$mi<D in^« d^!d p« DJyp^y:^ DDi^t^'^yry:) n iyni;?n 
^mv IV D^^^DiiKi5<D yD3i^^py;j{^ y^8 lyo^n-Di^DK^ iyi 

n p» ::ij^fc?Di»D iyi ps Dyo^^^^D^^n n m^v: t^k oy 
-iyn^« lyDystJ^ ini^^ ^^yiiv d'-d dj^h d^^ii ^DiyvytDsntr 
Dyn pyov w D^\'5ri:yTiD''»o iyi t^x d^-'^q d-'DJ^jid Dr^v 
-m n PD» /iy Dn^nti^ /'ly^^o^t^D-i^D yo^tm; n„ .ryry^ 
px "D^^^D. :i3iD^"'V iyi ^'•n D^^nit^y: tysi^n d«ii ly^yry^ '-w? 
.nmo lyDDD^^nn^JoiK iyi iv tii^iiy^ Din^siyi lyj^n ,i8io 
v:^:^^ D^^^Dii«i«!D PK D5t^'D'y;l Di>*n ly^^yn nv^y^ iyi 



nvD n^v^Di$iVDJij< nyoD«iQ nyj«njj$? lyi lynyj t>« ,^^\ hd 

-yj D^j in D{$n nyt::)n v^? ... ."pytj^n nyvisiitj' ly^Di^n,. 
nyoDn lyin^^i nyi ii^toy:i DJ^n d^ii ni ,n'D ^y^D mts iyny:i 
ij^ ,^yt:i^jj^ Dyi lyosD i^ .Diypm yD''^p^^;Di« n lyn-'X 
-ivjj^ Pfc^ iyj{$^c^nyn i:; .dmi:i i^^pyiti^ t^« lyDynmsQ ny^n 
-j^ns lyj^n yD^yii ,iyt^jyD yjynyiyjjij n^^pnni n typyitj^ 
lyayjiy^Dnis; Dj^n iy lyoyn n^i« nx ^y:iyj yj"'n pk ]v'?^BVi 
ya^: inx T^K jji:i^j$Dni$Q n ."ly^^^Diix y^jyiDtj' yry^^nj^pD 
.nyny:Dt:^>nns i^ ns rnsj^P Dyn i«! tyjj^nyjQj^ njyD^i' 
"^:y^yi inyv ts r^yaiv m n^yonnyn 4817 ^v:if2V'i]}i pk 
nj8^ p« iyi:y:y^ yjyn^-'tj^nsiD pd Diypm-ptoi^p n pd lyo 
n D^n ,:i$D-D-in{^^-'^: Dyi px lyDipcnjiv i:i'?i^]v:i in lyai^n 
m n^DDyi^ iv iyoy^« ^n lyoi^i^t^'^n >^v^^{<!Q lyji^D^i^n 
-fiis lyn^in iyDfei::iy^yT inyv n .n^s^s yiy^n y^s lyasDi^D 
y-iyin DID iiDDD v^p D:in ,t^"'::ijyDy:i p« D^t^in ^m toD^DtJ^y:; 
pa lyviroa-'in lyi nyn^* .iyDipy:ii«!D to^: t^« DTir''^yn 
]-\v\:i\i^V'^ iNf ,iyiiy:i t^k nyay:iDto^''m^ n i»q ryryj Dyn 
y-iyoyn isa iy:j"ny"i{^D n pa lynymivDm^ in m Dp-'noD 
iy:y^i ryty:) iyi p« itsg px pik^ .iy:iJ^:ijn«rDD>^m8 
-i^iDtJ^sin p« ly^^^toiixi^D "1^ n«iTiy:i t:^^ijy:!D^i.s iy:i3nyiiK^i8Q 
,Diynj^iDn iyj{$ij«i^ ^2'^ n ^^::ijyDy:i ini$^ ^niv d>d lyD 
■n» n lyvi^pn^D Dyi i5§2 p-'noD s toin^sy;! tyn^n yD^yii 
nytDDSD pniyns,, n lyii .^i^y nnfc< ti^yiiv ps tyiJiDti'-DD^^n 
lyD^nns V)Vhr Ts .Di^SEi^iyi 1797 p« tDj<!n "i^^:i 'dij^^^-'D 
Dyn D''D ,p^Ki^D lyD^^vytyrD^j b* px lytoj^iDy^j^nfe? lyj^n 
ro^tot^j^^K,, D-i.yDD>''D n lyn^n z'v)'? iv^^t tiyiDyn iv py^iv 
piK /'pi^ pysyn v^p D^^y^a yiy^n lynyj iv d^: lyDJ^^t^^^n 
orDsyiPsn p^t^i^D Dy:yr^t5 ^v^^f pc Di^tj'isin Dyi lyn^^n ^n 
--)» ^^yiiv DD{$itDK^fe§3 px t03«i^pi«D lynj^n -"n d«iii ,t5^oiyi 
a^i<;siy iyi -in lya^j^-'xi^Q pd lyDyimsQ Dyi i«a nyD^^i 
-ifeitD lyDyp^B ^Vf D^D 1799 t^K DnytDD1t^♦ ^y:i^i:i^^ n tisj 
^n PD ""niv T8 ,iviyi Din"'Dy3 ti^in nynyjiotD-'^nis vfeDD«in 



107 pynD^rpy "ib*s ^dnp -lyi 

r,i^))v: DV1J83 ii:ii:iyi t^k dj^t hk A''\hw: d;«^p"u<d lyj^n 

lyan lyiiy; cd^k isi t^« y^^yii ,DDfc!;t^'?yTy:^ ly^n lyr^^^i^^D^iK 
y-iyi:fc$ ^miv -o^uis nyi i:; pnypoi^ i^sn in m '"ini^> 
tD^^^Dii^nsD ini;?^ lyn^yioyi rj< iy:^M pii^^ iid DiyoDv^ 
pyDyn iv nn iy:^:^"'K"i82» iid iyDy-ianjs*i5 oyi -ij^d n«!iiy:i 
iy35<D IV TT lyjsTDjy r"ife?2 n« n^tJ' ly^sto i^d nns ayn 
-yj tDi^n t:fc$pi;jiny! lyi m ".T^na lyoMiy: s nyD:^« y^ 
yD^yr^ n^Donpy nsv pj< Dij^ot^' nyDnn:i lyiy^ px. ts .D:«ir 
t:^ytDL^y:Bi^ t^k ID^t< lyD^^jny is; tin« ".lyj^^KistD lyoii^D 
n n« '1819 P« DnyD«D"iyDy-i8P n pd p^pdd lyi ni^iiyj 
OT^-'^y^DMK T^K "D-iyp^^oti'D^i^P n^^ ^Dy^^D^D D:y^«iiyjya„ 
nytDynpyo ^siyjyj uvi pd j:i^^^Dnit<"ii<2 nyi nn n^iiy:! 
D« ^nfc< Di^n lyD yD^yn nyi^^jo^o yiyiJSi :^vjfe<ii^; p^< 
-3^^Dni^iiL5:i§i«D nyjyj^^K ly^n nnx DTJ^^yj ^nc ^xjn oyn 
lyni^n y^^yn ,DiyiM^sirpDi^P yr:^^N lyni^n 1819 px .d^^p 
ly^yp Di^DDyDi^ns nyoDyt^^DJ^D p8< yoi^a y; "li^s tD^uisty:) 
-nny^ nnyo t:^ytD^y::«t ly^^in D^nr^^yn v^Vf d^^i oyn 
ly^n \V2i^r\ ^n p^ ,DrtD:)yn^n lyiiyj lyj^n >n ^y^cni ,iy::^^ 
n^3 •lyto^-'ms IV in iy:i^TDjy ly^n d^o dpi^dc'-i^2 tDoyDi^iQ 
D^D t3DJ$i£3t^stn ^n tyo D«n "yvfe?i^aDj«:p„ lyrryn lyi 
■D1K D«n lyD D:n pk .tj^^jjjysy: p^< t:'i'yryj:>^j<t pt< n^y; 
lyD^^:^':{J in DiyDD^^D-jyi^ot^nyDyo n DTj^'^nyi D2«njD{^'{<n 
-^yii /'p^^:r :iriitrtDpy2^j^»D i:v ^'d:^p^vd i'?v'^v^. lyi i» 
pm in^K ly^n^D DTi^^y: px oyo^Tpi^ n DD^o'ki'Nn toi^n yD 
-nmv DO lyni^ lyn D^^n nynyjDD^ms yrjysti^iyim ^nx 
1816 pK .lyD^m^ n p2 lyni^pn^nD yD^nSit^v n tor^i^ya 
^m iv pi^iiy:! D^^^t:iiKifc?D Diy^^^^c^nyiyt^ tynn w:'''^ 
,iyDny:i dj^i lyni^n >n ni .iy:ij^^fc?n I'ltiiD tj'o:i:y£y:i D^t^in 
i^yrt:^^3is-iyDnj< D^ni^vya Di^n lyD^yii /'ni^p-p'^:i^^i<" div 
*.iyT^n5 yjyoijy::« n lyto^^n^vsnx tDDny:i tDfcjn m 



tym^p-iyts>>n"itJ n .1816 ,17 "i^'ntt;:^:;! ,"Dn'K n'rys^^B',, 



)i^)) .tynDDn^K ^^ddpvd y^o n iyny:i n];a« tyj^n oy 
Dsnnnyi in mn :iji:u^^ni82 iy:iyp OTyry;; n pd DDMiy:i dj^i 
HD ryryj nyi mi ^pyi^'t^ i^Djyn n« D^^mi .ly^n^a Dti^^y;; 
rsnx p^D^j^^-iD iy;in'NniQ ^„ tyiiy:! lyD^D yjy^ pk t^k 180o 
Dpmy; Dn^K toi^n d«ii nypiynDJsn ly^spj^^ oyi pa r^sn 
lyiy .i^D Dnnns mn iy dj^ii r^fe? : nym i^ oay^tj'y:! pfc< 
pn \'^v:ivn lyn^^ lyto^snivj^ Diy^py;i^ tot^n iy d«ii m^Q 
DD81P yvjs;i n : i^^vyty;! d^j t^k /to:i«iTy:i dh^k lyo toj^n ,pi^ 
lyiiya T^K pn^vsn t^n pa di^dj^^s pk £o:d^q ny^nrv iyi pa 
: l^^vyTy:iDi« D^yn:8ny:i Dj^n iy ^>ni ,Dn^x lyjyp t:ijyiiy;i 
-j^-ix pN ,Dn"'i^:iy:i lynj^n ^n mi ,njy^ij^n ^yofeiiioD^j^o n 
iyT«i^iyn iv do ,Diyny;ivyTy:! n pa lyDr^n^j^i n d^d :i:s:^p 
lyni^n ,tyj^^KisD lypmiyDJix ^v p&? r^^ pt? j:nyDyn VP 
n3«^»-^yn Dyi pd iinsQ lyiy dd^id^?! ly^^D y^^? px \:iVD^ 
PN nmo pn lyto^^nivsMx nyn^^ y;^^ pn ny:!Jn:nj<:D iv 
iy:yp iJ^Dt^nyiMi lyii^ to^j^iiyi pd s d^s DDstj^^yty;! lyn 
tJ'jyD nyirtDPS! nyni^ ly-iy^n DyD^D«;p '^viv'> .Jjn'':iyn lyn 
-QMK lyD^^inyay:! nyiJiyoti^-nn ss d^s ni*My:i DD^iD^itn t^k 
.typmiyn pk ly^^^Msn i:^ tyny:) rtoMJ t^« oy lyDyii ,-1^^^:] 
.iy^yatj^^>n n pa Dyj^^K ii^j i<n iy;:yin n^D ."i^^jyo nM« 



-i^p"iyp2«"ip nyi'K n:?nyTSMN d^t ps t2Dn«n ayi px jj;r25Ktr'7j;T 

-j'ns lyi'^T ,1815 pN t2jyc^'7iNS ms la'bytatrjj;^ mn ny dkii ,tyi 

]is ,iyu5«B''i'yTy:-D:3T!i'iDtnyi2jiN ynN3«s yniyjj'^KS n taiysyiyji 

— :DJ«m^-Tna lyny:? D^yi o'rKSjyny' ]yi'u id k ys^yn 

£ 704 pN nyT''7;m'tt 360 ts'D Diyn^OB' 

1768 " " 664 " lyT^oir-iyBip 

1852 " " 693 '' lyiyno 

1309 " " 550 '' lyT^iDtr-nyty 

600 '' " 260 " iyniJ3B'-'?nij 

299 " '' 240 " — lyT'Otyiyn^u ytajsi^nxnKJD 

450 " " 65 '' lyTtttrnyoyD 

283 " DiyB^'jB^ 

.1815 /'Dni« n'byifiyB',,— 



109 pyDD^py nsD r]D«p -lyi 

->i>*a pK ivD^Djyj^^K-^^D yomyj iy3«:n i^is pn t{< /"oyri^D 
lyusiDSiit lypi^T ^n tj? nyo^UT^nyayn n iy:vS!^::'y:-|{^D jj^d 
ly^ii^v 08^11 ,yjy^ 182 iyD^^3i5§ iv d^j inyo yt lyc^niv 
"iy:n{^i lyn pimn m :njyTi<t^"ij<D .T^ns"D:3fe$:iDiN Dyi nyD:iK 
-y^y-i rviys pd jji^dst-'.j^d s lyD^-py^^iJ^JD t^k tr^jyiymvjyi 
iy::i§^"ij<D iv n«tiiy:i iyD{^:?'Li'5<3 t^x oy lyD^y^i n^ix /lyos; 
.t^D^oc^y^iv lyaj^n D^nr^^ya yDi:i n nyD^yii iv ,:jnyDyn n 
pyDyipyD yi^u px DjyinyiB nyi lyrn lyoyBtj^ lyDi^m ^^iiv 
y^v8i^BD:j;?P nsiD tDStj^D'ii$2 -"n D.^n lyo /pi^^iy: toi^DDyiK 
nni^^ p^N pi^K lyDii^ny Dyi ,ir^jj:yDyj px ovyry^j^ns m 
lyni^n D^nr-'^ya n i^m:: 'in^;?^ ^m:^ pinx y"iyn:s! n px 
-'''318 n lyni^n p^^j? ^n ts .yon^DDyij^ n -ii$2 D^j^ryrnny 
lyni^n px :i:''.!'::>;ti5?2 nyi i^ lyjoip iv Diyi^^t^y^D^ix ivo 
lyijyj^j^D Dyi px .Dyvi^^^ryn yjyoijy::i$ n iv D!2>D'^yjiv 
■dm:iv y\ iy:^n yD^yn ,D-lyrst^'■^y^^fe$n inyvDic lyj^n nnj^^ 
/'ycDMD yny^n lymy^n iv yjyi^j^^n lyonyjiv^^iN,, ly^^pyj 
"lyi pD pi^iiy:! iyD^^ny:iDij lyj^n di^ii "iytDp:i3» 1y*JJl^? 
-■"^j^s "lyi PD ni$ny:i lyoiJ-ij^D ,1795 pn "DJj^'j'yo nyDnt^^ip,, 
DQi^D D1V pi^iiy: D^yDt^y: pN "lya^vDyj^Dj^p Dyn p.s ^^5^ 
Ml Dynsi^: .nnny pim« ^n njyri^^Dm^ d^j .y^visP^sDjJijp ifc$D 
,tDiy:s:^i5$D n^^m lys lyiJ^ ^m lyo^^ny^si^ ^n t:i;jn lyo 
y^sipj^^ yvjfe?j n ly^^yii iv ,Dyv^is d^v D^j^iny: ^n lyo dj^h 
-y:j{^ lyiiy:! t^n — ^ni^v px lynn — to28t^'^yTyrIyDiilpl^•ln8 
PK n^Tiy:i toD8Dy:i lyj^n ly^Ji^o^Pi^y^ .••n iy:iyp to^yt^:^ 
-:>n8 p^i^QiJ^j PK u^^ DiH^^ n) tD^yDt^' yiyijy: px p^-i:^^^ 
T^fc< 3^^P ly^n Di^ii Di^i j:in^^DiN3 "ly^n n^a (to^y^yny: 
-yn tDi^n DD5<t^'^yTyrD:IJ1V^Dt^'1yD:^s d^^ oinoD^jyi lyiiy: 
v'?^» TS! ,pinnyT iyj8D^i§n t^k \:i:i'^v:i d^^i -lyc^i^nyi r: 
,yiyiJ8 lyiij iytDCi$Ej^^yTyrD:i:iv^tDt^"iyoJix ^^d ,;ynr:s!*j'^yTyj 
'2H? IV p^i^D iy5i^^^:ijy nyi n^^c '?vi:i:^r2 ^ ni iny^ o"": lyj^n 
yoii^^py^jij n pd ytDD^^D n px /'tD^^tot^ Dyi iy:iyp pn^sD 
•lyrDiyD-tJ^^j^jysy; yjy*i^''tJ'ife?D iv ]'\i^))v:i db^'d^^^q lyj^n 



nQ ^^Q nyDDjniMipiyD m t^n ^^yD^ssp lyjmynnQ pk 
'isiD Dnyrsti'-^yii^n yD^iiy:i lyj^n "lynna nn«^ 8 d^d .y^s 
-j^ns ^n oj^n lya n^^ :iJirj^"'i<ife5Q 2V''?'\'^ \'\m)v:i d^^^dux 
••iTt? IS ,t:yt:2''in«3 o«n nyoDn lyi .tJ'^jjjyQy:; pk Dvytyj 
"sn w Dyoni^to-'it^ n« dd«d y^is lyn^^n iytD«it3D^:»D n ^11 
ynj^^P s; isnsQ t^« ,doid:)d lyoD^^tj' nx oyDsvpi^ lyo^Dt?^ 
-D:y nynyjDD^un;!^ no » in tyn^^n I812 px .^yo^D lyD^^vyry:! 
-j^n ny^Dn n y^^yii ,D-iynyii n isq oyDisi n iDny:ivjii? DJsr 
-nD j^:^iyQ n ^u onynyii y^is pk ; ^^v^v^i o'?^ \:i')V'??^v \V2 
->! lysiJ^ny:! lynj^n ^"••'^nsp pn pmyns ps ly^nitDK^nyii njyr 
nytoDn n d^^ii oyDsi n ddsip pn ty:i:yin i!^ hd ,D^uii§ 
PN lyD^usiny:) vw lynj^n D^nr-'^ya n .Do^D^sn lyni^n 
-nci^ s lyjyii nnytj^-pn^vfeiin Dyi nn iyi:i^i:s!ni5§D nn-'D 
nyi t:n^tDDy"i8 Di^n :i:n"';yn n m) ^T'^^jd-'In lynjy^yotj'jyi 
-nsD n DiiT'Qy: mn '^v:i'?V)) ,DyD^D«;p-iyDrD ly^sntDjy^ 
1^ n«iiy:i D^^^DiiNisQ iy:^n lyij^jyo fiJ^D n .iy:i3i^nj8n 
; D^tJ'in iny^Ds pn ly^D ps iy:^onytD"t5'^:jjyDy3 y^yn^^tj'iiiiD 
nn DJ<in i^-'Nisd nyi p« iy:!Jfei;:iyj ni^t^isQ t^n p^n^D lyi 
-ni^^ n ly^^ii^ ty:ij^D''''V n Dimtotj' d^ii nyn .DT^^^y:iDnN 
i?n^^toDny3 PD Dyton^ti'y: :iijy:i iy:^Dy:i toyii 1824 px I800 tyi 
-ya i<n lyni^n i^d dj<;ii ly^sa n yn^yn pa ,iyto^>posiTMi:i 
{^D^: lyj^n oy -ly^y^s^^u d^s py^i lyouy; lyji^p ddsid 
-18Q v:i''p'^v^v:i n pa tD^''PtoQ« lyn ly^yii Dp^toD^DStDD v>? 
n PD iynj<! ; ly^^^Dnix n pd D>^"^:ijyntDtj' n nyni^ iy:ij'i:i^«2 
^n:sn s lynsD dd>^^ in lyo p^p i^i iy:^n D«ni tyDnnsiij 
-lyD^uis nyi iy^n^2y:i yt:pjyipyj ynyniD n ii§Q dh)) ^'d 
-jyotj'^i^D n .lyvyrya yrii^n n iyt:):"iN lytD^^yj toi^n dj$?p 
lynjyiiDnJ » m^v^ t^n lyvyrya yrr^n n ps :i:iDnpniv yn 
5'j^T Dy nn nytD^mj^; ytopmiytojiN inyo n i«q 3:nsnni^G 
I3DS1P yrTniiJ'o^ T>N Dy v^'?V)) s tyDpiisiiomfe? ^n ^^3 lyjt^p 
W^iVP Av:i:)nv^^mi?i yti'^toD^jj^^jr-i^ntD inn ,Tyv^{j^ iv in 
.n;iiiD-Djyny^ lyn ps iyprnyt::ns nyi 



Ill }>:j;iDD''Tpy lyiD qcyp -lyi 

lym^Dpn ii§ij ivDMiy: 8 ^v vi nvi lypmiyoJiK iv ly^yj 
•»n T^K oy n« .niDx^D-'^yn v\22'\v'?vi n na Di^jiij^jr-n^ntD 
nyDJiK d:{^^jt' yruyot^'Sia na dpikti Dyn \^vd^ iv ly^Ji^y: 
"lyoei^p n Tin oiv'??^v toiyii nyD^u"ifc< n na ly^^^o yiyi:^ 
p-iestDtj' lyiij Iy^:^^<'nt^'"l^D dv^k iy:^n Di^ti /lyi^^tj^iytDJix 
TO liD :Ji?DJj^ Dyi ^u \2\:^^iV^vi lyn^n yiJ^yn .Dn^v^cni^o 
-onS" "lyi ns lyi^n i^d lyii ,nrM .D-iyi:imn«^ lyojnyv 
lyrii^i Dyn lytDJix i^ns "i^a lycnyj /"D^-'ms na y^tosipi^t: 
nav no "lyo^^n-is-pnnsD i^k "lyj^D yDino^:-i« n ^yc^o 
.niDK^a""'^y3 yDjny^y:i n ni nmo '^v:i''\r[ ^v^'pvnvi finx 
lyny-iDDpy yDvyTy:jy:yp t^i< tyjj<t::i'yj ^n lyj^n I800 px 
-nfc<s "lyi ; D«^P"iyD^^ni5<T"i^ ns nyo^^^ iy^fc<^vi!jD Dyn ^inx 
W^m^v^i D^i^oyi lyj^n "lynyn^jy^nnp "lyn nt< nyo^^3ni$-pn 
-"i«-iyD5<n nyi iyi^^« nypiynoj^n Dyi ns nyo^ni id 8 
Dyi PQ DJ^M tonyDti^ lyo^uiK'iio^ipnjs iyi lyiij lyo^u 
-D^nDiijj PK iypj<nj^^tDt:^ lyii^ n^^tj^^pjs^ px lyrBC'-^ynsn 
'V ^D^ytoti^yj^MJiv \V2Hn m^x^D-^^yn yojiy^yj n .ijs^iyn 
px lyoyip Dyi \v^''\))i D^^p^yo'-D s: 4i^iJ^^^ px D^biDjyi 
-pnnsD lyii^ lyjM^-ji^D yt^iM^ytm^-too yo^o lyom: iyi 
-jiy^ yi^yD-inj^n n .iynt:Dn:^K-pti'SD y^o n px lyo^^nis 
DiyiJinin>^^ lyo^nyvD^i: no ^im^isd pk di^jh iy» Di^jn ,i5>y: 
is:2 DiyDnyj Di^n /'piyntDJi^n,, y: lyjiy^onx 15<d Diyi«Dy:i 
*^j^Bj^ji^D lyD^^pini yt inn yiyD^y yiy^n px lyi^^^p^p n 

-jip nws t25Mi-nyn»K ,in'T yiyiiK "ins .tsSnNijy; inK ,i:?i3DiD^y nyi 

-p:;D ly^'cr^'K nyT .12:15 20 t'2 5 ps I'j'y^ny'? lyDyiSDniw n^nn 
"ly "D"iy'7S''t:D'i'iK'.i n« 'tsyoKD ^n^^p'OK n'jK,, nyi ps •lytQyi 
pK ]yDi3y;:»nK iyny:j iniy t'« ij^nnn ]'u m ntK tk ,ttiy^p 
-py*? pn n^jfl tiis 100 iy'?n«:iKn tsntty; nyKi><s I'u tann ,Tnt9 

.ispijiiojKp 



■y: \v:iHn yn^yn /lyvyry: n ns JJianpni^ nyi n«j i^^ss 
iny:nynn^ Dnoyji ij<;j dj^h /D^^vjiy^ y^yoitijQ s toiyi^^jD 
-»^yn Di$^p Dyn to« ns tD^^njj^ iyi lyi^^x d^^v ysj'n^i » 
■"lyn MT» .y;i^i2:3i^j nyi d^d iy3^^:iyjDMi< nn ^nn niDx^D 
iy:]5§Q yrtj^i n t» ,iy^j^pj^DJ^"i3 V2V2''?2V^ n na "i^» lyny: 
/Din^j«:ni^ lynjyoi^^j^a lyiiy: o^j ^j^oj^^-p li?ti:j^^ px lyj^n 
n Ti§ /lyrayj n^D *1820 i^x I810 tyin^^^ n lyt^niv ni 
Diy^;yTD2n£j! ,Diynn^:i ,Diy:D«D>^yDyD ,DiyD»DDin nyj«ij«:^ 
i/Dnn royioD^jD^ynnsa v^'^v'i^ lyjmsQ lyjy^D Dnynnc-'tj' m 
/lynyjyjji^ lynt^n v'?^ ""n mi 4yQ«"ito5^n lyni^n o^)) ,n)^'<'2^ 
Vii^'^'WB ^V2'?vnvi PK .i{$"n i5 j:i^^^tj^ :i^vd"id m ro^m na 
"••y^ ns iyD^''ni5§-nonDiJ' nyi^ n^^^j^pjs^ ns lynyii iyi dj^h 
-i.T-x n« toQ^np-pio^i nyi t^-'D nynPJii^P ly^^s px .lyDoyo 
-y:i toi^n iy lyn i^^ds: /D^^m^-iyirp m 'Wi^Zi yijyD^^f'^sn 
-nyD:i« Dyi jj^^^jj^ inyv Djymfe§Q dmp ,d''"'V y^iD d^uis 
n pi< in Iy^^st^•Bi!{ i>d lynyt m-nQ"D:yay^ nyi px n^^tj^ 
jyni^n lyoyi^P yn^u n Di^ii 4y:i^^«ife?D n pq DiytopsifeiiD 

b^nyiiy^i'i^ ::fe?:^ PQ r^t? iy» ixii ,niDx^D ytD3iy^y:i n pn 



"ij? BNn ,1819 pN rl^'iix^ P-*< lyoTpy^ T^N taynx^ i^n .d-i:;m2 

n INS nnx ,pBD n iyi« tin Dy .in'Jt lyn Pn tt ;inoyDi'7B'iK 
nyiN -ij?'7tt»'i3 lyiNi^N*? n ps 'i'ycsj'S-p'N vn "inNi ;ii'i5ii: yta^;*^ 
-«i:v-nini3 n pN lyiiy:? c5J t'n oy "lyD^yn iii D-iy3ND-'7y3:;a 
(.in'7« cniN ps Z'tKsynN'i' DN^'i'^m itn ti>''7„) ."lyn^n jrw'isD^: 
'UN ivuyjj taiynain-inN' dj?t ]T5 :3NBiN pN lyi'u Diynn-'i"a n 
-pNS pity TIN ny m oyiDNi) ]"ii:?nniyB ]yn tn ,id-i'T'Jn;)1n pnxttty 
iyTmy:spm!J t'n (pnnNS D'niyi t^nN ta'i'yiaB'yjJiN p;ny:j trm 
lynyj "ly t'n ,B5N!2''i'yTyji nym pN nyn ]yttijy;5snN pe lyixTiy:: 
]iN ta^niN lysTT iny:i ii? ,DTBii? Int^n^ iyTN'?nNB i!i ]j?j3iNmv^ 
DH^N ]ifi /'p^y^'^'ys D«^'7'?m nyo UN fi'i*?,,) .niy:!y:i iNnvis'a n 

(.92,89 .T ,1877 ,1N'73N^ .p^'i'N 



113 pytsDnpy -i»s r^cyp nyi 

'V2V^ ,niynt5^ yD^^vyryj'oix p^"^ ^lyvyry: yivDyisyn -lyojiK 
■yj pD Dy^ji^oyiyv yD^^:nyiiy: yiyus "lyiij .lyDy^oy yi^^^ 
Dyoyn ,D-ly3SD^yDt^'^ya -lyjt^i:^:^ n .iyjE^'j^pyry: vd'ti 
lyojnyvDs pd ^^^d lyo^^ny nvi pd ro:yp di^osi p^^jr 
V'?» T8 ,nmyn iy:8t:5^eia i^^pmo^iN* iy:^n /L^-iyijimni^^ 
DO T^K Di^ii /i^^jto^D D^i? pyii o:{:?^y:iv do ^i^r p^nys 
"oyDi^iB lyi PK DyDDy^SD lyrov^^ pn i^ iyn:ny:nv ro^n 
PD PK Djny: lyoi: px t^n pk .o2S!'^iy:^j^23i>o lyK'OfeiiD 
T^x DyD^^^^i;?^ vyfi^i n lynj;? ."nyDP^ij^D ly^'ya^Dpysoyn 
-i§Dos n IV iyji>nD^u ly^n d^d inst^'iyi^'n px lyny: do 
-jyiJ^iyn lyn ."^^^a Dii^ayi,, oyi i^d 183i pd iy"ijijD-D:«^v 
,1848 IV lyDJns Tu nyD^^ms d^'pp \iv:ivn oyi ^u ij^d nyi 
lyni^n onyin^D yiy^n p« ; ^spnfe<"i pi^dij' lyi^y: t^^opsis t^k 
-i^B Dst^p-nyD^uis nyny^ pk ^^••dj}^ lyDjyroj^is « lyooy: 
iyoipy:iDM"i8 lyj^n lyn^n yiy^n pd .d^^v lyi pd p^d^^ 



]yny;j -S'taayp t^K ^"iijBttByT ps "lynne'iy k ,i:Dy: inxs^TT ♦ 

« ]1E lyDKSIKB lyT D^K ,1802 I'K CiTK ]15 TD l^^VH ^ND l^Ky 

DyT "INS ;ji;n''i3i«s k„ I'ryu'u oyn a'?: ,!:y'7EaK9 ly^mmpiyo 

tsKn 1818 I'N .(.T 38 ,1802 ,ini:k'?) "-i:;2y;Dt:i^2nK ynyi»i ta'D 
lyi^Dj^j^H ]« INS ik'tb ]yt2:y2i'!jnNE ]jrt:e»ij; cyn t:2Kn:::;j!D'n« ny 
nym'rp-Tnta yn>n:iT«3 n i!? r^^-y^V^ r« ,yii*KT':K;iK-^;'Bii2n« 
-"I'D 'm n«5 Dy'ripiyn p'BKnt::N^'S 'm hk D'jyp'anK,, i^t pK 
tspmyj lyiiy:? T'k dkii /'Dp':ypyD j:'"!**!''*? 'm nx ^nxsiD 'rxica 
D'DiKiB lis ta'^pttXTpiyoEMN H iy;nsy;i:j U'-xn ,"i?<-3nKji„ pK 
TK ,(2719-23 .Di:Kr3 D'^'tb) tDiyn'i'i'try; cn^x cxn nys'ryn ,0'''79 
ny :m^p o'lynsEity oyn tie "lyisyipyo n;n u-'^iy^ ^^^^" ^'^ "^y 
-IKE isyTin^y: t2«n ny .tr:yo ly'-nn^n ,"iy!:s;'Tj;;: {< lyiiy^ t'k 
-EnK n33 iyny:J t:o nynK vh ly ,Dy'!i«T'jK;iN-"iyt:'i2nK yjyTiB^ 
Dy'D'^'TB pfl ny:<'K p«ny:i t'k np ''.>u ps yi^'N p'p lya^xms 
n lie j:ifinpms nyi ine y^fxt:';** nyn px "iyBH*n::'f3 y^'^s^j 
t< lyiiyj T'K Dy nyi ,1825 \^h ]ik "jau'jMNnKB ]y;y; lysyry;,, 
]iB eym'DKp pu ]'K ,]yin'£:''x-pnis 'n tyn lya tk nnKBp 



DT'>:^'':T'-T"'ntD lis yti^D'^tyy:; 114 

mv)) tinasn s lyssti' ojj^pi/j nn lyni^n i^d i«j ikti .didvd 
»P8 ns ^na iyiiy:i lyai^p-i^ntD yiy^n lyj^n /iy:ijnn''D yny^n 

lyDt^n Di^ii ,nnK^D-'^yn n 112 lyni^p n dj^ m)Vi lyj^n oy 
-•DJiiiP y^8itD:yv« yjyi^^tJ'ife^Q n na p-'njypn oyi wm^v^ 
ns iyJ5§nrDann n d^d iynyjy;isi$ in lyn^^n y^^yii /'lytoyD 
Dii:i .ir\t$,'' ro^m yDDpyj n pa n^^i^s p« DTO{$^:v-i^nD 
n oi^)\ ,pi^M yjy> D^yDtJ'yjiv lynj^n v:i'?V)) ^^n iyiiy:i ty:^n 
ijianpniv lyn nsQ :iJi:yiisn lyn iyny:iy: w^nn lyo^uns 
DJi?n Di^2:^^8 ly^n iin ."jjirj-'^^nsD iy:iyp lyvyty;,, n pd 
■n^ntD lyn D^^'^roDsmj^tDti^ px D^^prm^i^ yDniy:i s iyny:iy; 
-yi yD^^iiJ^^D nyD3ii< ,D^{^n n y^^yn inj^ 03i:yii^n li^oi'' 
"Sjnx ynni n pc lyDnpo^is DJt^py; d^j '?m:^'[> .lyjjn^; 

.lySj^ijyjyna-p^i^^D P« DP^nDD-iy:iJin PD lyiJStDti^ 

ViK "::irj^''Xi8Q ty:iyp iyvyTy:i„ n ps :ijipimi ds^ih n 
rp^'nn /^isnyir^ .li^n^j^^ t^fc< nisx^D ytoin-'j^ni^-Di; n Di^ 
tDD55Dy: lyiJ^n •'n dj^^t .ly^iy^ t^x ,^iv^^ v^vi:^ dd^^^^q p« 
-D"": p£ iJi^iJsnsn n px nyjjyiDty p^s^von yDor^y^iJ'-K n 

Dyi lynijtn yD^yii /p^nys v:i''?m m lyroy:! lytDD^K^^yry: 
t:^^n:y:!y^y:jij t^« oy y^^yii jyii px ,Dnnn vw^^t pd ^ntDiv 
nif-P PK ^^ rpi^iiya Dnyiy:ij:>n8 t^« i'>'^t:i nvi y:ii:i t^« dj^ii 



T'« aoN; .ys'ttiy yiaDpiNiaty d»/d»<^b ]yny:i "i:?i2K;y'7j;"r 'DTniD 

]ifi "iyn:y!«mKi3 "lyn lyiijny; t'k "iy ]t« ,1825 ''bi' tk /"lys^'S 
]'« ,nyiann"i«iDiD "ij;i2B« ]k "iun m ,tDyB'0Kp-D;;3itt'bKin«B oyn 
n ]1B B)tt«p Dyn t>n j^tayu piNtatj' tyy^ ''y t'*< "iniji ]yn'?yToyn 
piB BD''? ^yuo^utrxn K nyn« /'DytaNi ps nn„ k inb DiynnB^e^ 
-yj isKn iy lys'^yn u'» ,yunyjy n pN ; lyTins-ta^mKp'iaty 
]yo TK /'lo^'jKTont? n« Ti«i<n„ oyn tiB ^k^s Dyn lyjyp ts^niK 
lytPiyD iy:n«msonN nn Diynn-'iyB'B' nyjNi3«'? n lynn'i'iy '?«? 
tyj<jitty;jn3 T^'j^ytttenn isKn /'m^j' m^'i nuittoiaiNB,, oyi i^s 

.e|»gp DyT pa :;^^Biy di» 



115 f'^ynonpy n^s rjD«p nyi 

D"fci!^ny ,DDifc<iie;3 p^Dy::?^: \'\i^))v:i t^k D^^-ijyjy^y::i>' n n« 
mt:i ^-T n« »ii^t3 IV Di^)) \vv')):i} ]v'?i^^ ^n r^? ,''n na ly^o 

DID MTi§ iyD^\-| ^n ^11 PK .pJlKll iyDj<D:^^N IJ§ D'D — dj^t 

-i«:ny:DMnj§ \'^V'\^ d«ii ,n ^n lyv^DU' lyo^^pv y^s pk ; \vn 
•iDiN "iyi:s 15$ p*P"i« :i:y t^sso lyo lyni;? D^-inns nyi P2 lya 
ly^^jyo ^11 /iyD^v;:y:y^y:j« v^v't iy:)y-isc^i$n ly^ijT ^n wa 
v^? iv !^i>*?2r^p ^n ]vi2'?i$)) Ai^^ ^"^.^1 ;y^o tj< ni^s in ly^ytDij^ 
-i^nys yD:{>*D-'.yn n pd di^s^^j^ lyi -lyoipy: d^j di^k'^3 
-nyipniv ly^j^t lyvyry; n lyii ^Diyny^a^-.x i^: opi^n lyj 
D{^ii ^rytyji lyn ^ii ^nvt2 d^: pfc< /ryTy:i iyi t^n oy .pyr. lyD 
.ny"^n^£ v^v^'t iv >nD^i» ny^n iyp:yt^' iv nyo^^mx n ddj^-o 
"iLV£{< T^K DV PK /iy:^n "lynn^a n lyr. d-ij d^^i p^kisd -lyn 
-^yv. iy:yp Tf'jynyB ^j^st d^^ti ,:^i*:b*r.v lyt^mv nyj>^K i^tD^: 
l^-p iy:y"iD vi d*: .^^3 s ^n ^vi i^n{<D .ly-in^a t^k oy \V2 
-lyij^ : ^^D lytD^n^v s lyni^n lyo^ni dj^ii n p&< ; oy^^-^D 
-'j:v lyrtoDn'D*: s iyny: nyij;? /cnnD lyo tyii nycojy o^: 

."lyD 
t:t^n ,DJ8n lyiJS! lyn pa 4ynt:Dnrt<-pt^'i<!D y^o n pk 
iy;:nyijy yr-i:j^^vi^s n ,pi^ pa jjnyjy^pi^s y^ci^ n 
ps "lyvy^B n ly^^ao^ix dj^i pk ,iyiJ^*tDyD-DD^^myt n i^x 
-yj T^>iijyD'it:)tj^ nyirp m ly^ns d^d nyjyD y:yDPi?inyn 
.o^^p»ni<t '^vy'?PV^^ PQ iJ^tDtj'iv t? IV lyto^^ni^ n to^^in 
PK 1800 pD lyoyo^Di^P yl^♦n^tD:yo^^1^B n p2 lytD^nt^n n 
-D^i«DiK Dyi PB yD^^t^•y: yny^no s lyLo^^n^jy lytD^-'ii 
-rx ^^lODpyo n p« nmo'Djyny^ nyi pb lyprr lyD^^iyn 
t^K miv^ tort^Byt^^n tyj^n D«tii n pb lyn^^^ n» .lynDon 
lyri^n nyn ly^yii d^^^b ton^nr /'y^v^pnn^B ^yiis2 lyn 
n^^iiy:i iyrivy:i2^n» lyrn ^n : i^^nn^:)DiK tym„ .yi^inyB 
rtDB'j'Q'y:! ,D:«^pnsB ,iytDi?in^B •'n D«in lyn -lyj^^xi^B p« 
•lyBi^itDtr y33ynt:c^ i^^pyi'^ d-'d DB«tnt:tr^3 pk D^>^tDiii<nsB 
^ px lyo^bsny; ^n t^t'in w^ \)i< ni^^iy:i t^rj^nmyi lyrn >n 
,t3^nr"'^yn yny^n ."nyoonpy iytDDB^^:y^p iy-i pb njt?Dti>iv 



-02V2V'? yjyDijyjj«i n lyjypiyj^; y^^yii nytD^msnytDD^^D 
yt^^tDD^^^D^B^P lyi^y; dd«i lyj^n ,D^^yis yiy^n nQ nmo 
j/^ny:y yvj«;i ly^n iynyjy:iEi^ iyn«n Di^ii /'nyDnyjiyD:i«» 
DT«^y: iyn{<;n ni< /tosy^i^yj ns D^n ly^y^vnyDJ^p lyi pin{< 
-jyo Dyi 182 piisD rsMX to>^ni8 lysnp lyo^sm^a y-iy^n 
■y: Di^Dnpyn t^« t:)^un8 yrryi n .T^ns lyDor^u dd^^^ 
-jirDDytj'isn y:yi^^{i'i8D id s ns n« iy-ijy:y:i v'?^ 112 n«iii 
-«3Dyn ns n^^iy:i Di''^«iD:i^P m tomj^Dr^P t^n n .iy:i 
ID 8 iin n«iiy:i iy:iJixiivyjD''n8 tyj^n dj^ii .lyvyry;! vi^^d 
ly^^tonn ns ty^feiiD .pi^ na lyn^viyojns nx lysi^notj'-i^ya 
inj^ •^'?r]V^v:i o^: jynj^n D^^PDSiT^nj lyrj^^vn^n n« '>:81^d 
y^vn^nto lyD^^toa^t^'j^^oy;! ^ \m m^iJstoD Dy:>^oy;^8 tfe§ 
-n^D y^o n pn nyo^uis n tyj^n piidiv iyrD^njy:iy:i lyiij 
-v^-itD^^v vw^'i .DnytoD^^D yny^n iy:iyp tj^^s^^t lyiiy:! typn 
invD D*-: lyiiy: ^^Dn lyj^n Dp^ntoD yDs«t nx ly^^^xn^s yr^ 
lyo Ts ,n^ Dyn lyD^isnivDnx lyco^p yD^^ocsti'jyi^^^ >ii 
-Disn-iJ^toti^ nvi \2H^^2^ -tyny^ fe$ ly^^D lyji^tp t^k oy mi '?h^ 
-^^yn n dj^ii ,nn:!jj^ iy:yp nj^t^^^^iyi^i lyoin^jsni^ lyo 
lyntoDnrx-pti^^D n px i^d tynyt ^tonn^cy: lyni^n niDj^^D 
iyny:i d^si^ ,|ytD«DD^8ii:i pfc< ly^nyrDy-iriyj^^SD P2 jy^nnonx 
piK D^^pjyDn^nnytojiK nyriyi^j pn ^V2^^^ to^^v iv tD^-i^; pq 
-18 18D \'\v'i2^ nvi D^D Dyj^^K PS nyiiPJJ^P lyri^^toDnp^i 
-«in Dy •'11 ,Dy^v«T^3«n« v'2'?v^^ pq :i:nn^s lyn pj< .d^-"! 
-j«i^ n ni tDi: Mt8 lyt^^m^-pnn^Q n tDsnya D^^tt^yi lyi 
DPoy:i lyvyryrD^jipmiyLDJix n w^nn ^ninx^D-'^yn nyji^i 
n pK \^v)) lynyjiyran^i? ^j^t idd^d yom: « ts ,iviyn pn^s 
y^ynDDHj^x pq lyo^^v px .ty^jy^ y^^^oy tis tDjyn 
;nr^i D:!^«:DyjD"'"iK Diynn^s yrii^i n iy» D^^tn d^diddd 
n^iD^n lyiiy: d^j iy:>n ^n Dt^iii ,Dy:i8^iyn^j ytDSJ^ n nyntj 
/ly^nDiv oyn pd dpi&?ii Dyn t3iyt5:i^y:i tynt^n /iyn^^oife§Q iv 
.Dy^v«p:)8:ii«t ytoQ^nu^tot^^ i^q rt^n: tD:i:)n«nDi« t^n d^ii 
D^yoD^-'D lyj^n nyT-^iD^D ytoDi^ia n tiik p« ,DiyimQ n 



117 i>:yDDMpy n»s rp^p nyi 

112 ::nn^DJ^^K nyi iv CD^j-iay; lyai^n lyijyotj'DiK y^et ^ 
-yi:«! PN Dy^:i^Dy*iyvDontDr^s v^'dd'd ,myni;' yn'K-no 
lyiiy: ^i^DDsyt lyrn y^^yii ,Dy^i»«oDy2^:5<D y^yj{^^V5<D:yD yn 

.^y:^Dnp ^^^jd^dd^i pn k^hj^p 
n«j m'Wi \voy\yn id k pk lyrn D-iyny*i;:y^nnp n 
-i:s^o«!:^ I^« ."ly^^-'ms'^^DDpyo n mi y:5$^ lyiyjiy i5§ pn 
-j^^pt^' ly^^^DyD'^Du PD \'\i^))Vi D^ncsin dj^^ii ij^j ^n ly:^^ 
iyai:y:iJi^ d^: t^« yytyrD^jiK^nESin ivd'^v'? "lyi — .""nyD 
-nfe<£ vy'?''\r]V\, n iyn«n ijfc?^::y-pDv px .1799 V2 ]'\m'iv: 
]v^i^^^u-i'?v:i yt^'^l3«SDy^ n pi< oyioD^D-pno lyi /'jjidd^^d 
p« nyD^ms yt^nnyiyoJiK n lyo^j^nyj ,dj^!3 -iy:n^p fe? "it<D 
IV T^K pDiyi DsiD^uyi Dy-i .D^^PJ^jyoiyojix ly^njyDt^^ia 
-s«-DD^uis) "Dp^DD,, yoDi^ yny^n pa ly^^iD n px inyt 
lyDKi^^D v:i'?V)'i PD tD^-iv nyn pi< ,Dp^nDD ^viH (ly^Ji^yo'^r 
-n^sii; v^V't iy^^t:tJ^iv:^^{§ ni^*iiy: iy2ny:Dm» dsj^ ;yj^n 
n«iiyj t:in^2y;3{^ t^j< isio p2 p^n-jD nyDM"i:i lyi .lyLD^D 
•y"i t^j< D«ii /'y^v^nynysji^P nyjy"iJnyrnyn:j^ fe§ nn» s pa 
lyo,/ '^v:^^]!)) /'oastj^iynna/, n^v^t:pfe?"is nn n«i"iy:i tJi^^np 
w:v lyn PD nyi^^^o^D n ^>>"n ,n^D"iyT lyany: nrs toi^n 
"DMK ,nyntj^ nyD^^iy^^D DDDyn fe$ inn tDyo^^^an^D in lyni^n 
iyi iyD:iK tosj^ti'iyinn lyi pd lyjjoynj^i^s n iy:3i^Div 
-DM« i» ]vy\\> lyii^ iyvi5§n px pyn ly^i^totry: ps fi^^jiDi^^ 

*."lMa Dyjyo^jt^'y; 

5'n^£yrnnn{<! "lyijyDp^ii iyi in Di^n ,iyt:^^nij< lyosi^p y:yi 
-Dnifc? to^n Diyi:ni$n yyoij? lytD^uist'Pi^ lyvj^:) iyi ^>n 
.::ipniiytDJiN m ^^^^i^id pd yij^nys lyi to« pn lyrniy: 
IV lyiiy^ Djny^iyj iyj>n lyo^^ni^? n ya^yii pk ,Di^nD n 



.1825 /'dkh"? iKiynjinDNp \h yttu^oaKp,, "lyn iks ttpnuon "ly^ttDKp 



lynjijn /O^^nns riJVDn ivd^miv » iv r^^s p-'n nc nynJKii 
PD lyoMiyj fc§ /inyty:i oy iyn«n vd mi /D8ny;i :ijy!^ ns v\^ 
D^ns:^ni§D lyiiyj t^« Di?!ii ,y^v5$pjfe?j"ii$ yivofc^iy-iys) v^^'i^ 
'^v:i'?V)') 4797 iiEi ryry: Dyi ^i^t^ DyDD^yjDiN .ij»^ Tnyn^K 
-ss^j'^yTyj yiJinji^sDyii^p,, ns r:ivt:)0''i\)v n lytoj^mjSD t:^n 
"ib*j ns Dy^vi^pjyjii^ yirDSiyiya yjyi^^t^ii^a n lyn^n /'lyD 
-"•Dik^D^'^j^'n ,D-iyDyp^{^"n ,Dnypm"nDi^p ,Dny:Di5§DDin ,D-iya 
-i^p ynjytot:^ fe$ iyD^«ny:j{^ nnx^D-'^yn v^vi:^ m ony-i 
-8Ty:i lyn^^n nx iyo^^njy:!y^y:!j{<!-n^nD lyjyii nynj^soy- 
^D:fc?D p^? .iypy"i"iv-i«s yD^^DD;stj':^^Dy:i isd i^y; D^y?o 
D^D .y^v^T^jfeii^ii^ y^^jj^i'-v^j Di^p^j<i2 » Di^^Dnpy dj^h iy^fe?2 
,iy:iJi^D8nsiQ-tytofcit:y^yT yD^^nny^ pn lypT-vsn yt^'^s^ijij^yj 
n«iiy3 toi^Dyi^ lyrn yD^yii ,Dnypm-pDi5$p n p2 n mi 
-«3 n PQ mjpn n .18I8 p^^ >^>;>^j^3 lyjj^D^j^n -lyi pd 
n liiiiD lyn^nti' ,1803 pa lyDn n''D«n y^^yn ,Dny:Dbvon^s 
yD^^in^DDMX D^D ,iypn>v«n tira px ijs^jjy pa :ji^>>dj>\n; 
•D^^prDyo iyirtopy^i<!P px DD^tj^iyDyit^isD ps Iy:lJ1»>Dt^'^3 
-:yDD« ^'2 /T^MijytD^^v t^j< y^v«T^:^i*ii^ y^s;jj^>vfc§: yrtJ^i n 
n^D .D8TP1M1 n^:i ty^yj .tyvyryrD^jipmiyDJiK n pim« n 
w:^': Dv Dii.)) ^y^Qtj^^n iyrv:^^i< p^x lyjjyii i^: j^n lysiisn 
vo'^w^ » nyn .1823 pN DiyDfc?opn£:tJ' ly^iQiyir^ n mx 
-ii§ nyn i!^ nytD'-uis yDD^tna ry^ytDtJ'^Jii^* on^nns mn v^^vq 
nn>« DiyrsK^-pnD^ pa t:i^^^'?v\Vi v'?Wi^'? n Dr^sn .to^'-n 
"ni:pn-"i^nD n iv r^ny:iy3 p^?„ r^5< dj^i ts ^ryoni DtJ^^yj 
,D>nr''5'yn n .lyT-^^tD^D yin^x y^s ry:i''ivyjpniv Di^n rix 
top^tj^yj w^nn ^^isiyir^ p« lytrjyo p^*? tynp Jinjyjj^tp to^: 
-D^K iyn«i iyn«n ^n ; ^y^D^pr: px ^in r^x "lytD^^ni^ its*.- 
lyjy^ pit^ tD«in tDQ^t^^yry:) 'Diyj^stj^-pnDtJ^ n rs jyjiDy.*. 
.myt^tJ^ yjys px lyni^p-T'ntD y^^$pt<i^ n iyiiy:i ym^ nm 
■TS!^:i pa "DiyDyinp^ntoD,, tDD^nnny^iynn^ isi tDJjn y^n^c ^-^ 
iy>n '•n tDjy:iy3!S!n iyn«tn tyoD-'j^i^ji'' y^fe?pi$^ n ryoyii i»vj 
lyD 1x11 /'v)n ni^p-i^no,, s px toi^:i»Q >n tynt^n ,iyoipjJi? 
ly^j^T ^n ,]:i"?v)B'v:i i>n yoia px oypji^j^^itjo d'^j:) -"n >u DJ^n 



119 



l':yDDMpy "ib'D qo^p "lyi 



-«>3"i8 iyj«nj«^ n iy3» ; n»:i lyonp^^yt i«i:i;j^ iiij: py^i8 
iy-i:yp^noD» s ni<D \:i7]v: \'^^: n ts rijy:^2yjDMK ,ivd 
lyi .::i^yDC'^a n lyj^Dij^Di^D iv DJSiTOjy t\ lyaijjn /'syiij' 
lyji^^pn^D iv ,iy3^^3y; D^nr-'^yn n isd t^n ^yo^o lyovy^ 
■lyir^ 5< "iy3«! ; in iyr:^^Ki8D isd tDDnyj px nyo^^a-is n 
n pi^K :n:yt::D8 id^j .(mtj^n) yjyii:jnK^y:i pd DDny:i ny^iB 
1^5 iy3yjy:DMi«: oj^n nyoDn pa ::nyi»22^'is< n pt< nny 

ii^: DO iyTniy:iDM-i^ in oj^n ^n^Dyrnnnii; iy:M«T nn 
■i^^P5<n D-iyDD>^D n .15<;2 iyD^iiy:i y: pd -iyi^^;D^D n lytj^n^v 
yD^^ n m A'Wi:^ nvi dv^o:^' ii<2 p^-t^ ts onjycij' in ly: 
^"iD lyj^n yij^nys lyjy^ pj< DJisor-i^no pd iyD^r«D:i^p 
ni^iiy:i Diy^^D{5'yj''^n iy:^n djijti /lyoio pd ly^jn-'ntj'j^^K o^d 
,Di^nD yiyiJS p« d^d^ddd v^v^'f Pfc< nyD^^mj? n lyv^otj' iv 
MT5< •Diyot^' yiyij^ pfc< ^'O ^dii^d:^ "iy:yr>K lyn pK ''^0 
PK ,Diy:iy^trn^«i: lyjj^ij^:^ n ps ncsiti'^yTy:! yj^"-^? n dj^h 
iy3y:iyjpy"iiS! iyi«t iyn^^y:iDnx ,i8i3 i^n 1810 ps mi^^ ^m n 
,£200 lycytiDSin lyoj^pv iyn«in y^^yii avd^o V'^^v\2'<''m2 
*.Di^nD yiyi:« inyvnys ni 'iyr:yi'i tDO w 



£ s. d. 

15 00 00 -lyttiyiyi n i2Sn«sy;5D 

10 10 00 -i^-^triyn n u*n»'?y:D 

20 00 00 npnns n t2'?nNi»:;;D 

10 00 00 iyTOB'iyn'7'T n ta'^nxj^yjo 

4 00 — Dny2«Dj?p'7'sty n is iyi«;!D 

10 10 00 tyTctyiyBTp n taSiKsyjo 

10 00 00 -lyn^'iDn n tsSiKiiy^D 

10 00 00 DnyiiKJ n ts^nKsr^sD 

5 00 00 D"iy2K?2:pK5S' pN DMS lyn^'r^^D 

5 00 00 — Dnv2><'2'?Ntr;xTi n p;n»'?y;D 

5 00 00 — i;'UM2nj<-n;;n;»^ n ttSn^syjD 



nx 


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1810 


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1810 


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Dr''3y'»ii"'-T''ntD ps yt23''tyy:i 120 

nyDDytj^t::sD» oyi px) DDnsn s p^ m orsy;! to^ij px pi^'^n 
lyn IV y^v«^yBfe5 is iy:yii (I8I8 pq "n^j^iyn K^nj^-'tj^tDDpy 
lyn^yDytj' yoniy: pa "Dj^tj^yo lytDii^iip DPsisyoj^Q,, 
::i:irj^^KiSD i«d :Ji^^^DiiKii§Q ly^n iy:iypDJ«: lyi^ot^iyoyD 
lynnfeit t^k oy lynt^ ,DDnyj t^x iyTiy:i lyj^n lytDJs^yss n,, 
D^: y^vs^yss n dj^h osp^nn^* p-'p px ,nv^ « i^^^j nytj^ i$ 
v^p vi^ Dv :y'DitJ^2 8 iyiiy:i t^« ii!§ni« n .lyoijyjQMK 
PK nts njytDisii n^^ijy -pyiiv Dyn isq lyiiy:! d"*: i^y:j 
-J80 PK lyni^p n pa :iJiT^^iiiJ^-i^y:i « iyDipy;ji$ t^x ^tonnyj 
D^n^^ivsn mn lyo .t::iQ Diyuin pd yoiD lyi ^nx lyDoytj^D 
tyi^y: d^j ^«t oy jy^i ,yD^yii ,y>:^fe?;^yGs n px ,D8Pi<tins oyi 
iyny:iy:is''ix DTiDy:i to^j^ii ^ton^^DtJ^ lyjy^ po "i^y:i Di<n lyoip^i^ 
:ij^t: iyi Djn pj^ ."nj^tiiyj ty»ijy:i«2 p« ,iyt:"'D pt< nyii 
-yj Dy px ,iyDipyj lyiiy: d^: i«: i^k "d^^d:i{$p Di^nD,, pg 
nyo^iiy:! 8 pd lyt^QstJ'^yTyrn^nD im nsr yD^^jnyiiy:i » ty^i 
nny iyp''tj' Dsife^iy:! D«n lyo nyn ,iy:i^3^^«i»D iv in Di^itotJ' 
IV Dy^v^Dys lyD-'naiv .lyDytD^DJ^tp ytj^nsto^yDst^ifeja n iv 
-IV 182 tDSPi^iinis; m tySiJ^tvsn px dj^^^dj^p n^^ mn lyi 
■nsD IV tyDstP«int§ ly^yoK^ivj^t i^x ni ;Dy"] pi< tya^yn 
15§Q y:yiD^^n ly^DisT iv p« JD^nr^'^yn yn^ic^ iy:ii^^P 

.DP^ntDD 
■"•n»P yD-i^DQ^K^J^^Dy:! tyi''»i«Q iv nyi:ytD v:''\H''\ n 
■i«D ^y^fi /inyt ly^yii i^d ni ,t^n lyDss v'p^^ph'? pq iyt:)yt3 
;y;yp lyvyty:!,, n tyjyp y^v«D>:!« iy*i n yn n^jtriy;! ppi^t^^ 

d. 

00 — nj;t3niiN-']j;^i n ta'^nNiJ^JsDnN 1810 ,26 .tapx 

00 — Dn:;3Kf3-pnQB> n taS-iK^jjrJSDnN 1810 ,11 .^jrT 

00 DiyDKDJjraTyn ^NB';;xn ])5 lyoipN^ 1811 ,30 '«d 

00 — di:;d«J2TBK5 n tsio p?n»?;!DnN 1811 ,25 »jt 

00 Dn^3Nf3'7J?lDNT H t^ni'^^jDnN 1812 ,20 '^1» 

00 Dnynn'i"n n tDSnN5jj;:Dn« 1812 ,12 ,i3p« 

p?i3jyontaDi'N-pmo n ps tD^nxij?:? 1812 ,7 .syn 

2 00 00 DnyaxD 



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521 pytscnpy n«S nnsp -ij?! 

lyovv^ lyT nn -1^25 m 1823 hd nni;?^ n px ";jir:^"'«"is§D 
^nmD^Djyny^ "lyi hd ritJ' lyuynyivyiyj lyiy^ ns :juy:i2^ix 
D^iK iyv:^*jr« \'\i^w: T^« -lyD^ui^ ".yi D^ni Dyi -nn nx 
-pi^ n iy:^n ,iyLDjyDnDDrN-D:i:j^vpni^-B n lya^fc^ nun-^y^ 
-y: t^'^DpstD D")yD:yvynDDnrt< y^yi^^cns^D n pk nyD^^ms; 
n PD ::it:>n3DnK nyi iy:yii y:MDDiNii8n inyo r^s pi^n 
/';ynp-iyD«^P„ oyn i^x D^3iDDD-i^no yt3iyi:iTy:i2i^ yo^K 
.Diyi:inini^^ lyovy^ nyi DnnnyDP^nfei!^ "lyj^yn 

ojitJ'siiyn^K yivNfe^j n iyD^n:i«n w "lynt^ D:^^n t^k oy 
DDfe$ito^3 lyni^n d^^v ^v^v pa lynyjDD^^ms n lyD^y^i o^d 
-)fe< oyi ^^n ^n^syrnnni? Dyi ps j:i^pMit5:y yt^^tDP{<"i5 n 
n -ii<D D:iJ^Tyrnny lyn^i^n y^^yii ,D-iyDD^^D n .D^^p-iyo^o 
lyni^n ^n m^ "lyoDn n i-it^ .lyoyD^DiSP yci^n^^Djyo^^i^Q 
lytD^^nyj ]V2h^ ,T'T iyr:^^KiN*s i$<3 lyo^^nn^^ d^^^d^nisd 
nD ,n^^n nyj^D^njyjy: pd ly^yta ly^yii ly^iyviyi p^k pn 
-yTic^ns!D» ytD^nsti^n^D-D^ni 8 oi^oonpy oy ts ,iyT^^iifc<:3 iv 
D-iy-i^>:tj^ nyj{<n3>^^ n t^ .iyDi<^p v'^2V'^^lvn n iy;yp "a:n 
-y^n^«j n nyiJ? ,Dnynyn "lyit^^rs^: n iv n^y: lyp^*^ iy^i>*T 
yiy^yn px v'?v^''o n ""n D^in -Diyj^str-pn^ij' n w ony: 

•lyDyimj^D « ')) inytyjDn« lyo^^^p 

"ii<D iy:yp wv^v:i.> n ps nnpniv Dy-i istD jji2yii5<a n 
ly^ynDDHJ^K P2 yij^nys « px iya^"iny:ji^ in wr] "jjirrx 
■{^ji^py n .iyjji:i^{^2-i^D v^'D'^i^B y::y-io*^ pn ::ijymj^oii< 
ny^n njyD^n:iyi ,nDn^o ly^js;^ "lyi pq lytD^o^nyi y^^'^o 
PD lyt^ns yr^^n :^Dy»D"'j£D^yi"nN2 n px t:p:i5 lytDO^yn 
iyj^^Dy:^N oy^D ^ iv Dnn^Dy:i isie px wii^r) ,n)'?^' nvi lii: 
-yiDDni^ iyci<t .-ij$<^ lyvji?: tiyn-'x p^^ ps :jnyjy^pni<D 
■n« iy^st2 ID ^ px DiyDD^^n n tyn^in ,ryTy:i tyjiyp y'\:vo 
ly^ni^v IV :Jin:yDc^i^23^^^ lyi o^»d ,t3rj^\si^3 in n^^Dsn 
-yj D^: T^K 2J'lnJyt3t^n^2:"'^K yriJ^n n .oyio^n yiynyno 
■yii nyyp .T^ntD lyomyj s ps DTir^^yn n ^^n inytDtj^ lyn^^n 
■yj nn lyD^j^m lyD^^L^iya-iypnyD^^ans yD"in^:feii:is n jyo 



"18 v'?^ iyD^jy::^n8 in i^n mn i«j 4y^ytDK^jy:iypDJ8 idj«p 

.njvjy:i lyo^iiy^ ^ no iyny:iDD^>n 
""•^a Div ,ii;?tDiyiv^D ns lyonys ni< lyo^tD^yr^xu^^^ n 
aJi^DsnsD "iyjnyTy:i:i<i n« lyDDu^n-Di:,, ^ nni< lyni^n ^^y^sK^ 
■••J Dyn ny^^iv,, ts; ^lyoj^^K^sn .I8I6 px /"?^rt:iiHD^ nvi pn 
^biy^tj^^D-nn AV^'D^ n lyo ^i^t "jn«i'i:yDy tinx r^na lynyi 
inyo ly^nj;?!^ tD^: lyD^^nyrnyny^in nj< D-iypyiD^i ,Diynyno 
-{^D^yoyD ^DiyvyTDsn^ n .pi^" iyDQ^Dtj^i§n lyoniy:! s •••n 
-{^n Di^ntD v^v^:^ ID 55 PD nyD^^Dis n ?ix ^onytDDitj^ ,D"iyD 
lyjy^ px V)'? PD ty:i:nyjy^p-i^2 yoDj-iy pa jy^nyvnyi iv lyn 
-Dyife$n ly^^D y^j§ n tD« pn tynj^n DiytDO^^D n .yni$ny3 
ty^SD Dyn ny^^iv Di^^i ^tojnj Dyi ^''ix :iJi^iJ^n ly^n t^^^D 
D^: nytD^uii§ n PD n:nD-Djyny^ n Dyii lyr^na n pa 
-DDnj^K-D^yn:^n yDnn:i n pk nyn«; .pyn t:)pmy:nyDjns 
n tytj'^iw nyniPJJ^P ynjyn^>J6J^ s iynnny:i:i^ in toj^n lyn 
lyuy^sa oyi ^in^? iy:ji^ytDti'^n ty:np ny''^1^? lynyjOD-'-'nis 
lyaij^n pa yit^Dyo iyi ^v lynijy: in lyn^^n ^n .pi8d 
iyi Ts ,iviyi ri:y3:)yiaiyi ,pi^ Dyi tyi^-'jtj' rix lyr^na n 
T^K p'Dpsia yrri^i n .njrn ^inx :i:y:i lyiiy: to**: t^5< pi^ 
ty:iy5'a lytD^^ais n d«ii ,nyi iin pj^iiy^ iya^i<ini^a toajj 
-yi T^K D»^i ,iyDD3yni5<a yiy^j^so yiy^n iv D:iy^iy7 lynp 
D«ii .py-'tDti'-npiv n pa ,15<t y^-'^jny^iyj ^ tyiiy^ D^i<tD 
in ]V2i^r] Dv Ts ,iy:!^«a yi:i^j^xii y^^yr^ lyanyjom^ mn 
\v:iHn lytDoyD^y^ pk .lyt^oytoHiia v'?^m'? \^vr] iDT{^^y:i n^sa 
yD:jypiyj«,, n lyD^sin^v^i^ lyoi^^'ti'i^n yDossrtDii^t^t^ n 
-j^K DD^toti'ya^^^s tynt^n ^n D«n ,Dyi iin "tyr^na-Dto^m^ 
nyto^ms v^v iyi3«ta yr^nvna nnx lytD^smvonx lyvj^a 
ly^ia Dyi ^n« t3"»m^ p^p ly^np tDJi^pya id*":! ryni^in yD^yii 
-18 yrDn8 n DS^my^anx pi^toti^ nts to^^n dj^i .r^na 
-isa IV tyn^^py:! Dony n^: in lyni^n ^n T8 nyny^oD^^n 
tia iyi^^3tD''o n ,ifc?^yD Dyi ,tD:8JytD^>^"iii?^ Dyi iy:iJ^^p 
">'>2 iyn«n d«ii yriyn^x n px yD^^tDD**^: n ,t38i-tDir^t3K^ 
tyD^smvJs y^vsi-aoji^p ^v'^v^d'^'^p « ?'»x iviyi oiy^^tDtJ^y^ 



123 pyisDnpy n«D r]D«p "lyi 

V2''?o:v^v 18 n^y^DVSj' i^k dsh i820 pk px .nnosj^ yD^n 
/Dyi lyjyp Dn^DDyoi^is Diy^n^v-py^^Dt^ n pd :iji^afc<:Tn5<:2 
p« "lyDDjynii^D n iv DPn^ijviyi,, y-iJ^^DyriyDi^"? n dj^ii 

-i>*n ny^^^Dis n oi^ii ,0D^^"T>nB lyroyoD^^^j nvi iv pnyp 

.1810 pj< lyjiKiiyj ]V2 
'DjyDy iynMnyj:« p^^5§ iyay:DD^m8 n lyni^n i^?n:y 
T^K K'^jyi^^jK^-pi^ n lyD^y^i i:^ "i:sot^iv nvi lyosiij^s: i^^ 
iVDio pD Dvj{<i Dyi Djj^iD yD^yiT ,ajny?piy i5§ .ly^J^^Jiyi 
nyn^^K^p:^^ inyvnys pd iynn:j'yj-iyDJii< t^k P« /1B19 ,>jr 
mn lyiiy: ]y:i:iKiivyj lyj^n ^n d^iii ,tD"iym8n ,iyDJi<pn3fe§3 
V)'? Dy-; nyjy^P"i5<2 iv ly^jy-i^.pji^p y^^^^y pd :ji^n:8n lyi 
D^: y^^yii pife^Dt^' toD^in^a pj< nj^D'^nv lyrDv^x nvi iv 
-pLDi«P :"'VJ8TivpK-PirD nyn ; ijnyjy^P"i5$D ymyD^ni m 
'i^-^B Dyn IV nQDDH yD^^pmoMX ny^n iviyn^;! DyD"i^2-iypn-i 
-^i« y::^yT8 ly^nyv pd oyDc^D lyn is,, .py^pny pn Doyo 
^^'piv^ T^x D^^n-ij<-pn3{<D -i5<D lyr^ns ynyn^j i^^jnyiiyjiyo 
iyo:fc<pn3t§D n lyn^n nojyiii^p p« ."^^33 i^nt: oyn 1552 
D3yiMii$"i3 'D"iyirii,, nyi d*o Drj^^«"i{<D in Dy:3yL}D pd 
-pnD yDjypiy:^ n lyD^^mvjj^ i^PtoDtNi^'j^^^Dy; n^ /'\^'2v 
'V)^ D'2 iy:}$nDyj^''2 lyc^n:; ""n ly^j^n isi9 pi< p,^ ,\vdd''? 
nyi ?^^i« nifc^vin n lypyi iv n:j^D i? iv £10,000 ni "lyrj 
Dv^n i:8mfesD nyrii^n nyi .pynv Dyn oj^ pd i^nn^DDin 
-y:i PD D^ny; Dyn *i^d Dyvj^siE ^ ly^^ivy^D^n^ in Pin« 
iv 5i^D s: 'LD35<oy: D^n '^v:i'?V)^ Advvd^ ?')'\^i^))) v:v^^)v^ 
W^ Di^n nji^D PD lyn^^ny:! T^t< di^ii ,i'?v: di^i ; p^t<nisD nvi 
-Dnx \v'?i^\ ^n /'pfeiiD^Di^p lyDfe?;,, y^j<pi>*^ n iv lysy^yj-iy^^^ 

■DD^^ms yiyDyn n pd iyD»i§p px lytsoytoj^iD yrir^-i n 
p»s;i^ya t3"iy3y^p-i8D t^« pi^ lyn .0Dncii< m)v:i lyj^n nyay: 
ps* ."ij«^ lyvjy:: rny3^i< iyQipy:i-ij^D lyrn DP^noD p« 
y:5s*^ n pyoyip^D d^o D'^:) Dp^noD n lyo Dt?:n t:jy:y:5$2 
^r^VD it^: Di^n lyD Oi^)) D^Diyi ii^: ,y^D8S»^D *j^q iyi5>* 



lytDiDs^oD VD^^ n nx ryty;i nyjyantj^yrDU iyi .iy:i:"i^^^t: 
ly^yiy:,, n iv n{<;;i^ « D^i$ m^^MJ^i DviJsa dstmi:i lyj^n 
-ji:j^d^^dd^i5< y-^^^s -inn DDJ^ nn^:! nx /'jjipj^^i^n^D iy:iyp 
-Di$>^ px nyoDn n D:yD^''vy:D^ii^ nn lyni^n onyijusn .ly: 
iyjynyTy:ijj^ is Diy^pny dj^h dv ')) 4si9 fn 1813 na iJ5§^ 
oyD-'OJ^p iyErnso:yDfc>^ns£) Dyi ij^d Donr nyu'njy^DJ^&j^ 
TK yiny^i^iQ v^v:i'D''\P n iyi:y'nj{$ ly^n d^d 4824 i>« 
lyi^ ny rs ,iqik !st^§ ^m« ;!j'irj^^«is2 ly^ssj^^x ns ly^sQ 
lyD^yn iv Djj^ry:!2{^ y\ Di^n ,nj^npi<!nQ-iyaMK lyny; r^N ly 
yivD^ixn^j^P « DDN^Dyj tyn^n lyo^'-nns n lyii .Dyi p« 
,yvs'L)^:ii§ v^^^''?i^B vo'\^v:^ni^ m lyD-injivi^ jji:i:yitDK^ji^ 
n-in ni^iiy; lyo^iD^yjpniv lyo^-'ii ij^j 1819 j^k ^n iyj>n 
£S^P p^K o^Q lynj^in y^^yn /'lyvyiy;! Dpyr,, y^^^njyc^ n 
iyny:iy: ,iy:!Ji^D8n5<;2 v:i''?D:v^v y^s Dprnny^Jix jj^^dpsd 
-i^inyDJiJ^ ,iy2«ii ly^u i^ tD^^p:)^^:iyo is lyD^^iDD^jSD n 
iyi:yoD^jn«2 oyi "lyDJi^ lyDDntj^D^^vnyo^ms y^s lys 
-yii Yv^Vi Dyn DD^'i^y; lyjijyiDti^ li^j nx ''"ly^^Dt^^'^ysoytoK^,, 
-DjjipmnyD^ix nyvjfe§:i lyi ."ly^Miposs yijy:;ynD^ix„ lyj 
tDa«tj'35§»DDssDtj' n DnnnyDPS"ife§D dj^h ly^^yii ,DyLDD^D 
DD^nnyi yii^tnys) iyi d«! px D^^n ,:ijn^:;yriyD:y:yi iyi pq 
nyi px lyDi^jj^o n ps lyr^p t5§ ,nmD lysj^^Jsi^D i^is i^ 
yj^{^2 n -tyroji^ynynnj^; o^j Dn^}< Di^n "n^^^^J^ lyr^^^n,, 
ly^yp lyvytyj,, n is /iy^iy:i t^^opi^a t^5< ^^jsi^d lyi dh pd 
inyD n oi^)) ,nvi inn Dv^ti^y; iyn^^ny:i lyj^n ":jir:>^«-isD 
iyn«tn D^^pnyD^^nis pa Diyin^a VDiy^py:i2''ii< px vii^'^'w^v 
IV ^vTii< lyj^n pt< DDiJ^tayi y^y^^^yao v'?^ n lynyjiy^a^tx 
PD Dyt^D-'D iyvj«:i Dyn pa :ijn^j{5>vi^^iiy"i nyD-'^tDjn:) lyi 
p^p nynnyi Pi< oy .tDaj<!ti'iyDyiDife§a nyt^ns;o:yDS^-is;a 
n pa :ijianpmv nyi n^a lyiiy:! to^: :Jijyiifci!rDP^«iD dik^ 
n lynnti'y:! lyD^^sii 1^0 tyii ."JJirj''^Nij§a iy:yp lyvyryj,, 
■D^ti'yi n Di^toti'JS ,Ds^pnyD^m« iyK^''^::y oyi pa .ytoD^tj^y:) 
iy:iay:i i^d lyo^^n ,:iJi:iyiisn lytj^^DD^jj^^^r-i^no lyn pa yo 



125 Y^V^^^'^PV "^ys ^J^^P ">yT 

>n HD iyDyiDi5i!2 lyiyoya i< Doyni^^ D^8^^>m lyiJiJ nni^D 
ny:y^ iv nDK^D">y3 lyti^^^jjy Dyi na lyjjnyiDty yj^^Dy::?^ 
n^iK lyj^K^iy DDnyjDiK t^« dj^i^ ,ii§D Dyi p« nyi^^N ,d^iv 
-D^j»ovn^nD n lyD^^pi^nsD pk iyny:^^3 iv yjyvD lyT 

.1824 pD ^JiK^nasn yiJ'^D 
nyD^yii -nyDD^^D-iyi^^jsj' 8 lyny: p« d^^^b d^djsid 
piMK BKiJ' fc? p« DDyti'y:! iyD^n:i^i^2-iy is D^u"ifc<y:iDM-is! Disn 
DJ^n in""i82 nun-^ya nj^iiyj t^^j ny nyi^^« .Di^ip ::nJ<t^'D 
-iS!D Dnn^3fci;j"i« mn pk ^yTyrny^yto^yT^in d^s D^^aiety: ny 
ii^: .iy3J<2 y-iyus px p« ^^u Dyjy;^^K pn pn lyj^-'x 
pn IV tDDyj'yj Dyi pc :ijnn^D n ioti$^y:"iyn^N ny oi^n isis 
Dpy^yDJ^N iy5^^0P8"i3 lysitstj' pn Dyoimy: roi^n pk tnn 
■pmv nyi ^mx diip ,tD2^"ip-iyn-!DMt< yD^^jny"i^ynyD^^i< px 
fiMK ii^:nyn p« "jJii^j^^«-ife<D lyjyp lyvyry;,, n pa ^jisn 
lyiiyj iy T^i< oyn^^yo v'?^''iHO vi< o:i:iyi^8rD-iJ^*2yi Dyi 
lyD li^P ^syi^N pn ; ^^^d dd^^'^'h p« Dsnojyn pd i^o^n 8 
■^nD ny^ynt:Dnrfc< d^d y^o^ip{5J*:y-; y^^o^^^s d^j< iy"i^»:ny") 
ny:n:yD::^^}^D ,iy2nyj d:^m dj^i iyo^j^ii i^o mi iyi«t .t:^M 
Mjy: lyDi^n d«ii n pd nyj^^-? ."DT^^j<n^iinj>K iy^i<pnsi« 
Dyn p« ti< ay^D^Miv d^j Dyii D^>n"i5< pt< jyny^ pn Dimtoij^ 
T^K D^\"5tJ'^DPS"i2 y-ijyD^M*.Bi<:-DO pn ly^^yn px ,T^np iy:ijy 
-i^s "lytDoniMip-iyD lyn lyiiy: iy t^t? ,w:v^i^v::''^ lyiiyj 
,DyT p« iy:)y^y:i Pi< n^yo-os^n pn .d^^v pn pd lyp^D^^ 
lyDST D^D nTj? ni ,dd:ip n lyj^LJcnyiD i^^D:nj mr^ iy di^ti 
■i^-n ,D''^p:5^^::mDn"n ,tD^^"5D^^:y"ii5<n pk .pyii iv rt:"ii<D 
Dy^v^DyD ,Dy^vi^«!Tyi lyo^Di^D ,p^D^^«is-nsi^"ip ,'^'')vr]')i-\vo 
v:i'?V)) D^D lyvj^p y^s! n px ,vi)? — /lyDpy^^^-isvyTyj m 
-pi^ii li^nyi PN lyDistti^y^ oti^nyiv D-iyii :!:^:iyii«n-Dp^i^D » 
ny T^K — ,iyr^tD:r lyc^n^tojyosi^isD nyi n'it< tDDi$oyj Dxr 
nnyo .Dfe?^P lyo^riy pd -iyp^Dp{<D px lynrDiy rsi m^v: 
y:yD^yt n tyDyT^?n D^^n:y»D{^p^j^D w r^n ny t^k r^s pd 
\:inv^P Dyi ly^i^iDpy^is iyij':y» v^vi:^ lyr^^^ iv ^DDfcitiJ'jy:^^^ 



Dr'':^'':i''-T'nt:i lis yt:iD''t^»y; 126 

iy:)y5>B yj^n nstQ ny to^n isix nvi n^i« n« .o^uis pn 1^2 
ns y^JSD lyic-'Dt^nyLDrix nx ^v^'pi^nt^'D yr^nvnc ty:i«iipyj 
,tD^^^ nvi iiD iyD^^^:D^^Ji;ny3 yt^'nxDjy»fe!!^i;^3 yuyD^"-^ n 
lyjyii myn^ yny^n y^« lypj^iiisD iv to^iiny; lynj^n yj^y^i 
•D^it^T^n ^n tD{<!n ny y^^yii d^d ,iy:i*"'DJ^: yvniP n lyjj^iD yj^n 
D«in ny d«i^t ,tyDDn^n yjynnt^y:! na :i:i^»i§T y"i«nv{<:t^DiN n 
— D^xyiiD ti'^tDnn ir« dv^x in DJ^Dy:i n — Dt^^^ynyn^^^ 
lyyDj^iD n lyT^Ni^i^inyTx D^^-^'L^^n:! yv^j^iotr pn rs; ,DT^n^b*a 
r^K ^y^v pn idt ^3 ,iyto^n^i^*D yDD^iia yj^n ind jyn pa 
-i?n D^D D«ny:i d^j niD^^t^ p^p ni$:i 0{<!n ,D3^nnyT lyny; 
-y-i:i!jn2 ^* ps yaitoti^ yt^nj<tDjyo^^-i^2 n nyn .iD^\'5jy-i^>ti^ 
tDi3 ns: lyiiyj iy T^t< rni$w^ t:D^nny-i t^n jji^yn^itn nyivo 
D«!np jjnsti'D pfc? Q5§tj^ i^n t» ,top^D Dyi ty:iy^') rjnDDixiife$n 
nyirDy-i:{<tnQ ^viv ps ntojy^;-D2N-ip ly'nDX nyn tyiiyj fj^ 
lytDjyp-iyji? nyi tyn^^ny^ n r^x i834 V2 1807 tiD .;iJi:ynt$n 
.D^-iv nyi tiD ni<;D^t:^:j§ y^^ n^s r;?§^2-Djji^D»ns!Q 
nii!D lyjiyp lyvyty;!,, n t^ ,:!Ji:i^^viyn^« nyi 1^ lyDipyj 
D^tt typip Dyi nn ny !>k a^ta tysnypnw lyr^o ";j^r:^^N 
n .1^2 Dy.iy:i^"'K pn Pi< n)?r)) ly^n ^^ix lyr'-.x yjyDJs 
iOD^toti'^n lynj^n y^^yii ,1767 p« 1720 pa ly^yry:! y^y^vysD 
Dyj^^oya^^ Dyi ^11 toi: ^n« ,D^^yi2nyT'^:c^ n p2 pi^ oyi 
-y::^^>< tDO m i:i^*n ,1800 pd :iji:!"'j>^xnfciD rjiv^ tyiyp rytyj 
,D^nr''^yn v^v nyr^^ ".v iy*i^<! ,Dp^nDD ly-T^^ci^^s iv lynyj 
p« tDrjon:y3 in iy.ii>'n >n nyn ^to^j^Jry.i oy ;yD}>T y^^yii 
-p'L:-tJ^ "ijs^a (yr^ns ynyr^yn iyDJ<;:ir.*j?<i ,ri^x^'2-'t5yn y^Jiy^yj 
•iDo^DtJ^fe^n mr] YVWi nyn nT ,D^m^-tD^^v i^^S5< lyni^ ,D^m^ 
cyn nsD nyDD^-iD-nyn^^jt^ is d'?^ r])iv ts m'W^ r>N d^^^q 
Dyi L3«n lyD^yii ,D:i<!D^j<tp 111^ p^^n pa tDyto'-DJ^p ly^y^vysD 
■D2^"in iyiiy:i tyj^n oy px ; isio px DDiTiy^JiJ^ pjy jyrti^T 
-jt^p ly^ns nvi lyDD^i^ iv iyjji:!i^rDn« yrtDD''ii yj^n I'-^Dyr 
-:yitj^i?n y^^^vytya v^^^q n ot^^^nyi d^:d lyn^tn dj^ii ^iop^id 
tsn tD«tn iy3y:iDtD^mt<! pq p^x■^^?2 s yD^yii isa Avn)? 
•PKia lyn ty:iyii ^jnn^siy y:ini$i n .D^''nn^y:i i^^Djysy 



127 pycDMp;- -i6'D rjD«p lyi 

-y:D^i< lyn iy:jyii i^ntDDix^^sin oyn Diyoynj-isD i'd^>>b ^^^ 
;"iyD^un«; n D^^n^nQ ya^ytn lyjyp^^^nsQ pa D^vroDyn 
nyi PD DiyvyiDDnK^ n pd :ji:i^j;jDnb;D yp^ona n nya 
DJ^^vnyn^x Iy^;:s!;:^« Dn^i< oi^n iniit^ lyaPyTDyn pk "dd^^d« 
nyoys^ "inijt^ "ly^D d^d -yv^v:^ oyi ps i^^^PostMij lyn p« 
iynMny;:i^// ny Di>'n ,tji« i^'PDV'^ivi v^^ iy ni ,(18U p^j 
iy:yp lyvyry:! n pd ^jiDnpm:^ iyi 1{§d DDJiy lyD^^ant; 
V^p m DJ^n D^^v y::s^ y: lyni;? nyo^^ans; pd iy:jiy:^^K-i5<£ 
DoyD lyiiy: jyj^n -lynyjDD^^a-is; n ."w^vr^vi o^: Dyiji^ns 
Drj^^fc<"iS!D pn ly^yii lytD^uis-pi^ n ly^i t» ,D:^^:;nyn'i< 
rPi^ PK ::nyDyn yom: » lyrip iv lyny::^^^ ^n t\ oyii 

nyp^tO^^J^*S n .iyD^D{;?-lB V^Vt WriVl^ i^l^Dli^ DV\) Dl^l Pi< 

-yD yc^^DD^:ij^jr-i^nD i§ ts ,-iyDn ^iry; dpjis ly^iyj ly:-: 
-jix lD^.fe< ^ry: n^x DV)) PK .lyr^ns n py^yn oyn D^^■5ro 
-jynsi^ T^« Dy lyD^yii \i^ -u^^onN d^o nnoo Dyi lyai^ijiyD 
pD Di^i::^^i< -iy^5<Ji^^vj$j-iyt:J^N nyi p« pn^n«ii nyi r;j 
p\"? D^^v yo^^ny n lyo Di^n i<Dij lytD^uiK n pd .n:8^::y 
-y:i pD lyD^^y: lyni^n d^^ii n .iyt:-i»iny DJi^py: too yv^ot;^ 
n^iK Dfeiiny: 0^: :iJi:yDJ^*n p^"? lyni^n ^jJij^tjDisD lyD^^vyr 
iyni>*n ^n pi< ,D:yD8^n5?B tyDn^Q-ii^'cyvD^j » Iiq ^'^^n lyi 
-^BD PD Diynyioyi^n n n^no p^j< ^v^otj^y: d^j dh^n 
,iyDi^jy: lyni^n ^n ^^m^ ,jjn^:yn n Dv^Dtry: oi^n ,Di^y^D^stD 
ntr ly^^S'yry: nyi pd lyvi: n ,DDs;it:y3 oy lyat^n ^n ^i^ 
v^vi:i^ *.;:irj^^Ki»D nin pi^ pd ;ijnyjy^pi»D ny-i iy:yp 



/';:u':''NiKB i^rjyp iyn*Ty:»„ n lyenpni!? ^«t ];'o t« ^v'S'cya 
pB 12' 'pji'^p nyi ]iK iy^yT*;;j pr3NT'?'in n "lytsiiK c!?»tyy; t^Miy; 

Dir'D'''?B ."10 lypiyB' i:': i:i'pf2KTpn;^CEnK D)^ ]"p lysn^ i^d 



DT''j^'':r"T'ni:i lis ytri^-^try: 128 

DO li^j m Di^n n« iyny;DD^u"i$$ is m)V^ v^^ fx dj^ii 
.ij^n2-"iyD^uiis D^s jji:yp-iy:{<i t^« oy v:i'?i:)\ lyni^^iiny 
nx D^^'pt^'nyjjy: nis^s typi^iLj^yiiay! do in i:ii^n d^^^s lya^^ 
Dyii D^^y lytj^^^jjy iJ5 d^d t« ,njyDn"i .D^^prD^oD^^^; 

-DDnS T5< DV V2'?V'\) Vi^ DO ,iy:!^^ 1ST pn IIQ D^^'PISDtJ' n 

i«j ,DDyi y:3^^n^DSJ iv n^^yss r« nyij^ tyDjyDijis yDpsn 
iD^n ,D^^'?rD:3yiyjDi« ns ly^sa y^^^pn^i n iyjy:DyiDn« pn 
lyD^^n^y^:''"'^ n ty:np i^ yns:iDM« pn isq DDsoy; oy ny 
/D^nyvnyi ny ni ,P''nDD lyiy^ pi^ .niDDD-i^nD ly-iy^ pa 
•2V^'^')i ,iy^D^Dis2 D^s ^J<tDD2J<! ,Dti^"'Dy:iJ^ns in iy D«tn 
yD^nn s r^^v^vv:^ mn iy .nyD^ons n pq u^na d^s t^ni 
PK n:s^ iy^os:i syi iyi^« Djj^or-i^nD d^d nyi:i<!i3Dyi>^p 
1818 pfc< .ty:!:i'iD^^v n i^ nynn y^^^nyvo^x WT^^vi mn 
/'mji«j,, dyi pt? lyc^ynD^D lyD^^^o s lyjii^ipyji:^ iy mn 
iyny:iy:Dnis t^« dj^ii ,:iJiD^''^-nytD^"'nis yt^^D^^^^s v:'"'?? s 
-y: ly^iy:! T^fc< y^^yii n^^)) ny^yp^i^ii lyoniyj s pd n^^iiyj 
1SD D«n D^i .p^^s I'D^-'^a PD P5< ly'osHDjyn pq dv^d:^^ 
lyj^n yD^yii ny^^t^DDi^J yDD:i^DDn"i ^mv y3>n lyjixny; dh^x 
.n .{j^n ^D^'-nis pn pi< lya^ynD^^-Dsmn n n^^nyj n^sn 
^vviVB^ T^K lyD^yii n^^"iP'PD .Drn fiyr^iK^n pt< iJ^^^p'po 
lyiiy: D-t^^ ^v:iV' i^ t^« ,t:)D"'DJ<;ji;iipy d^s n«!iiy:i Donnsn 
onii<nQ yDDrDDm n /'lyDDD^pD,, nyi ps iJ^DPsnyi iyi 
Dy'D''"'^Q 'T'lx Dinsn .^yp^Dis iy:i''DQyiP s .:i:id^''V v'?v^'^ 
^nnnjy,, iyi p« DS^^D^ycyisQ dj^h iy ty:3^yii ,iyDpsD 
v^''^ px ny3:)yn:{^ id x ry:«;ipy:nv D^^n 4823 pi< /'riin 
DDniy:i s yyi^i^ oyo^^^a tyny:iy:i lyn^n lyDnDonis yDQ^ 
^yTi^tj'n .D^nycy: lyns pn dj^h irr-^ dj^ii ,iyoi^j s p« 



: lysnyjDnK urnxn m'i'ip vdko « iin lytaa^^DonN'^tsK pc ini 
.1824 ,9 ixnnys /"7piiNnp ;iiO"iKD„ ; 27800— 52 ]j?UBnpDiJ«o 



129 pyiSD^py 1«D rjttyp -lyi 

na nyin^Q n no iyj^^« dps d:«:dd«!P tijs ni^in px y^vM{>'Q 
D^n /'av>^?'i^i w^^'^i^^H'?'^" P.D ^^D"is3 lyijyDps^i nyi 
D:yDfe§^iss PQ "iynv:D^D yjyont^'yjD-iyiD n ^u lyjixiiy:; 
-pmv jji:yi"ij<a "lyn liiia "ly^^DtJ'nyDJ^.N inyo m myo r^s 
-pyo lyoM^y; s ^u .":iji:^j^^«-i82 iy;yp ly^^yiyj,, n lyamv 
-oyn lyn iy:iyii p^dipdh lynnny;:^^ lyn Di>*n "rnn,, px y^v 
-yj DDS!"iDfc!!n Di^i T^fc< i^^2 ; DPJ<"iDJi$P ly^nD ps LD^^posr 
lynnnyjJi^ y^y^Q lyai^n lyD^^rx px ; iS3")n''DDin d^s \^i^)\ 
■■•^^s "ly^n PD y:^i^Q y:)^^i^''ms!SDifc< o'?^ \vo2^io^2 i^ oy 
D^^v n T8 ,opjyiyj d^^^s D«n I822 px .pnKo-':{§ lysi'^D 
,iyD^ii DT«^y: lynnyi D^sn Drn m ; ly^iJsn iv ?i^n t^k 
lysmvpniv opy^fc^iBvyiyj 5$ iy:jyimvj^ns! nvi^ mn iy is 

.::irj^^i<"iS2 iy:iyp ly^'yiyj y?8 

"lyi^^n s lyD^ysn^jy nynn px lytDsnpDuso oy'D^^^a 
D^^ms IyD^^1p"■lyDJ^*^ px ni:Dn y^« pd ;:n^n^«n yD^n 
lyi pD "lyi^^ntD^^v yrri^i n i^x .inj^^ ••niv yi:Dpy: n pa 
lynyr Dyoo^D lyt^'n^DjyDs^ij^B pa d^u"i« lyoD^jyiirt? 
IV :«T"iv s ^^s pK p^DD^pDin ^n Dms Dy'sjn Drn ••ii i^q 
nyr:yii n tDSst^pyv /'t^yto^oi^p ly^y^vysD,, s iy:^^Mifc§n 
*n^^:iD>D-DD:yDs^-iSB lyijimpjj^p s pa iv^v'pb v'?)^w^o 



"^yi2jri2^i3«p nxe "ij;i'ntr„ k ,121 'nn trTTiKtrn tixn 1823 px ♦ 

-'n iyj«'?B'nKE ^'jiuxT n ]"ie ^^'i: « .0121020 :;'?yni:Dn:»K ]V3 
yo^jTTK -IKE ]yny;i ^I'n t:^: •]«: t'k o''!^ n nj?nK ; jJinyj!iyTy;i 



W^iVD yjyji^^N t:>o \i^ iy o^^a 4824 isjnnyD px /tDvy^i:^ nx 

rn i^« iyDi:yjon« ,D>^PDp^try; vo'WJi « d^d ,DJ^n Dvn 
ns ::nynj^iiDMx n — lyopJis ynyiJitsa ^m j«^5^'-i«2 
iy;iJir:^^«"ii§D n n« Iy:"'t^'«D iid tDit^aopy oyi ,n'iDJ<^Q""'^ya 
rv^Vi PD iytDi^3-i«2 lynyj v'?^ lyj^n y^^yn — nyto^^mj^ na 
no nnpmv "lyi iy^iy:i t^x pyiivosMn D'Drn nx oy'D^^^a 
'v'?H? yj^n nfe< i^DD^-^oin ; "j^irj^-'Xi^a lyjyp tyvytyj„ n 
Diip D^j^ii "ly ^11 ,Dpipy: DyD^Di^P Dyn pinx lyn^^n lyni^ iy:i 
-"iDiy pQ D^"'pD^^;yD n lyDinytoj^x ^^^ yn5§:iS''iK n D»nyj 
-y: T^5< yD^yii ayrtj'^o pd y^:;^;pn3i$D yuyopi^n n lyro 
fiMpiSD "iy>n ?^MX LDiijm^D nyi iin tDiytotj^y:! pi«Dtj^ lyii 
^u r^yiB IV ^:i'\)v:i tDi^n i^^oD^pDin .lynjy^ yioyiQ 1^^ 
n pK |yjj;|iDiy"i i^f lyi^^Donx iyv:s:ij^K ^j^t iy ,iy'Drn 
,3jirr^K*isQ ly^yp w^v^vi n oyo^^i^p pd ov'^^iivmpv^ 
-D^j px pyjy^P 8 D^fc§ ,DnK DT^ni Dy mi .■•n :injyDDsit5fe?i 
Dvn p5< D^^^Q nyni^ .:jnnnyDJi« lyi pq ^>>t: tyrtD!)ni 
n 18D P« ;y:s^ nyi pd D^nn-'^yn n ly^y:! idv^x lyj^n 
iD^^v y!^:«a ly^n iynyjy:i3« ^n lyni^n D^ti^nn vy'?^v yt^Dpyj 
nvy'? "ii$:i tD«n totj'iyiv .toyD^D^ip nyi pa :ijnn''D lyn fi^ix 
ly^j^^iisnnsiD n tj§ ,D5$ny:i d^j yyi>x p^-? ,Dnx dt^^ii oy mi 
;:jitD^n8n t^k dv lyD^yii pd pm ly^yii toyo^D^^p Dyn pd 



,nyny:jsyTy:j yjnypy-iir yoiKo «in« j:ip-im yn2:;pyittts« ]« ts«ny:i 
T'T iD«n Di^i ,"PJ«:i yatrny n„ i3'i:;iny;;5nK lasnmyT taxn pK 
-;r:j dh^n taxn D'l^s "lynx ;t«tD is D«n iddikiij;:; taij ]in px^-iNS 
]yir»Bi'7KB lyom;: lyTmy^omx uxn D«n siynn k pn ,tyt3«*i 
-iinx Tin i2pj;>KnBiJyTj;;i ]ytynj;3jj;;! cyi lyjj'iantKn t!j ,pti31«b^ 
TK ,;in:"iy'7p"iy /'taytaif3Kp-DJ2iDmytD3iN„ oyi px inno pu ty^jyr 
-j'^N lyn .B'lT « IK lyeitatynNS iKp ]yo Dxn tr^yo « ta<3 t^n no,, 
lyT^n lyTK*? dh'k ,t'n dh^k pu lyiyn i!J mias m Jiyn nyj-is 
DH'K layn lya m oynaxi ,1x11 ,tDyta'i3Np ]in iyi3>^prn«j yi^n 
tWT VtmH/ p« B^jyp'triN yiy^y'J'P >? pyii layn ny jtyoiiQir^iyno 

.27798—12 .DMHD Dy'Dn^B 



131 K^yDonpy -i«D rjD«p lyi 

pn iy:yTi DiyD*pyj d:^'^:"!^: im \2t^n DrnyDD-'j^D Dt^i ni< 
Da^nK' /'ly'Dvn lyoipyjjiit oy t^k :jnj d^j„ .;ji^yD^:yo8Ti^ 
-jfe?iwn«T^« 112 lyoyj n lyjnp Djjsjpyj oi^jn *iy v^,, ,d^>^3 
"lyi lyii nyayt ; Dyo^Dij^P nvi lypyoc^ivD^uiv nyi^^:D^D rv 
••K n«iny:i r« iy n^ '^vo ^m lyoynysj;? r^x ovo'Di^? 
Ml nyj^ys DDiry; nyn^^:D^o lyaj^n ,oji§nDj<: ^x "ly^iBis^s 
-0D8 ns lyjSDt^'^n ly t-'k ^iid div nx ; lyaipivj^nsi oni^i 
nsiiy: t:D^Dl^'sn t^k lyD^yn ,Drn ."lyi^^iD^D rv")yD"n« 
y:^n px lyouy^j^ns .DJ^^t:^ oy •'•n ,Di>*n ,nyijyvnni^3 D^y: 
"i^v 8 .iyjji^i:fe§i-n^D n ns) ;ijnn^D yvJtiij n D:yn V2v:''i< 
ivi no lypyv.v n o-iy^pny lyny: t^^ oy ly^^yii pfc< n^^^ip 
DiyDD^^Dnyn^n n iv pj^iiy: t^p^tj^yiDMij? t^x ,:jiainyDJii< 
y^y^vrn^iB rviyc pa yt:^si^2-D::n^:yi yiyi:^ nyifc: 
v'?ti?H'? yDDroriMi n p« Dpn"iy:s« iyiiy:i t^k pk /tsiyo^i^ 
nn o-i^v lyn '•^n Dt^n lyD^yii ,d>^^3 D^^n ^>^inyi .iy::iD^^*i 
"lyD^mfe? PD *iyin^D-Dsnn n p2 "•n^jiv ly^ic oyi lyani^my 
"•^ya nny d^« lyj^^jj'iy ly^i^r oy t^ ojij^h^d im ,Dfe$^p 
-iJsmsD n lyo D:y^^^ .i:{<^ pd ty^^^D y^j< ps nnN^o 
"nyrtj'^Q PK niDx^D-^^yn iy:yn Dyo^DJ^p,, Dyi pd iyj:i^ 
■«p "lyD^^^yo PN iyv^toi^rD5<nr"is oy'D^^^s pd to3^^ Dyi pk 
-^ijD 8 tDyoD in i^D iy?o Di^n ,iy'orn d^d nyiJi^soyi 
DHn WD D:n .Dy^vs^is^:s:o yc'^n^^i^s pd lyooiD ]vri:v^^ 
iy:yr.L5Dy"iJiD /Dny vi^^'iv^^iV: nymvDMK t::i{^*ry:i2«i o^: in 
Dijii lyny^Da-'^nis n t^ ,D1^t^'ni<1s lynyj y\:i2v? ov t^« 
nyn oiyny:Dn« ly^i^t :jiDnpmv lyi iytoD:i:i iv lyiiy: ryj^n 
ly^n pinx v^] ly^j^t lyr^ni^n yijy;ymy3^« n r^ px ,D*^iyiv 
tyjyp lynyj \VD'?i})) v:i'?V)) /lyDyiytDrN yjy^ nya px .D^n 
^y:«^DyDijiD to^j lyny; lyj^n /lyvyryj n pq jjiDnpmv lyn 
-"18 n PQ 18T n T^K /tDin^Jb^ni^ roDnii^D px lyt^i^iDistD 
'W^v: lyD^^iyuixM tD^o t'D^^^Q pD tD^n:yji^ lyny: lytD^^a 
D'orn iin ni^"ny: t:D^-i2y:Dn-!i< :n:ytD:j'^i^*D t^x pk a^^p 
-i^no lyi D^8 o^yij^ny: iyj^^fc< Di^n idin sts nnx .lyniiiiD 



Dyv^ijyDijJipyn Dj^ny:) tyn«n lyD^ms n ns tyt:5§:y^yn n„ 
fi^i« a^n i^fc? .tnn V'D ^n ife§3 tojycyy;! ni^n i^x m .1^0 iv 
iJi?^ I'D^K na n&? dii^d:^' na lyD^jy^yn v'?^ d^dv: idik sts 
QV\:):i^^v:i n Dnyny^D^iK a^^n i^x .DDns^ix p>o lytDJij^ 
njsfin i^N ;\v'?i]V'i'-]Vi iv to^nyj Di^n ^n ns '^yJ^^^? lyny^ dj^ii 
D:yD^>vn5§2 inn nym^cT^np n^^ lym^Q iii pi^ix lyouy;! >n 
18T n 1^51 nj^n n« ^fe?3 lyiy^ na lyD^^n^yv:^^^ ytoorLDDm n 
ni< ,nvn .id 1^2 (osynn) lyv^toi^: y^^iip px di^k^tj^is; 
D«n ,iyD^5§n iv in ni lyom ly^^ir nny n hd n^^^nyny;i 
tDJ^n r"'Di?: lyiy^ ... .ps^nyi y^s^ip ^ ty^j^ipyj ^n ns lyiy^ 
-«p D'orn ... .DiysDjy p« iy:!«iD yDDrtDr^m n tytD^^nD:y 
■:si8 riyDjyoipi<!i ns r^^nv ^ toi$ny:i i^^jnyiiy: lynj^n dvb 
"i:^nnsQ n iyn^« p^^niyn^x lyviip » to^o mo s 15^: lai^c^r 
lyDSD-irtDJ^p^D lyiiy: rtonj t^j^ oy ^y^Qm ^nnx ,]m)'? 
lyiiy^ iy t^k idin «t5<! nnx .^ng lyvj^j oyi d^o ly'Drn 
iy:y:yjfe$n iv nx ,to^^p;ri: lyuy^^nsin d^o iny:iivii^D n^n^n 

."ly^jivyront^ lyDi^iixivpniv lynjj 

; D«iri3 lyjjivn yj>n lytD^fe^nyjs^^ toj^n toyto^oi^p iyi 
lyi njy:i m jyr^m Td^^^s iv Piynn y^^n^nj^v D'orn lynjj 
"ij^a T^K tDii§i Di^Ti r^si iy:!yn oi^oii^sqj^x tyiiy:i t^x lytovy^ 
■^D«iP Dyi PQ ty:iJi^iJfei!nn^s n ni nTfe§„ : nj^iiy:i to^y-ijsn 
ininy^ Dyi i«d n^^iiy:! tDpmy:i ai^o iv ji^tD tiQ tyj^n DytD 
■3npDi:t§tt yj>n pt? d^"'^3 to^nyviyi — iyi^^;iD^o n pq 
i^t< lyD^yii PD ,y^s«ip s lyp^^iv i>d Dvn my^D — lytD 






133 nyDonpy -i«s riD«p nyT 

-yj:^ i^K 3i^n i^K .nvD^v ^ lyi^^ ^vd^d iy:^D{<a « o^nvi 
-DMK VDpmyj n hd dv^V'\2 n n^x lyjjipiyoj^in lynne' 
wiv lyoy-ipyD D'orn my^D lyj^ipiyoi^a n dj^j ; lyjjiji^r 
t2^^n"it§ yjMi^i n .1^0 IV lyp^t^pmv i{>'j-iyi ni< ,n^si$p :t^D 
,DD«Dy; y'?:vD mn oi^i -lyai^ ,d^^v id yi lyouyipyiis; Di^n 
nytD \V2i^n n:yD^ iy::'i:iJ^TD^i« yDfe?D yv:fc;:i n ^j^t Dvn Ti§ 
••1 D^J lyii T8 .DO PDD v^p "i^D ^^n T^K Dy n« ;jMK pn 
-"ivDnn "I8T n lyny: i^^:yooifc< o^^ii j:i;jy"iD6j':i^ m n^D 

-y:i yD^yi^ n^nay; D'crn ns2 lyv^Di^: ytDj^nns n di^ 
nynn« mx pn^Q /Dixytio tj'^tDna pk y^y: dv^x y] lyra 
ss!K^ Dyi na "iyD"'vnyD:i^n oyi pk ^{!?n nyDDroDDyii pd 
,nny y^y^vJMii^is px nyjj^iJi^^ n ixi*) ,Di<np :jnfe<^'D pn 
•Dy^vpntoDrt^ y-iy^n i«j lynipy; lyrn niDN^D-^^yn n pd 
— TJ1K D'pnv'^^vi D^"'^3 ni — iyDipy;j{$ oy t^k ::^nj do» 
Dm: D'^.yii^cy; m D^n Dy .ly-i^^i^ioj^^p iv "lyD^^ms n 
IV ,iy^^^Dmt<ni$D v^v'f jnjyD^n:i:t^ do .DDmi^D Pi< r\'D 
.ViV\2'DH? Dyi 18D DD^^G ly^n p^d iv do >n ^^n Vpv^b 
\V2i^r] ^n /iy2n:i^a yc^^yta d^o DSi^DtJ'yjJij lyiiy: iy:^n ^n 
,"i^K yD^yn .lyD^m^ yt^^ss iv ijy^y ly^n lynnc^yjiv y^s 
D:i8iiy: DO nj^n ,D^^njy:y^y::{$ nyn pa "i:^DtJ'iv oyi pn 
lyjyp lyvyry: /nyrtj^^o a'iv^^ .iyrD^n5<n p^nns iv 
••I PD ;:nn^S)DnK n ,D"iyDD^^D n pd ly^ni lyi ,iyj^''N"i8Q 
-fi$ni« y^^Djyo^iJiD n iyny:i iy:^n dj^i — lyD^iDDosn 
n^K n«n is:t y-iy> ... .d^j pj< -oy^y lyvj^: "ly^n P2 lyD 
,D^^prDDnii^D nyDDyi: nyi d^d ^n d^d p^dpdh Dnoya 
; D^^prj^^^p v^v lyD^n^iv pn p^tj^nj?-!^ \:i^)^Vi 2Hr\ i^n 
p^D iyDoy:ipyii{$ nii? Iyv:^i3^^< lyni^n ly^^?? y^s n dj;? p« 
DO nn V'^? DVt2:i yt^ nyin D^t^-in ^m "lyanj? ikd ts; ,d^^v 

".D6<ny3 
Dvn '•11 .tyiiy: t^k 3:'iDipyD:i« lyi ps DsiD^nyn lyi 



-nyjay:i in« rojyp ,Dyo^D«p 112 n«iiiy:i iym:y:ijt$ T^i< y^v8i:i 
mvp lyvyry: y^si n lysnivpn^v topy^^iBvyry:! ^ * dssit 
T^K lyDQSitJ'^yTy:! y^yji^^Dycj^is nn^^8:iy^ n« :i:irj^"'xisQ 
D^J nx lytosnyn in« /"lyf^n,, yi^u iy;iJ^jy;!Din \:i:i'))^vi 
-y:i lyiJ^n Drn iik d-'^^'S .lyijnisn ly^pJis n :in:yo^D5i> 
IT ty^^Dt^'1VJ^>fe§ nx lyn^niviyn^x d^ivis in j^mk lyou 
nyn ni< ; lysn^sn y:i8^ n iyni<;n dj^ii nyi^^JD^D y:D^^toy 
-Difc< DyD3„ ,tDp"iyD8n d>^^3 ^11 4y:!Jfe$:!y:i:)in fx ^yjyiDJ^D 
".lyonm ly^JiD^^v n n« r:yiir5< iy-i^^:ito^n n ns Dpnyo;}§i 
-nil n^iiy^i D^y:iiDti^y:iDin t^py^^^nsvyTy; lyn t^x ^^dj^ ^n» 
-p:8^ r« t^ii^D:^ 8 PK iyD^nt3D^:it§» n t^ ,tDjyD^^i«3 nyn 
lyDi^ii vy'?^v to^o ,D^^^toiii<n^2 jn^yonrD^j lynj^n i^^'^^ 
->j>^Kn«D n^D K^^j:jyQy:i iv Diynyir^yii^n yoniyj nytoyB^ 
lyrn ly^yimsD tyrti^n Dyn iy:iyp lyvyry^ n mi oyiD}^: ,:ji3 

.iyQny:ipniv lyiiy;] ntj^ 
nyn .:n5'P iv ^yous lyiiy:! iyni<t tyj^n Dvn pi^ d^^^q 
yD^yii Tfe§ DDi«iife$nmx ns;:! \V))v:i lyrn lyo^s^p yijyi>:iyi n 
t^N p>t:^^«iQ nyn«i ryTy:i nyi pj^ :i:nyijy y^DD^i p« oy 
■^JS! Dy'D^^^Q PD :i^«iDiy nyDisinyiD^x nyi D«:n ,iy^ipy:iii^Q 
»,, ^Di^ntJ'^n iSDD^j lyiyD^y lyi mi ,iy2ny:!DMi^ v'^m 
.oiyojyv y^yntDDnj-iK y^fe§ p« ":i:)1P1mi ytj^^^^it^io yoMi:; 
nyn^N n lytD^ms n pa niniD n p« Drtooys^i mT\ ov. 
D^n:8^ ,vi< Di^M n^T ny^n pq D^^prDDyny:! lyn t^x 3:i:i^^v 
-t^yry: lyn pq n^siiy^ iyny:iyjDJ^:) i^^n ^tid^ lyni^ ,nyrto''3 px 
lyni^n /1824 px D3yny:i t^^^^i^^n n^iiy: t^k dj^ii D}<n .:ijny:i 
nnij' 3^vQiQ D^o pM DTioyj 1MX ii^"i tD{^n /ton^Djyoi^i^ ^n 
-DMis lyn^in ^n ts ^D^y^tJ^yn^^is in lyni^n ^n ... .lynns 
-DtD^^ms yiy^n tt? ,:i:io^Dti'')V « ajny^vyry:! iyi ^>n lyony:! 



•j?:i iD;:r'?y;iBK t'n ]y3ir«o t^s taiK&Dpv oyi ty:iyn y;i«n9 n * 



135 i^^yiDDnpy "n^D ^w? "ly^ 

\iv:iV7] IV iy3:irj^^«"i8D t» nfc< nypn-nyojix yiy^n lyiiy: 
"lynij^ n nyo^^^^nsD "iyi« .d^^v n lyvn^PisD m Pi^ oyi 
,iyny; d^: lyjyimsD p^p niijj d^j lyrn /D^uis lyn pd t:^^p 
lyoijyj i^sn nynnyi lyntijn oy ".ist yjm^'iiDjynM^ s ii^j 
y-i«ny3 s -lyo^n y^s pd lyDDK^J'^yiyrii^D lyjjnsti'DMis 
■••^DtJ^ lytomt^yj Dyn d^d tyospv nnoo Dyjyri^t^nyjD^iN pd 
I5< -iS!D roDJ^j lyiiy:; t^k ,i-ij<iuyDy ^mn lyr^ns n pd ly: 
D^tj'-in Dpyr yoopyj n ife?D .pi^ pa jjnyayn "lyj^^Dy:^^? 
ly^yii lyjJK^P m DP^noD d^o ^id iyny:i iy::iD^^v n lyj^n 
■js:isn w^i^n lyD^uns'^yiTt^a n ixii .i^jtk^j p« .Dp^noD 
y:^^oyj^^ is iy:iJ8:y;:{$ t^k oy m lyDSD-D^stiu yD^to \v: 
lyoipyji^D lyj^n .(t:i«-pi$^) d^uis lyi pd 3:id^^:^d>in* 
-'mto-pDv I'DMK n^nD-Di«SDJ8itD lyn .tynnoix yoony 
"isd:^ 8 iin Dnn^^8is3 iyiiy:i r^^-'iitD^^v t^« ayin-D^ lyn 
yD^yn n^yii pk t^'?d lyD^^tD n n^iK nJ8n"i8D"iyTJ^"iD5<D lyp 
-DSD yK^^DD''j«^:r-D^J t^^P d^d iy^:yt iv D^srojy in lyni^n 
IV ,D"i^nt: lyj^^nn n .n^v^D» y^^^DDOi^^jr-tDO pi< lyri^n 
fiMK \V2i^r] ^HDi^D lyn pn yDin^Jsan^^ Doyn n tD^^v nyjy^ 
nyi mv)) m:pn yiy^n iy:i:iKiwy:Dms idik lyDsmij s 
-ij^D iyn«n pn ,iyntoDnrK yirDpysDyi y-iy^n pd ::n^^i:yi 
"iixi^n,, DyjyDnynrs Dyn .toyD^Diijp lyD^^toDsti^j^^Dy: s toi^o 
ly^nyDsn Dyoy^i ,(tio Dyjn:i pd oyo-'Di^P) "hdi^^p pij nij 
lyn^y^DytJ^ n nynyjDto^uis n pd pv^^ lyi lyiiya iy:^n 
'D': ly^yii ^n n^^ ts A'W)^ DJii$iiy:i DTiDy:i lyn^^n ly^^^nns 
nynnD lynsn ^n '•ii ^yD mts ^j^d ^niv pynijD tj'iyijs 
yv:s: n i^yii n^^ii P« :jyt3 ^m tn^n iyt:>ui8 nsD ojymsD 
-jyD^tj> "iy:i$nis^ n .Di^:^«n pn DiijDt^ lyi pd yntDonr^ 
D^nr^^yn v^V'^^ Di^ii ^lyjstDt^sn c^iyiJs-D^i iy:^n onynn 
PD nn» s ^MN ,3:nyni^D yrrroiK is isd dds"ids3 ly^^^n 
\V2i^n \h'^^h'^ PK DyisiJsn n .D^^msP^Dtj^ nsD "oyDsi 
Dnn^Dyj mr\ dh)) ^Pi^ ly^n pd ^jnnniy-i s tDiyni^Dyi 
••^^ /lyiiyj i^^DyiDSD t^k oy -tiddd in:yD^snji!?-jJs^ s iv 



nsQ p^nDD p« tny;nvDnn8 i^hw:^ DrD-jony t^n Dt^ii .rs^s 

-Q^ns Di^c^sn Dy:^^Dy:i^8 Dyi px tDri^^^nsQ lyj^n ijs^ p« 
".D^nn-'^yn v^V''\ ^inx iyjoi:ijn8n iy;ijmiv 

-y:i mn 1825 p« yDyD-DjyD«^i»3 lyi na ::ijyDy n 
-Q^K pnstDtj^ njs^ lyvjsj Tiyn^K iyny:iDD^''nn8 n w^h^o 
'i^DVD mnyisy:! DonD^^? iyn«n d^^^b n^^ Dvn .DD8"iny:i 
•y^vpsyi 8 PQ nn»Dy:i iyi iy:!y^i DJi^^ar n DJiJ;?ny:i p« d^^p 
ny^na^'^ m iyD^tojyr^5^Q"'ti> yo^na n pq loynyiDJ''^ n 
lyD^siny^QMK Diyuimni^^ iyvj»:i Dyn nin lyaisjin yD^yii 
-:)^^n:^^Q iyijyD^n^s«-D^j pd yv^Disyi ''))j^'\ toinnsnoi^ 
PS \'iv^'\i^ n IV iy:j»:nyT w^'^'i ,Dt^jj$^jrn^nD div d>\"? 
-D^yijsn "lyn pa DjynnyiQ lyi d^^v lyjy^ iv /ti;?DD^PDin 
nyi pa nnn:« p« i^sa .^isnyiv^ iss i^^^d^d pn iv^^? 
lyDmyoJij^ ^«t DyD^DJ^p s ts /tyjj^^tj'y^iJi^Q iy Di^n y^oyo 
lyDvy^ Dyn pq :ijipn^ii n p« lyD^^nns n pq ajnn^DQ^ix n 
to^y:iDtj'y:iDin ,D:i«^p8n in Di^n ny ni /t^x lyD^yii ,ryty:i 
-D8tPiyDD"'ix pn anjy2nD"'ns do /'pin,, loin ni^Tiy:i 
n m nyD^ni ID 8 pyi^s t^n ny ts rtopsQ Dyi ^^in d^^*? 
ns!Q iy:yp iyt:iDSDD y^-y^ysD n pd ajianpniv yDSQj^^x 
">DHP nvi liQ aji^yDK^jyofeSTi^f n i-'t? ^i^d d^^i *.:iJir:^^K 
D'Dvn IV lynij ^^sisiv div \'^m)v:i tDn$^y:iiyn^« tDo t^yo 
,in iD:i«^Psn d^-'^s '■i^ riyj^n iyT'^:iD^D n .Dy^v«^iQOi§D 
y^ynyDD"':"'D n tiD n^^'D-'^tj^D^K DyoD n^^iiy^ iyn^^py:iDM« 
ytDn»8rD:i:noyi lynya iy:^n ro-'m n pa n^yiiv .pjyn 



-iD-ny»pB nyi ,'7i5nj;iv'7 •nx'? ijrnNn nnx^ p« nytaj;5B' • 

-nj;i3K "lyT ly^i^ni taoiNnj?;? tatmnNjj pai^n^ 15?^«n 'u t« ,vta»2 
-yais is'3 '790311? isnj?T iyta'?Nii lu t« ii« ,vyTy:j d^t ]ib ji^id 

.tQDitQtr 



137 pyiiiDMpy -18D cjDyip -lyi 

-Doi<SD'^ "lyn ni< ^'3 m^dd^pdih *.("Di«i{^a lytDD^-i,,) 
-ji^i:«ims2 yj^n pn lyouyj ^^^dji;? iy3{>%i p^^y: ni^-npi^ia 
; -lyijyvMiJ^D nyi lyny: t^« nyoD^j^DTra nyi .ds^^sii ; lyj 
n iyt:i$iD"i5<2 D«n d^sj^t iyr^j^^« "lyn iyny:i i^x orn p« 
nnyo do cDsiDsn Dyto^o^P oyi mn i«iDD^":'Din ."lytD^uis 
Di^ii ,tDpy^«iBvyTy:i nvi lyjjynn^vj^ns nj^n y^yo-ii^D 5$ ni 
-n^ntD lyD^yii ny^JiK */D"i^Dpy^j^i3 \V2i$n iyDyiyD:^N-fi^tj' n 
-yj lytD^j^n /lyDDj^tj^^yTyrDiJiv^DL^nyDJiK i^^sy; p« ,DJi$or 
nyn pd yoD^ti'y:! lyDDJoyrj^t^ lyi iy:yii .i^^jyoDix lyii 
-Dnj< oy'D^^^B pint< lytij^iiiiD in n^D lyno Dyo^oi^p lyrti^n 
-nyi^ .Dn^« w ly^^'^DJ;?: v^^'? D'orn pn lyDjnj^n yD^^in^Q 
IV esnyj nym lyo DJ^^n nnnji^ pa rs ,DnK ddip ^n :^^ 
lyij^^iviv DO ,nny d^^ ly^yiiDo^^ms v:i'^^]! v\'?2 rycmj^D 
"sn y; iy::y~)aj^n5§ i^{<n p« iv ly^^nw oyi P2 nny v^p 
-Dpy^i^iB lyirDyisyi iyD^njy:iv vr^ nvi pd tyDD:o ^v Dan 
-»DyD v:i'?v^^ PK DiysDpy is m^v: p^^s t^n nyD^yn ,d^^^3 
3i^D lyny^ "lynni D^^n iy dj^ii ,D^Diyn D:y:y:isn ^n Di^n ,|yn 
T^K iy yD^yiT nn ,niyn^ yD^^in-'CDn^ ry'ovn D^yDtj^yjiv 
nsQT^np 8 ^n{< iyay:DD>u-i» n lyonyj iv n^nn iyiiy:j 
Di^T n^N ,m .ly^Ju^nDiya^K y-iy^n lypyiBnx px ^vn 
'iiip Dy-i PD D^^pjyD^nn^D nyi lyjyii D^iyviyi d^^^b dj^^i 
D«ia lyoniyj » px ^j^t on^i^ iy:yp pj^ddo^o n px ^vt::)'D 
'^2 vi:v:'^v:i n^: nynj^ tjix oy do ,Dnii<By:nv pn^Dtj' vt 



-IKS p'T i^f C2v"i DNT i>nN'b"iN£3 UKH n« iyi«ni»;; "i:?:v'7p VK j:n 
I'SMN lytsNitDiKS lyn:;:? i^t iy:"T ikt ]in ,t3:::o«'i'iN9 pk ij^kkio 

DNii ,Bp:iB ^J ]j;i3'7KntDjy i^t pn tsKn tspy^NiB ij:;junt n;n * 

."i;n>DKp i>*T P«iiy- T'K ]iN p;*r.:f pu "i^o 



n Dnn''£)y;i mn ny ivD^yn ld^d j^«Qiy on ry^yii lyt^Mi 
pK jji^yoti' yostPiMi 8 lyonyj i:^ Dji^ur-n^no v^vpi^^a^v'^ 
nyn /DDs:; infc^t^'n nj^nss pn .^juh^^disd iyjy:i>^« ly^n 
IV lyDny^DMj^v D«in ,Diyn3Q^K^ iy:«njij^ n pd lyoynpyo 
D«:n PK Dii>*tDti^D3Mn nyi pn isd lyiy^ pq iyD8:iy^yi ^niv 
y:in'mjtypy i« Din^Dy;iJt^ mn ^v^'pv)) ^DVD^Di^p s di^dij^d 
iy:yp lyvyry:!,, n pd jJuy^Dnx-nyT-n nyi lyjyp y^vsD^Js 
PQ \imv^ Di^Di^D lyj-'n lyoyo^Di^P yj^^jny ."jjirj^^i<n«D 
-iVDVD n PQ /1{;j:t«^: pfe^ nyoDytJ'DJtio px lyLD^ui^-^yTij^n n 
■"•DyQ .^DDsprj PN DnyMiQ^t^ n pk i^v^^v^ p« lyn^Dtj^ 
-ijs:» Dy'D^^^s p« Tt lyj^sya oysi^p n y^^yii pa ,Dy^!^ 
PK "Dyo"'DJ;fip ly^y^^yaO/; div DDj^nrotj^yj lya^in .lytDsnpD 
n lyj^n ^i'd^-'^q iynn^;i iy^«!T n^a lyi^ ."nyr^^i,, yi^u iv 
anjyDtj^ lyo^vDyD-'Di^iP di^^ Din^^yj tynj^n D^in pj^nnj^p 
tj^iy"iJ!S"D^j lynj^n y^^yii nyo^uis lyoso d^o opssy;! lyiiyj 
-81 n lyD^niotj'sn iv ni ,iyjyiQD^ifc< ^n ^j^t lyo Diyii^tsyj 
'V^:i^)'^ tD^j lyni^n --n m nynyjDo^^ms n pa iy:ijijn^itj' 
\V2Hn ^n yi^yn n^D nyn^^^D^D n pd lyrv:^''^^ p^*:? dt«:^ 
T^K DJ^ii ,y^:iyjy yvJ8:i n dh .Dyniinp yny^n oiy^piy 
"sn D^-i^B Ml ,iyiiy; r^x ,Dj«i''jr n nvD n«iiy:i D:y^yjpyi^8 
PK D^^"?rD^^:i3^^5':i ny^n iv ddsi^dj^p ly'to^n 8 ,\:ip^vD 
Vi^'^^ifi^ \V2Hn ^n D:in nytD^ui^ n ."inj^^ DyjyjJ8:i8D nvi 
lyj^n ^lyrj^^N'i^D iv in D^-'n^na ly^n lyj^iy; ii: i{^Dy:i 
^v\r]^^ lyn -■'Dnynj^i .n^^i^D iv d^j in^x lyot^^t^Djy iyny:i 
I^« Td^^^q IV njyn^ntj^ ,DiyrQti^-^yii8n lyi^^t^spjs^ n pa 
-182 nyiy^ t8 ,Diy^p-iy D«n /y^v8tD'':i8 lyn pd lym lytDiy-i 
"ajirj^^KisD ty:iyp lyvyry:!,, n nn^aivj^^s ^^j D«n pd nit 
nyiyj^fvi^^iiiyn lyo-'nes^'isD-to^Mi » d^d lynjy in Dyii 
t^K ,T^K ajiDnnytDJiK nyn pd to^D^nyi iy:^n lyn .:ij'i:iy'ii8i 
-i^p ly^yvysDv nyn .ijy^ytot^'jy-inDiv tyiiy:i ,iyo"tJyj iyv:8:i 
^n«v yDniy:i 8 nynivonx iyjji8iivy:i lyjiDy: in mn "toyo^D 
"?H^ yDt3 n ty;iyi^ tD^t^tyrnny lyn^n yi^yii ,nny-iyD^m8 
n PD Dpyj^isvyry:! pyi .in^^;^ lyovy^ Pd ryTy:i qyi pd m 



139 i^:yt:Dnpy -i«2 ^w? nyi 

■iJ^DDi^p,, Dyj^^ay:^js oyi Din^Dyjr^^-pm:^ o^'idi^d oiiitn 
-{^^i^'yjDMN ^y^^^ysD nyai^ Dt^n /lyj^^i^n^D hd DJ;?a-i8D-"«ii5^ 
Dyi n^^i:iy"i iv pyn^ oyi d^d lyj^^xisD :ju^i$Dnfc$D na lyo 
lyj^n Diynns^t^-DiyoD^^D n .lyuiDtyDD^uns n m Pi^ 
ii^: Dny^ oy .^j<23nn lyD^^pn^i lyriiijT Dyn na n^Mi lyiiya 
lyi^D n ^u D^^^DyjiyiJKJSD lyni^n ^m iy:)^yn n^^ipn^v lyi 
1yDD^nt^•y:B« nyi lyn :«:d Dyi px "djjsjod^p i^iiit n^n.. pd 
••n .^i^D lyD^mv Di:^ \iH'i)v:i Djy^^^yjiyiD t^n t:py^«nsvyry:i 

^i^T lyD n^K .;:8;iyoji« pd ynDonj^x ly^n lyiiyDj^n 
,D")yn{$Dyj ^n lynj^n ,n^DDMpy Djj^^jr-i^nD lyri^^^nyT s^ v\^ 
iyny:iw2i$ ly^jiKiivy:! pn iy^«T lyossc'^yTy; y:ni!?n n rs 
P2 lyosn n ni<D lyni^^Dnx v^vf Ps P^trn Dy^^y: s 
PD ^jnjyiniiiD yroan-D^j yny^ ty; Pi< /'Djs^^'yo lyo-ii^iip,, 
;ijy-iD*^ ^{^T iypyii:^-D::iv^D'ki'iyDJifc< nsD nyi^y: y^^yo^Ty; 
iy» T8 ^lyDyny;! nn ^n lynj^n ,DyT nns: .pyn D2«iDtrj<a 
yD:^:^^fc^iS!2 lyii^ yivDsiyiyD yiy^ lyDi^m^s nins^ ^i^r 
•:8 lyn pD ,Dvn pt^ d^-i^b .lyni^pn^nD n lyty^iv y^vps 
-:n^D83 y;imyDysc' n pk — ,\2^r]v:i kiid tynj^n ,D:^n lyn 
— ,wnyn D:n; lyDi:! s t:5<ny;i lyaijn ^n is .lyrni^^a lyntijn rya 
■j^nsvyry^ iyi Di<i"n iyj^^«i^D"i«D n pD lyv^jyij yj:y n rsi 
lypmonx yii^^pDix n ii^j ivnyi p« ^Dn^^ny oi^n Dpy 
-pyn ,("Dpnt:Dn«„) "\'^v\:i^„ m ("0Dy^«D») "lyrnnDixsn,, 
lyjyp iyDfe$ii d^s pyn tDvi:fe§n ly^yn ^lyD^sntDjy oj^n "ly yD 
Dyi ^^3 lyo^^ny:; lyni^ in dj^h 2:n':;y-i n .DTOi^^:r-"i^nD 
"ii^:i lyni^n Diynns^ti^ n .iynn:i'y;:i^ D^n oyo^ot^p nyn Di^n 
■^ro ^^n t'^y^B 1!^ tDDuyj D«:n Dvn .Din^Dy:D^iK o^j tDtJ^^j 
D«n PK lyiopJiB yD^^-iyoiyn V2:^d pk lyny^ivDi^*: pi^tDD 
Dyi iy:yp DDnoix rm^tooyDJ^is ,iyjjiD>D:j'Si^ '•m ly^i^y^ 
Pijn,, lyi IV V2 t:"in^2iy"i y^v^tD^:^ n tD«n d^^^s .vyty: 
y^Dyv:fc?P n lyony^Dni^ oi^n m (rnn-iymt^^) "oni^^ nyi 



DT'':^''ar-T'nD jiQ yiDD-'tyj;; 140 

.Diyii iytj^"'DP»n3 iyDMiy:i ns lyiMiy^D^ns lyoyfiti' in dj^h 
iyiiy;i t>i? ny D:in .(129 .p ,4 .tj^n 6) 1825 tiQ ryty: lyn 
tDp^Ej'y:) nt^ lyn^^n Drn nx d^^^b Di^ii ryiy:! nyi na d^^ii 
D«:n nn«i^ Dyjy:iJ^jni5D Dyn DjyDsi^isa T^in tDin^2yj:Dnn 
yivDpy^j^P ns D^yn Di^i .y^vj^s^vjsioy ynox ife? DJ8"iay:i 
-pmv Dssip n tyo^snDjy in r« dj^h dj^^i 4y:!Ji^iJ5§m^D 
T^K ^V'^P^ vy'ptD^^^n'^DV^ Tin piisd ns D^^n» tyo^sniv 
iy:^n oy D:n nx -D^yDc^y^DoyD lyiiy:; ^j;jd ly^^^^iy di^ 
yD^^vyrya n nyn^''^? \v^i2V? iv lyDosP Jijy;i iyn"'^ny:i ij^j 
■D"iy::ny:i ly^:^:!^^? iy"ny:i t^x nt^ji^-'jr-n^nD na D^^i^na 
tD3fe!!Dyj D"": yn«!iQ y^^toy^y p-'p D^j^nyn D:n lyn^i r^j< 
tiQ :iJn8n lyto^i'ny nvi d« i^^vyty^^ix ly^j^D ^v iii^w:^ 

.D^iprtoyD iyt^^DD^ji^^:r-i"'nD 
,Di«!2yi lyrtj^i lyn no inotJ^ iyD>njypJ8ny:i s r^x oy 
lyiM^j DyDyii .lyt^jyo n D^ni .tyoi^^tsyn yoMi:) y^55 na ^11 
D^^pttSTD^^nns yD^^n^DiyoiK oynyn ti« tys^v^ns yin^x p5< 
n iyiiy:i lyj^n ,Din^Qy:i3in n lyn^^n oy t:i'>'p2V0H^ii^t:i:v m 
^ lynisn 1^ D^yt:tJ'y:iD"'n^ in pDi^n^ lyni^n om yrvj^^x 
a^DDn tyjy^^^ i^d nn« Av:i'?Hti ytj^^Dpisia yin^j< ri< n)vo 
-:^K tD^j DJSpnni^Q nyi t^k ,Diynj"imni^^ nvi iid y^vpy^ n 
■••nQ n T8 ,D'njyD'y3 mn iy nyn iyTiy:i DDyny:!oiK iyvjs:i 
-vy^ Dy"i i»D iytD^'>nn^ n lyD^-D tid in iyr:''^Kis!Q ^v D^^n 
.X11D ys-i^i^^^p m D:!n ,ynDD^^^? lyi px nnn-^yn lyD 
t^'^JytDJyp y^y^viynt^p px ^isj^^asp lyn^nDi^Q tDyii oy ts 
-ysni<iQ iy:^>Di8:s tis top^iQ-tyDnD di^ y^vyij n ty^jyin px 
-njy lynnyDys)^ nyn pd n^iiy:i lytDntot^feiin pDi^n^ t^x ,nvi 
"•^xi^D 1^ D-'^n^na n lyoy^; n^Q nyt^-'^mst iyi px oji^pni 
tDntj^DiJ^Q ly^^^ijyoiK ps tyto^nonx Vi2V^vv:i toi^n in lyr: 
mr] nypmiyD:iiK yj^n pa pn^^n nyi nn« dx^p t^n i«d 
iy i^t^ 031 ^t^r-in lynyr 1^0 ni ^inyTy^D^t^ij^Q rtoDn di^i 
t5pipy:nynnx px ,in '^m i^n^ nyn tD:iy:Dyiy:Dnx tj'^^D toi^n 
lysj^ ty» ^j^T D^^m .yi^n pn ^'<m^ wb^dv yiynt^ id s 



141 i^jyiiDMpy -i«s rin»p nyi 

D^DJj<;"iD 1V0 IV D^^^Q D3^ntJ^ — "iy:^^N-iSD» V iy^j<pnsn 
•n'oDMpy iiynDn« lyD^jrx ly^yii,, — 1825 p« Doynnn 
-:iK lyi Tin rn^a n«iiiy; iyD^{§ny;jyD{5Tiv lyj^n lytJ'jyD 
iy:?yii ,si^ lyvytyj n lyo dq^c^ ; ly^^yryj hd :iJipmiyD 
iD"i^Djyoyv ^n t^ijtn oj^n n^i^iotr ayi n^^i^Q lyj^^xi^D n 
cyn r^st .-^v^'c^ pin« ly^^^yv ly^yn >n m \vd^d r« 
■yi ""lyp^Mip,, 8 i^^QS! D^yiii D«n ^n ,rDyn^y;y-i mts \'-)V'\) 
n^ n T5$ ,iy^yDt^"ii^Q in mp djjii iyi ... .Iyl^':n1 djj^p 
D^j ,in ife<D ^no iy^iJ5§n lyri^^ ^n oyii lyo lyii nyo^^a 
PD jjipm"iyD:iK iyi iin j:i:^j>^i<n5§2 iv lynnoyj njiyi^ 
■^yc^niv iiK yD^m pinK n^'yj lyny: nyo^ni ly^yii riV'^]}]v:i 
yiyDM-D^j n« yoQsn^yQ^niv nnx ^ly^jyanysopy vo^^n 
oyii jyo ]V)) .lyD^uife? n to^: DnyotJ'n^sD iv^v — lyvij 
iyirD^:-iyii lyi^^D — lyj^^Ki^^D n ly^yii ,nmv lyri^^ ^n 
-jyiotj'DiK yD^^jnynyaiyonx lyojix jypynv y^y^vysD leiD nx 

".n^t^Dnpy iv pyn^Mx — lyi 
,D3y"iy:) tyiiy^ t^k d^^^q t^ ,iy^n^2 iv onyjyjjj^ t^j< oy 
n^^vo "i5§D lyvyty: n iid :ij'iDfe§ti'3i^ n D3«-iD^n dj^h iy nyn 
; Dyi rx lys^yn iv ly^jij^yiDtJ^^i^ vddv2 v^'^] Diyii nx 
ly T^« lytDDnrn yj^^oyj^y; nyrjyii y"iyn:^ y^» p« nyni>* 
LDJi^py: ]V2i^r] ^n ni ,D:3ynyiD^x nr^ lyiiyj onan yj^n n^^ 
•lyto^-'nis; n "ife?D lyoipy: t^k nyni>* JJ'lt^'nDJy Vi2\i''iv n .pn 
-Dnns; D^nr^^yn vw^t in tyn^^n nyij5< nyn ij^j ^t^o p^x 
-:D-in tn^n pi^ py^yn 1^2 ly^jnyiJ^D v^vt P2 Dnyny:i 
>n lyni^n t^v^x ;ryTyj div tDi:)yiiyj m lynj^n >n Di^n ,DyT 
tin:i:ii^ iyDin^:»:-i» is i^d jyii ly^ns s inypyn in ib*Q 
lynj^n y^^yii ^lyDSQ .DiyDD^^o yiy^n ps lyD^Ci^is n tinx 
tyni^n ,iy:^^«isD yrijyt:tj^sn v^p D^nyj d"*: lyns V2 ii^j 
yiy^n pyriyn iv ::iDife<iny iyi Vi< .pn^Ji^ni^ lynnnyj^ij in 
n .lyinn y^^^p^^: inyo yiy^n pd y^io'^ iyi iv tyjn^ 
■ys feft I8D tor:''^«i«s in iyn«n lys^^nyrDi^ip lyi^y^sytj^ 
PQ Diyny^r^y^^sin n .lyDsyt^^y; n hpd \vd'^^ iv y^v^D 



"sn 8 iyi:n:i iv 4824 dd^^ix p« nyooyti'LDJSQ l^« j:i^d«t 
a:inyjy^pn!{§Q n lyn^^Dnss ^»t d«ii ,y^v8T^j»:ii;j yri:yD^ 
-j^^s n .n^ iyrDyD3^^^:i s lyDDyponx nx ly^na n ns 
-■•osi^ n Di^^i Di^i T« ,D"iy^piy mn ^ji^DsinsQ lyn iv j:n^^ 
v^v't iytD^it$nwQ^^.« iy:iJi^ya t^k onyrat^ m o'lv'?^'^ /Diyi 
.iy:^^K-i8Q yo^^nyj v^v^'} lypj^nnsD iv lyiiy:! T^i< av^-')'? 
-lyDoytJ'DJSD r« onynnsQ-TitD n lyj^n dh^jijd lyn^yroyn px 
"155D iyn»n ^n nx .^jnyDyn-pi^ » nsss p^noD s Pi< D-tn^ 
n D^D Dsy^py^DMK lyiiy: lyj^n v:i'?V)^ Avo^^ n px ld^-'k^ 
-Hr\ DiyDyiamo ny^«:iT«^3 n .ly^Jnyn^^D v^v^''^ pa lyti^^Q^ 
-DD^^ms iynjiDK^-?^^yiiv iyrDyD^y:iy"i s im w^nov^ \V2 
n PD 3^«Diy nyi .DD^nnyn ^y^^ ly^n lynt^n ^n pi< ,:^h^ 
•:h^ n myiisn Di^n :yin-D^ iy:n'niTD-pDV Tcnx Diy^nQ^K^ 
"^s^nss IV tDyD''o«P/, iy^*T ly^iJsm^D iv oiynnD-'tj' ^v:i^i 
^m :j^dp«i:«p n^^Q yyDtD^DD^p.) "pav pn D^-pDy yiy>n wo 
tj^ov Diyinit^iQ 'DiD^na^ti^,, iyi p« ("hdii^j ^m p« oyjpn 

— "y^^yts T^K iyDDs:j'^yTyri«''ir nsia 3:nytDD^^:i«n n„ 
n ]^n — 1825 ,t^r iyDi2 pd "on-ix n^y^aytj^,, n Dyn^yo 
tj^^Dpfe$Q iJ^ii ytDvy^ n tyn«n njs^iynjiD px ty:j^^iny^-D^ 
niD T'anK iy:i3i^osn»a vyDv^'?v^v^ iytD^sny:i5i^ :iJ^tD tyny 
,tyQit5^ yiy^n ^•'i« iny3ivD"'ns d-ij lyoj^^tj^isn ryn^^tn ^n p^? 
."lypiv PK yyntD iyr^^iii<n ••n ly^yii iyo>Djy:i>>« n tyn^^D 
-t^D pti^nj"'«-D^DD nyDDytj^tDj^o,, n ni ,iyn^^P"i>ntD y^isP^^ 
■spj^ni^ y^«^j^>V8:j PK tDiytD^nny:iD^ix m lynj^n /'^Dy^-'D 
-D^y lyni^p-nnjii^BDyni^P m lyni^tn ly^^a yiyn:^ p« .oy^!^ 
^^ V^ pyiiv lyi .tytDD^^iyaiyp yirto^iyiya p« toi'pv?')) 
-^^v n IV 33iD^''^j''^N n .nyn^ynyi iy"iiy:i t^k ty^^a y^s n 



Ij;i3l6 lie jji'?o«n«B nyn chin ]ynNTijr:» ]:;ttiJ:?ji:K t'n dnii ,niJpn 
.nn-^^p«tD«nB ijrtatt'ij? nyn pn lynntntjs tin pn 4824 ,i2DunK 



143 p:ytDDnpy -i»s ciD»p lyi 

•y; T^« Di^ii /'p^t:na o^n: ni^ Diyj^i^trn i:y DiyDjysie;? 
p« .l«n:«^ p« jji;?D8n{<D-iyDSJy^yT » nnx ni^iiy: Dyi:nj 
ly^a^K n n2 :jnyDynDM« "lyi ny^^iv,, ts ,D-iy^Piy /1827 
ontTDii^D nvi ny^^w px i^no lyiji^ pn ii^d lyoip dj^^i 
DDfc$iD{<3 DV oiyii /'D^^nns pd Dy^:y^nr-i3 px lyDDyi n pd 

■••^KiSD iyvJ83 lyi "ly^^N Diy^i^DD p« Diy^^j'^o y^b* lytj'Miv 

iyt:cfc$:^^ytyj i^no p2 jjnnynnxc lyi pi< ii^J d^j p« 
fei; .iyT^iiy:iDm8 DT^ji^^jm^nD pd jjiD^ns^j'ifejD n im DJijn 
1M T^« D«i^ ^DTinD iy:i^i:«^ n pd lyos^y^yi pd mo"oi^P 
■DnnK iynnny:iJ« \:iHn 4825 pd "lyon Dyi pn lyoipyjDnjiv 
n^K^n ^^pni 'DP^jypyo i2V lys^^sDv: Di^no,, nvi lyay; 
yn^jyD"7 ^ lyji^iioy: m ^imk oi^n di;?ii :iJit:^^v fc< /"?^: 
\2\^ i>n Di^n ^n pd iy:^"'K iyny\, : i^dji^o iyi to^o ,ypi{§o 
■•n :D:«Ty: lymnn pn iv oj^n lyr^x ^viv pj< ^yD^j^nyj 
DDfei!Dy3 PK iin«D nytj'^:ny:y is **."iy^i?Dy; do yt ^u 
y^ft§ PK D:«or-n^nD pd :ijnno»n« n lyD^yn iv ]i^w: 
•"iy^pyiD'''ifc< m PD D^^Dj^^i? nvi lyn-'Kivonx m .lyn^Dnrx 
-^D^^ijB nyn ^m« Ds^p-iyD^^nn» pd ajir-iD nyD>3»tDjyDy nyt: 

*** 31^0 PD y3{<^ nyj' 



.]y:2K;y;n:?tt3TK i:;d<js2'k iyi"T ''t i>»ik 
nj?T ]ii3 "i;j3'is:y;i'K Dp ps imr k ,D:'yi .id iib ttiriyis iy"iKn 



D8TMi:i lyD^jj-i^ lyj^n /DJ^toao^D nyn ly^iy:; t^k to^^-p^^DyD 
8 D^D lyoj^^tj'yj TT oj^n 1825 ini^^ lyi .pi^^iy: lyjj^^tj'yv 
■8P ly^y^vnyD^p nyD^nstj^n^D-o^ni nx P'J^q iy^y^^:»j^Q 
-••n ,D:i^«Dy:i i^iJiyi lyn^^n Di^ii nn«^ ny^a n .ycj^iDDso 
pN lyD^uns lyijyTMD .ijy^y nt? nn^ iid pn^^^ iyiiy:i lyj 
n^ lyi HN ;iJi:i^toDytj'8n ly^n n^^iss lyn^n Di^nD y^s 
n iyj>n iyi:)y:!yrpnni<Q id j§ px .iy^i$Qy:i DiDyoix t^k 
v)^2 ly^Jin Vi-'D iny:iD^"ifc< ns pJ^iiy^ Dyiiyto^iy:! lyto^^niK 
yrti^i n nytDJix ,Dp>nDD *.ty:!:i^Q^n^ya vy'?D2VBV iin 
-Din D"'D tonjyy:i i^^i^^di^sdi^i in lynj^n ,Iy1JyDtJ^o^^? 
-y:i iyn«in oy di^ii ,i:fe§D:i'iyini lymnipiyo iyi aV?^^ 
iDi^n ,1825 i^K Diynyii pk DiyDyp^i^ii lyiiJ^ais^m n dd^jd 
tinx Dyi r.« y:i«^iyi^j lyruyoti^^iD is d^d tori:yy; in 
nytDDJ-'Diyii^":' px .tj^^jr iy>n pa inn^yo^Tiv lyruyDt^^ 
PQ T'ntD iyvJ8:i iyi ti^^Dp^Q r^x riyt^ys^r ini^> >m d^^ 
-Dpyr Dyi iin nj^totj'^-'Dt^ « iv pi^iiyj tD3i$iny:i DiJ^D^k^* 
■18D 8 iy:iyp Diynyiri^sytj n ps u^DK^iyini lyriDiiJjj^o 
,i:fc?DK^iyim ^ — D^yvi^iB i7 tinx pi^ iy>n ps :i:njy^p 
px y^Di§Qo>D n iy:i{^ipy:i lyn^^n lyD^^ni^ n ly^^yii px 
n .Ds^p iy>n "1^ t:):ij«^^n to^j lyni^n Di^ii y^ys po yv^DK^ 
-ni "IV HDn lyiiy: d^j nr^ dpjis lyj^n lyj^^xi^s ytD^nc^^n 
iyj>^xi8D yD^^ny:i n n^ ,pi^ tis ::inyjy^PiND n I^yDt^'1y1 



I'T Bi'Bj;j> ,(i:ri3<>T 12 ,1825 ,"[i<i3x'7) "i^rsnsDi'J DT^nia dj?*! lis 
IJ^ttlT ps ]jr3«:iDnN n .27893 — 414 i^^asnpDiJKtt D'»'7S n |'n 
pK /'Dyis ns DimtD >m„ idio :jjT!?'7:?ott'iNs ip n to ,1825 ,^^ii 

.DiNytio ty^tDni pN in |p'sy;i ,1828 

ei'b:;ttKTj;:j mn ,1829 iik 1826 lyB'mi? ,v^b2 tayu'Dxp i^k * 
T'« Dxn tDyta'Oxp Djrn ]ib taixep,, Dyi nyr .£232,000 pu jjotd n 

/'IjriaiKpniKS n p;B'?yn i!J ,1826 ,'>«» ivti2 ,]ii;'nKt3 iKiix'? tik 

.(1829 ,]NiiN'?) tayin .n .u ps 



145 pytDDMpy n«D PiD«p nyi 

lyo^uns n m ivnyn iy^fc<D vdj^d pk n« ,iyiiy: oy lyj^n 
*.iy:^:^^o lyDyia nx iyD»!^-t:^fc<ii:i iv iyDijy;i nyiMi 
n HD :J1Dfef!^^'5i^ n ts; ^inyiyjo^i^ oy mr) y^^Mi » "ij^d 
Dyi Y)n^ ,i{^nDy:D^iN to^: tot^onjijj iyDy^i§3i:?j D^n lyvyryj 
yTii^Db*2-i^n na tD^^-^rTi^^:^!: n lyrni^'n tD«n ny Di^ii 
o-inypy:oiN nyi^i in lyai^n nyD^^nnj^ n nfc< ; iy:iJiJ>:^^Ki83 
PK ly^y^v yiyDyi; n iv o^^'^royLD lytj'^DD^ji^^jm^nt: no 
-""DD^^^^vi^D nx ny^feiipn^-i nyi iid lyoptin^D pyo^nn oyi 
yK^^t3D^:«^:vn^ntD n nyD^yii tD^o ,tD^^v nyi no y^vb*o^:» ny^i^ 

Di^T .D^ypnnSD :2V I'^i^Wi Vi< 4848 V2 1829 HQ /iJi^yiisn 

1SD fe?oyo n mx d^:i ys^yn ,;jijyTi8n nyi no yTj<D n t>k 

.^yD^3{<p iyi:y:^i^D oyn 



-:NEy;iK ]-nnp«'7n ]'k D"iy3y"n n lynxn ,1826 ,'?nB« px * 

ni DiyirK:. ]ycKi:KD ]"is ]-iKn;*jj Kipmi;u:iN t'^-'y vn pK ,iy:: 
.pKnyji ByB3»j"iHB lyj^'t lySimtrnyirtaEKip niyrnta ]i£5 inyo 
D'7>ji?K^T ; 128 411 ,70 ,63 ir^^'T ,1826 ,"i;::D'irTiyn ':«t:n„) 

(.141—2 .T ,2 .- /'n-^ij"?-?:!:'** y,^ nK::D'n„ 



146 



(1829 — 1842) 

,Dy^V8^v«Dsi /Dy^viD^DDJ^N D^8 DJ8pfe$i lyj^n m Dl^nD 
.D>Dy^>DJ!?D i^i^^jr nx DJi!?t^jr ayj^^xnsD isq .lyni^p-n^nD 
p« Dj«^:r-n^nD d^s DjyD^^vsn Dn«n«D na ^n tynt^n i^d 
-yj D^J ^feiia t^\"5 pK lyii^ lyn^^n n^» ; pr oyjnyiJ^D ly^n 
D^iy .Dj^^jrn^nD lysny:; lyni^n in \v'?h^ p^^fe§ ^n t» ,tyjia 
1830 — 1834 nnjij^ n na iy:iJitD^^v n p« ry^p^Di^to^''^ n pk 
,D38D lyvisi^iK^ iyDn-i:i s; ovbv ^n« ty:ijit3^nj{^ i^d iyj^sy:i 
n,, D^s DjyD^^i^sn idi« pj^^pdik is ^nx tDiyii y^^yii 
n t^N ni ,D^«ttyi pi^ Ts nnx ryray:! i^d ^ir^^ji^-Di^nD 
s ti« "nT^:i$^:v lyD^s,, is ty^iy:i t^n Aini^' vyi-w^vB^ 
-jytyisyi Vi^r) "t^"':)r"Di^nD n,, rs pk ; "dt^j^i^jp ly^^j,, 
-TntD iyi» 3i^P"i^ntD iyi px ,DT^ji^^jr oy^o oyi idi^d 
nyDJ^K lyn -lyD^s ayi — lyany:! oy lyni^n i^d m .ti^^jv 
DPJ1S3 PK "i^^jr-Di^nDr, 8 m "i«i''jr-i^nD„ 8 lytj^niv i^^tj' 
s T^K "r«i^jr-i>nD. 8 .tyto>ns3 ryoyj yiyn Di^ii ,iyi 

T^N "t«^JV-D1>ntD. 8 ; 1SED t^^N tlQ lyt^^^llS PQ 3JirJ>^J<1SQ 

/'m^:r-Di^ntD -"i,, .tynsQ y:yi^>6j^is53 pa ajirj^-'Xisa s 
-'•« Dyi tDjy^^^^^sa 4834 pi< "0D'>^t2„ iyi riQ y^i-'t^sitoD n 
DS1 : tonyiDtj'y:! lyij^n iyt:D^ji$>ji>-Di>nD n ry^^yii iv ^syi 
i:)8^ PB lyD^-'iis y^s pa :jJirj^^xisD y:in:yt}6j^^j<iQ s ,dd^m 
OS an^y^y^^? .m>:i^-Di^nD ly^s^i^^vsi lyrvr^x-p^N pk 



147 :;ii5''"iys yiy:^^:fi'7^r.y"i n 

Dn^« tD«in iVD '?''<)) /'i«^jvn^nD,. i^ r8tjy:iya px t^K ly ^y^s 
yi D^s TM^n DH^N tDjy:y;s3 lyo n« iyvi:s:a iv onynyjenx 
PN DJ»^jvnyD^un5< yr^j^^n yiymx .niyo lyt^'nsnyD^^ 
■jft< n IV yj^^N no^^K^ s \V2i^r\ ^n tj^DJ;?^ .lyDSD yjyi^^^i^ieiD 
-jfe§3nei2 yiytJiK pi< ; "Dy^vso8:^«'o«t« iyDny:j« ]^v)) 'V^v^ 
-lynj^ ."Dy^^;8nyiy2,, \vd \:i^M dj^^^jv yjyi^^t^nsa no lyi 
pi^N rijy^n ,Dy^vfe$"iy"iyD n ^^d pk Dy^v8D{$:i^«:o« n ^"-d 
n «iM« D^^-prDyD ly^n px Dpjyntj'sn idik lyDo^Dt^sn ^i! 
Dvyn lyj^n ^ynyij^i; n iv yj^^« nn^^s^ s lyni^n Di^ii iyD«D 
lyD^j Dyi PQ jJi:i^Dsn yiyijiTj^n n .DJ{#^jr""n^nD. 
lyjnjyDti'^iD s Pd ^fc§yi^K iyi lyny: t^« i«^jr-" d n ^ ^ i d ., 
•'?^„ p^K pi< "lyD^ms'pi^ y^» PD j:iJ^r>KisD lytj^n^n^^i^D 
■n^ntD n ps ynj^na n dj^ pk .y^vsr^jsnij "nyD-'^D^yii 
PD Dy^vsT^J5<:ifc^ y^fc§3«i^v«j n«j do lynjn; iv D"iy"in^D-ii^or 
t:i'D tyD^uis D«ii y^s iyr:^^«ife§D tv ij^j .ly^^D yoD^tD^j'fciin 
Di^T D»n ,y^v»TOfe$:ni;j "iyi:yD!SDDiN* nyoM-ij p^n pk D:vn n 
* 1829— 34 p2 DTOijor Dy^o Dyi D^ytstj'yjni^D m id^d 
■^^DDpytD n lyi^y:! tyj^n ::i;yii5$n ly^o lyi pd W2H'B n 



"i«D DiN'ii'"DTino„ : iyo«J oyr "iyB:i« ,i;»o"iKB-DJ9'!jNTt:KjiK 
T'lriytDJiK Dyn c'i'S TiiK ta»j /'t2;»is3y"i«n ]ym'?p-'T'nB ,eo»T 

,-I«E T'K Dy ly^'i'yn ps nytiioiK pB t:nyttty«3 Di<n m^p « ,eD»'n 
,]j;3«B j;iyT'tr-i«B ps iK'ii' k iib ;'>tis f p »>: t'k "lys'byn 
pni« 1210 "I'T pjoipi!^Bn:TS lyew^y'jyi p'p la'i cSnyn onn 
-y:oiN /'iK'JT'-DT^ntt,, « ]ib tyiyriK p«js DNntsy t'k ,iyiaK;y'7yT 

yjyT^triKB ps lyani-iK n )!2^'J^^ ]ih ,Dy»s«T':«jnK y:y' lyj'n 
IS y:''« m3''B» n r;2«n dkii lysKS ps ly^^'ta pB "lyiK ,iy2KB 
tain^iyB ]y:''T ,iy::i;'t:Bj;trNn yiyi:nKn ])s ipK ,ynyni« n 
n lytrmti iniriytaiiK oyi bb« t::KD"iyT c'?b ".iytsK;y'?yn n"in 
y3''?s»: yi^:^„ ]y)'iy:i ;ji:''d P't un'b iy:''T ya'byn ,''iym^p"n»fi,# 



I 



Df:y'':i'^-T''»nt:) ps yt:iD"'t^y: 148 

,1829 ini$^ in .i^^tj^pii$> n« n^^K^sp:^^ na nytD^ons^-nn nx 
Dnnp"D^yij«n ly^Js^ nvn D:n:yy; m Di^n oy lyD^yii px 
>ii DyiDi^j .1825 112 DDiiyn Dyi Djn iyD^«ny:iJ«i Di^n dj^ti 
^n^iiy:! iyDny:ipniv iyj>n "jJirj>^Ki»Q iy:yp ly^yry;!,, n 
px DJi<i^:v y^sji^^v^j y^^DD^ii Pd :jnjn; n inyryjiv dj^h 
nyn^N m lyonyj Diy:^£3^-^yi^»n n nynj^ /lyntDonj^x yn>^i 
-MiDjy iyt:riit^y:i m oi^n y^^ist^js^nr^ ny^n dj^ii ,D^oiyT 

'i^ri '^''^^^p:^'? P5^ Diyr2ti^-^yiit$n n pa lym^pn^ntD n 
-j^^j Dy-i PD nni^^ yDtyiy n pi< .1792 to^n Di^toonpy \V2 
yrj^-^K Diyj^2{i^ iyii5JT«^:i n iyni>*n Diynjimn^^ lyDjnyv 
D-iy^str n PS Dy^^ij^f^fe^jni^ n tyrj^^xn^^D i^ lonunD '?ho 
n:5<;m^D iy^fe$j{^^^«j p"'« pk ij^^d^:^ m '^'>'^^\>:\i^ px 
^11 inyD D^j iyDipy:!D^nfeii t^x lyn^is yrr^^T n pa lyni^ 
v'pv:^ n .iy^b*Q"Dnj y^y^vysD pk iy:iJir:^^xi^D yr^^mo^^v 
PQ iy:iJiDny:iyDJi« n px pt^fc^n-patj^ iyi pa j^nyoynoMN 
jjianpni^ nyi nyn .lyn^^n iyQ>D:yr^&<-^^D lyn^^tj^^pj^^ n 
-jyv Dyn ly^^^itDyjiynns? /'jj^rj^^Ni^D iy:iyp lyvyry:!,, n pa 
\:iHn DH1 m ; lyooyti^DJ^D i«j ii«i:it»^:i ps n^s pd lyo 
-^x D^^i? ly^^T i^^ti'^pjs^ pD Diy:^B:j^ n ts ,iviyi DD8iny:i 
^yn .iyD^''n:y:!y^y:!j{$-l^a p« Dsj^tyiyin^D n lyonyjiyn 
pfc? P"'ntDD lyri'D-'tJ^nn-DpyT iyn^^p^^;iDiK nvi pd ^sDDnn 
t8 ,D;^^viyn^« lyD^^nis n Dt<tn nyoDytj^DJ^^D lyny^ n^^n 
^?o^P 8 pfc^ :i^{$Diy p^p iyn«in d>j i«ip \^^:v v'?^pi^^ v? 
■^yTy:i 'Diyj^sti^ n p« nyiy:DD"'ms Pd nj^nisa fen to^o 
-j"*^^ nymyi lyj^n nj^^Tt^ tix ij^n^Di^ti^ /n:8^:ijy pia lytoa^t:^ 
D^ii ,r:iynyDJi^P s iv iyD^:iy^yT \vp^^ iv nj^iiy:i iyi«^y:i 



.1834 ,iy3^Bp^ lytaSO 



149 j;i^''"ij;s j;")y:y^:;i'7^Tiy"i n 

.1829 lyaoj/vyi pfc< /'li*!;: 
-i?:i T^K DV iVD'?V'i) PD .:iJi^D8n«2-iyo5>:y?i/-i yrij^T n 
DVDD iVD^snyjj^ toj^n ^oDnsn iyDjyD^^vy:D^ns is iyr>n 
DyjyD^yr fc< iy:«"ioy; \V2i^r\ iy:ji^ij{<n-ijsD n .d^^:^ ij^ii i§ 
-Vi i^^DyiDS^in in \V2Hn Dy^DiPDn n .nyDpsij^D lyroya 
lya^^^PivD^x D«TDfe§i inyD T^i< ^v : yjs;"iD nyn Dni:? onyn 
■:8D i^N m "in^K iyn«n ^i$r D«:n .yivDipyipy yoDDyn p^k 
-■•DipyTpy y^sj«^v5§J yDrt::)y"ij<nD^^^j ^m lyii^ nyLDoyj'D 
*,"'D"iyni^i listj'n .us^-i^x p.s iJs^DJ^^i^ n:fe§^::y -iJ^d oyn 



H iyny:j t'k ^dh'n enyi'^iiy D'i'js m ,'t2"iynKT inxcTT * 
]iN n:N'7i^N ]iii pxny;? P«^yJ t'k ny .p'^xcKp ly^'syp^^n 
]'« ,Dnt2:« ]'N pnnKS-^yn«n « ]'n lyto'^mx ]'n« t'n pN ,1799 
"iy VH 1816 pN .inK' inys iyny;j b'tk t'n ny lyn /pn^sKn ]ik? 
pfi nyi^K lynx-ny; lyD'Ji'N vh iy inii ,"iyi:DyB'i::NO inj pynK 
"k"? nyn ]ib ^'j^^'jip^jo lyi ]in iyt:D'iN':T'-Tnc yt:D:ynyTyj:N n 
,'ry'gtr'O dis ,iy:'£y;5 I'D .i:£NB''7yTyjs 'oiyi'EB'-'i'ynNn ny^Kp 
lyjyp y'S«i2>:j« nyn ]'k "biitaix cyjynyTy;:** ]n lyaiiy; taxn iy Ti$ 
lyjyp lysyry;) n pms ]in'2i!f:''N ,1825 ]in ,!2py'Kns Dyi 
pintsD lyonn; oyn b"i'T':xji« ny i2Nn 1829 ]'n .;iU'j"K"iN3 
-Kny:j t'n ]in jiny:y'7p")N5-]n'i> « iy:iyp T'n px D"iy:'S2' n pa 
-Kiynys,, "lyn ps lytsyipyD-'i'Kiyiyj lyn ,t3piycK2 iy2>T« ni ,iy-) 
nyn ]*iNnyj "ly T'n "lyisysty ."lyiDEXir'jyTy: D'iy:'BB» n ]'.e ys 
n .'"!2E«ty'7y?y^ vity-nytansiK ly'rKJK'SKJ,, nyn ]is iyi:y"ipDyD 
PiK ("p^«£ p£ yo'ctr n„) '"ryB'S ^-n nx D'xn,, cyi px iy'7p't:n« 
-'IK Dyn ps "iy;n''tD"iKB nyn„) "ts'^pxinx D':yo itb,, oyr pK 
T« ,iy:!'i!i ,nynys i^n ,dmk taT'm oy m ,]"iyny; yzb'ju ,("]ko 
ysi'n'iDKj yDm:5 ,iyDm ]yi2'nn k tsio lyjyD « lyny;? t»k iy 
nyn pK ,1832 p« .lyjiinyitsiy yi3y3'n;!ci<m p« ]yta''p;'nyfl 
-«"iy; 'uiynxT tixn ,D'>'?b isSnyiJiyT ,D'Tnp-D"iK2y"i oyi pfi cs 
-yn iy'7Ki:jND « "ins ta iin:yjy'7y;; n ]ysi2TSDnK ,"iyi3i'2"iK n lya 
-^yTyjj « ps nytsyipyD -lyi p«ny; "ly T'N lytaysty .ysi'^xn 
p<jny;j iD"inij«;i« t^n ys'jyn ,D'm-'^yn p« nyiannnK ps t2£«5y 
lynyjj VH ny ]ik ,]ysyTyrpnn«s n pn^siSDnn p^j'i'i^ oyn b'D 
,1838 px .ny-3:ynjN yi:iyt2D'';Kn D'nnDt:sKtr nix'? ps iyj»'« 
^nyttDytriiaKQ p« "iy'7n:yn"',i2 px lypm « P«ny<3 t'« iy nyz 



-j«p nyi 1^ iinj^sy; t^« lyD^yii /S^jyo nyn^^jyDisa s) lyo 
18^3' 8 torn^-'DisD D«n (m«vin yjyr^N yj^n n^i« nyiyo 
-ya rx oy ts nn dj^ih DTi^^yjiont^ .:!:iD^!Si'n8£)DDn^yT na 
-;i^j^^«i^Q nyi iis^Q ii$^:r yj^^Dy:!^^ yonij,, s n«iiy:i oynjn; 
ny:3^^iny^ 8 ns n«iw:i toi^^i^nDJj^p t^x yrj^yn /'n^)'?D lyo 
n -lyDytD^DJ^p y^83{§"'vsj ^m no nx :iJi^Di§n8Q"iyD8;iy^yn 
iyn«n d^^i iy:yD y^^ in pi< lyonyjrn^ D^j^ry; dj^^h ii;?^:r 
-n^^D 11K lynns n i^d ; Diynyn n« DiyrstJ' d^s to-'^iisyj 
n .Dy^vi§T^:N;:iij^ yiyi:iTi§n \vi}''^:i 1^ iyD«iiy:i \vd Dis^n iy^ 
n^5';iD^D ns ^jys « ns lyj^D^'^n pn i«^jr nyn na hd^dh 
-y:i Dyi nn^ ,iy^nj$^ DQi;?§ny:i D^n lyny^ Di^n n^^Djy:)yii 
••iDiynj^n .y'^8t^:^jii<i ly^spj^^ lyn i^ :i^id^u ty^^^jnyii 
-y; 8 D^D nyDDi<;D nx .ivov^i^vo ^^iyjy;i lyn n^iiy:; t^i^ 
n^tD^pj^:^^ n D^« pi^^iy:! Dn^Dt^^^n lyj^n lyii^^a'pD tyoni 

.n^i^D iyv:!5ii;i lyi pk onyj^sti^ n pa 

-^«ii n^D ni /'y^v^iyiya 'D^yrat^'■^y^1^n» yrrt^i n ^:^ 
^m v'?^ PD piynytD^i^^D n ini^nyj vp^\:^ t^« .lyanyii n tyD 
-lyDSjy^yn yj^''oy:;^« yto^niv s .Dj^ptiin jd-'J t^x ,iynjy^ 
-yi p« nyDDyt^DJ5<!0 px n^^iiiyj iytD^»ny:i3i5 t^« ^ji^Distn^D 
iyDm;i Dyn pk :iJi^yDti^ s lyDijyj dj^ih y::^yii 4830 lynoy^ 
-iynj«:-l«tDK^^ Pi^ ty:js:;yjj« i^n r^x om ,p^nDD-'Diyj^3tJ^ 
PQ y^^iLD^DD:{<!p n p^? nyiysjj^p lyrti^i lyn ^i^ix .pi^?^ 
D^D^i'JS! .iy:i:nyijy yrj>^K d^d n^iiyj ryoiJiy^j^myini 1829 
-y: ,DnK tDT^ni Dy ni ,T^N DyiVDipyrpy y^fe§:j^^vfe$j ^m n 
D^nyiny nyi^^jto^o ^m pa yirDipytpy m \"\mv:i Dynjn:i 
n nn« iy:iy^D oy ny^^yii 1^ /p-'xi^a lytooytj^toj^D nv\ m 
IyDD^Dt^';sn s t^n^ ,nyii di^ds^^^p lyjjn^DsnsQ yD^^D^ji^D 






151 yi^^"^y0 yiy:y'':;i^yny-i n 

T^« nvDD^D .lyp-i^vsn ^/rons n nD iyD«!:y^yi '>'m iv mo 
tDyo^Di^p 8 nx nvoynpyo ^s"iy:y:i d^s i-it^^^^vi D^yDtj'y::^:? 
DD^^ yj^^oy:^^ is lyo^^an^ivD^',^ ni^w:^ tDj{5nDDn«j<3 t^« 
y^vKT^j^:-i«! nyi no i^^jd^d p^k pynv lyj^yn i^ .lyr^ns hd 
fe? Iy^yDt^nv^v n«iiy;i onyi^Dy^D^K t^« pnastQ ^v^V' pk 
-5§3 iyD^^3"is! n D^n lyo lyD^yiT on^ ,dd^^ lyi ns y^Bi^p 
yjmytD>m 8 d^jii nnnyn :n:ypip d^j .pi^ "ly^n o^ni;?^ 
T^« "i«^:r ny:^^Dyj^8 "lyoni;,, lyi pQ ::i^D8ns2"iytDfe?:y^yi 
(^ynj«a D^m) jj^dj^id ly^D^rcs Dyi 1^2 \'m^w: DD^DiJ'sa 
lyrsy: D^J "i^BK^ v? "inyo lyo p^p ,^iB"iyir^ px /1831 pd 
-j^ns: ,yn«-i3 n in toijn i^^:^^ti^"in«ii .nyoonpy in^x pd 
PK ,iyny;y;3^>«: d^: nji§^i^i< pk ijs^tot^t^' t\ pt< lycnyj^v 
n PD y^V5<iyiyD y: r^^n n«iiy: tD^^v nyi d^d t^k i«iov n 
-yj2{^ -i^^DyTtDB^in in Di^n yD^yn n^"'ij'fci;pj5§^ pk lyr^xi^B 
-15$ n lypjyitj'sn iv yvw:^ » "i5<b y^vi<D^J8 lyn t:^o lyny: 

*.iyn:iDiJ^-DD^u 

-IV Di^n "D-iyrsti^-^ynsn pb i«i>:v y^^Ji^^vw,, n "w^h 
nyi pD opy^yns lyry^v^nos! "inyo Dyn lyiD lyii;?^ Dyn D^n:y:i 
lynyjyjBnN r^oyp oi^n lyD^yii ,^oiynj;?n ."li^^jr-Di^nto,, 
ri< r\i^'2v 'DiyrBtj'-^yn^n lyn d^d :jn:^2"iy:B y^y^v^B^j i^n 
pi^n t:^: ^y^vs^vi^Ds: ny^s!:«^v^: s pb p:»iy: d^v lyoipy: 
p« V)^ .nyD^uns'Pi^ lyos^P y^s pb ni^: n^no p^n pb 



"PT i3Kn iynK;'pn ]ik ,]j;n"iKt2tt»j;jj 1831 pN t'« ijrtDDKfi * 

]yia23 ]is /'t2''p«in« D'jyo ms,, ij^t t22''"iB' /'jjJiis'nKi vh oy 
pe isDKD n -iN^JT lyn ]« ]yD«'7tyj;;iiK ]yny:J t'«„ ,1832 ,'>:p 

-iBty n ps ]n^ DyT pyDyn is ]yiKny:i ]yji:i«nsy:i ]y:'u ,p'.7 

,iy;jKii2yji'n "jy'S T^^Dyrtssnn bkh lynKj'po iy2'?yii ps Dpixn 
iys:»Ji'K ttyoa ^tanpnio •1J;^K lynnicD'O ny'^bis ,t2'?KoyT tciu enn 



-^y^isn n na lyoynpyo d^5§ is^j rjs -i^d ivj^syj 1829 pd ^^d 
nyir^ n ii; nynn »; pn nv \:iHn nvoov^o^^D ns onyrstj^ 
inyv pD jsiito^^n s i»d dpjsi ly lyoy^i ^DiyDSD^yjyr ly^ia 
yD^^tDDj^tj'j^^Dy; yiyniX// t« ojijyciijn n tDprnyjonx ,d:^d 
-y:i^« iyTynjs:iJ// » iv nn^Q i^^i:y ry^yn iy:iJ"i;jyiD{i^:j^ 
"18D lyn PK Di^nD y^s pq iyD>ui5$ n pq "iJ$^:r lyj^^n 
■lyDsriy^yi 8 t^n yiVDS^:^^:^^ pn ^m« ."hdi^d lytorj^^x 
-y:i iytD^«ny:3S Di^no yDTT^Jsr^ :i"'^J81iv pd :iJ"i^D8n«D 
dm:) D«n v:i'?V)\ ^isso n^nnyo !••« nyDoytJ'toJSD p« pi^ii 
-i^^v^j,, nyi PD :iJnjn:i nyi iv Din^Dy:i ny^yatj^ n'^^m ^j^q 
pyii:^ nyD^^pniDMi^ nyi *."toD8tj'^yTyj riti^nyD^ons ny^^j 



nyn lyts'^BNiBitj^'fl oyn pu ]y'7p'En«,, n p« prjisp n^D ]:;2i<n 
piytD'OiN n pQ jJiiS'tatynytsjiK -iy;ianTjj?jiyj nyn iks ,Dy^ip 
Djrn pB ]«'7B Dyn lyia^Knta^y "jy'rp'tD'iK,, y;ju«n n /'moN'?D »^y2 
n:»ns nyT iyi«uyj t'« lyD'jyn ,taDNj inxtrn lynnsj'B^ lytr^jjipy 
ts^K'i'tt^ lyD'byn ,Dy*nN-;jit3>i^j"« nyi .D'''?a d»djni£3 ps inn px 
uTT'iKJ-iN '7K? Dy ,iKn N »iys « iyS-i«!? "bxT T^:ta'» "lyny tk ,1X3 
CHI ]iN -jKB |;?nj?5 ]is tayta'DNp-iyattJiy'byT nyjnoyj^N ]h lynyn 
t2pmyjs« T'K ,yD«p ny'jxniajys n ]'« iy"iyn iyta'r«ny:j ^«t n^yj? 
ynKJDMK lyn p« .1818 ,"iyn»ysyT lyaB \\s "i«:nKJ„ p« iy"i«ny;i 
i2Kn yiJKT'iNj'iK KTH T« ,iyn'?Noy:« Biyn ,1819 ,n«iJ«' 29 nyn ]ia 
pB lynnB'yj-iytaiiN t'« ys^yn ^ys^ta'BDJxp n .layiinjjy-s iu 
,iyi»y!?yT ]yt324 oyn tDTtaxn t^n pN ,tD3yTiTyiB obK taoxjj inijtrn 
TO iy:ii5y:j "^nyti .lytasnpDiiKD oy'D^^^s pN tt ta:isy;j ,1818 
-yji pNnyjj j'lojyp t^n ya'i'yn ,ia3K0iy'T la^j y>!?«T»JxjjnK yjuxn n 
]"iKny:i B3«Dy-3 t^n dkii ,yi«"iB yjjmyta'm k .^kt ytania k p«n 
pN/, .tsKny; a'3 <3^i<siy pyoyi p'p taxn ^nyaysty nn«' idsk b'd 
iiNDiani inn iT«n'bKiyn„DyT ps ji^ysisiu to lyonnyi — 1826 
-y:j lN':p-DTnt; k t^n— (1834 ,5 "^nsx ,iyQDytrt:3No) "n'^oni'x 
-lys piwiaty ta^: tt bkh y3'?yn ,iyiaDytyBi«o ]'« P«i^y^ tDy*T:nj 
-'^lay lyoijyji^nK isKn pN ]ypni:ii<i yjjiontj yD3«o pN tt^naty 
"^'K n<<i ,iy:i«;iy:jny!a3iK nya« ?in »t ;pi's«n lyny^ p« ly^ijs ya 
iyD'n-3 lyT lytyms piyn i!t ta3Kp«n tsKnyj o^'x bkh n nyi 

"n:y;jy;iDiK oyn ps nyta^ni^ ByanR^^o 



153 :;i^'^^v^ );'\);:^>:i^'?^^'\v^ n 

lyp^noD IV D^J iy3« .pi^'DD^^ais Dyn n^vnyi iv mnt;-: 
DD{<ir^yry3 n toiijn y^i^iD^tDDjyip in^« .lyjJnyjy.riM^ it;D 
,i«^jr 'Diyj^BiJ^'^yiisn "lyi ^u Djn^ayj '?'>'>o lyooyn^ div 
pifcJiDC' wwi T^N M yD^yii IV m c:-i^DDMpy ist dj^h yj^yn 
^yijn«3 PD iJsmsD » lyiiy:; "imk pn m Di^^'n ,D^DiyT y^:r,]! 
y::?yvr^x pd y^vspjSJifc^ p^p do pk iy:^>Kij<D yin^oDMpy 
p^K iD^n«ivy;i tDj^n p^k"ii§d nyJyD«l^t^'yJ:«! iyny> .lyn^^^D^o 
oys fc? PN ,i^^:t:^D lyiy^ nfc<D :ij^^^ty k ,i pyr dcd no: ^^t§ d:id 
■Ki'ny "lyi ;ynyj t^« ^onynj^T .:«nD^"'n lyD^^ojyDyn siijp lya 
lyDo p« ii^: rtD:yp D«n "iJ^n-ii<:D lyi px nyoy-ipyo lyo 
,DJi^or yiyiJiTj^D 150 pD tDaj^t^'-iyi^p^D^D S! lyaii^^ny yt 
p« Dsn:ri:t^J ,uiyT n^-'^^y^to n^''tj^»pJi§^ pd DjyDDnnyo 
-D^^o iy:^n ,iyDi^^ti^y::i;? in lyn^n DJ^n lyD^s n .■iyL:Dy> 
Ti^-^^toDpyD yjyi^^tj'ife^D n id^d lynjnifejD lyiiy: o^^^ajyo 
-pDi^p n ,DiyDj<D-iypi^T n ,D"lyr^t^'-^yl"lKn n ni ,iy'it3Dn 
yijy-in^D s: to^^stry: lyn^jn yD^yii ,Diyny^n^n n pfc< Diyprn 
nsD yiyinyD Divnvi ins lynj^n D2fe$ir^yry; iyi iv .y^j^n 
y:j;i^^t>>i{§2 px lyi^D^j' nyt3^^nis!-iyT^^fc§ ,iypo5<!DyD pa iy:>^K 
— ,iyoi^ioii?!D "i^))^ iyiiy:i iy:^n lyD^D-^n n .iy:3SD yiy-i:^ 
Di>*n o^^v ^v:v^ px D«tii ,io^Diyi in t^ny^piy di^ii dp^id » 
;y^y^i n^o lyD^yii ,iJsim5§D nytD^^nnfei;-''n lyn iDi^DDMpy pitj' 
HDJsn 'DDSSij'^yTy:! nyn pd pntj'n iyi .pyn^^tj^ nytDys:^^ 
n T^ ,DT^ni nytDDnpy in^x ps D^c'in p-*: ytoti'iy n "ifc<D 
D«n yD^D lyi Dn^ .£i,866 lyDi^iDstn lynt^n iy:i:n^ni$v:^^8 
T^n 10,000 pa t:D8:i^i^^:itD^o i§ toi^ny; y^vsTOs^ii^ n 
-fc?n pirc yD:«Dnyn n pn t:^nBi^nfe$D lyi^yji t^k dsii ,20,000 

•lypn^v 
n PK n«^iy3 Din^cyi:^^ p« i$i^st:isBi^-i3 ycDSinny^ » 
.yiDtD^^n v^r]'i< riQ lypi-'v^n y^^njy^jytD^D pk yn':i£v 
Dyi ,D^fc$njy3J^ii ^ lyijn; iv iy3y:iy:r^« in ts^n oy yD^yii 
■y^ loj^n lyD^yii /'^^nn^i'n irt^^nys^i^p oi^ntD nya''''jv„ 
-E^DytoD,, n P2 pni Dyi ny^^iv MynyojiN iyDor« iot^d 



8 1"^^)) Dsy^py;iDm8 ^«:t lyou lyiy^ ^i^ik ty: .Diyi^tsyj 
Dyn nnn did oyi njyi^^i^E o^j *.D^:y3 4 na ypiso 
-jii< yiyoDJiy n lyDijyjiytojiK tDyt:>D«p lyn dj^h ,^fe?Qoin 
lyn^jya-T « d^d DantJ^jyD^s^i « lynyjivonns ^^lonyjiyD 
i^DSp lyn pyii i^ d>^^s d^djsiq iyife5^y:ij^^8 mn m vp^^d 
n,, ■pv))'^ nvi "18Q D^y»8Ty:i o«n lyo d^iit ,-i:«iq s Iid 
/Tisnnj^n dsp m^tj^n iv d^^^s ton^ntj^ — "ly^jny^^Dt^^^^n 
. V2 D«n;r»iu ns rns lynip,, — isso nynoyvyi ly^s oyi 
nyDDytj^DJso pi^ in Dray^ Dyto^D^ip lyn n^^^p di:; 
Ml ,tDyii n n« .£3,ooo Dns^: tDsyntDstn yoiD yD^yosry:! n 
D^D ,£5,000 V2 nyii t:nyDyi:in«D iyD^jj^« n^D ty;ij^T ^n 
■Dnnfeit iyiiy:8^2 ^n a'^V)) tD^yo^ry: Dyii n lyn ,yoiD lyD^yn 
n«i D^i^i^ ^m„ lyoj^j inytojix jjid^^v yD^^Djyrjyii s \v2v:i)'^ 
T>K 1831 nsiJs^ rx nx .("p^«q na yo^totJ^ n,,) "^ya^s ^m 
iyD:yD^^vy:iDnx i^ na lyoiJ nyDtJ'iy lyi lyj^tj^iy ypsD 
V'f "i^D tD^ytoc^yj in D^in lyD^yii ,^i?jnitj'T iyD>^D:yDyii 
nyn na lyos^p ynji^vn^sia n tyrj^^xi^a iv,, yn«!jan« 
nn^ ."nnn^ pa n^n iyD^^oafeiii^:''^Dy: p^x i^n loa^K^^yry: 
iy:i:i^D^Tis:a n pa lyo^n^n yD^^tDjyDyii yn^^in^aonK n 
-J38D t^N Da^tJ^^yry:! iy^i?j«!"'^^^j„ iyi pa DytD-'Oj^p oyn pa 
T^i? ys^yii ,2JiD"'^v yrtj^i n mn /'n^^Mi'^m^ P« lytDoyt^D 
-y:i ,''Dnyni<n in^^tj^n pa Di>tDPi$iyi D;)yD^>vy:;DnK iyMy:j 
an:)yD^^ti'j^^8 ,p^to^^«!a iy^feitpni$i ista r^^a 5>y^a Dy^in^ 
rytyro^jirj^^^isa ayn pa i^ianpniv lyn luiia y>vfeitD^;i8 n 
n px yvi^«iiyi nyn t^a ^ntJ^Di^ia Dyn p^? hj^^i^k d-'d 

**.iynjy^ yK^^«ysi^n>''K 



4830 ,ny2»t:p« tytt2 dyn t>3 pye i;tD6 Q:?n tie ,p:roii 81 * 

.lytflDytyiDJKD ]'K pyB^>^no-Dp'?«s "lyn pN in w^ty:^ 

iu lyi'Dy; ,1831 ,"iynovt2ByD ^^3 i«i:»» ]ib iv'iytti^ n * 

.243 .T 4831 /'imn 



155 yiynyD yiyj^'-^fi^^'ny-i n 

P^noD lyDM-ij oyi lyv^ot^ iv ,iynyj t>K D^i&ii^^v^ui lyn pd 
nyDJni Dyi i^k ,i^{$^"iy]ji;?-ii^ot^'5§ px Diyrsij'-^yiisa n pd 
pD pi^iiyj D^yDfesiy: lyj^n \vd)d vi:vo'n^2 .i830-iS3i pd 
.p^nDD Dyi w^'Diy IV pii^Tiyj tojy^yjDms v^ ot^)) ly^^Di^ 8 
•lyoiD yt^^M D-iy^^otj'y.v>n lya^^n ly^sD "iyQ{§n;:^D«j n 
.:JnyDt^' $§ t:jy:yj«n lyD^jrx ij^; D«n nJsmfe^D nyn -lya^* 
.£100 D'D lyD^^D:^ lyDyipyo ly^^j s t>n ,ib8i -isjnays px 
,Dii!njrDi^: i^K jJi^o«n«D-iyD8:y^y"i fe§ lynxiii^in onn dj^t 
^«iT li^^jv yiy^ T8 ^Di^tJ'i^n s lyonyjivjjj 4831 ^inss px 
■yj^^n iy3«n lyi^^jtD^o yin^K d«!"ii "i^y:i Dij^n lyD^stn nn ^u 
Djyi^jv n PQ iyD^^':5D«iic^ yD^^jnynyj n nyai^i .iy:i>n*j 
•lyTMiy^DniS! i^J "li^:! in lyni^n ly^^D y:yi^>{i'-i82 n p3 
iy3j;?n y^vi§T^:8;-iiit lyi pd iy:^niv "lyi^^ti'^p:^^ n Dm'\ ot^i 
,p^nDD "lyDsnjrD^j wd')'^: Dy-i lyv^Dc^ iv D^j^Ty^stj yi 
-y; D«n ,n«i^iy:i iyDny:)Dn-i5§ ivovBii^ ^yD^3j$ t^k lyij^yii 
lyifc^^isa ly^yiT iyi^^:io^D lyD^nj^Di^: n rs .ivnyi onn^D 
-"iKQ iyjyiit:Dy-i:iD nn tDi^n toDb^c^^yry; n .y^vs;T^jfc<:-iJ^ n 
nnj*^ lyn^ytDyi pd ^nas niD on^ .iyi:y:y:i y^o px t:>n3t5^ 
"is^D PD li^D^i^n p« ;iJi^D8Ti8D-iyDb*:iy^yi ^ iyDipy:i{^D vi< 
,i'''^[>^^' f'-i^'^i'^^^mo pD "iynyi;ijy^nnp aooo pd ^vnvi:^:^ 
\vo''?^)'i:^ in lyDi^^t^'y;n lynj^n v::i'?V'\) /D^^ni m ^i^^^^v^o 
v^vy^i^^ PD lyD^uifci! iyDD5§D^yn n .usaii^Q oyi iia 
"cnK ^n ^i^T lyD jJS!^ii$D 8 D^D touyiiy:) in lyn^n iy:)j<D 
nyi^^JLD^D 9,000 pi^iiyj iyoijy:iDnK lyj^n n^^ pfe< -lyonyj 
-Dnife? lyj^n n«;Dy!D^:i» .iyD^''nii$"^i$ii n pd D^^^D:yDD>^D 
;i^^*^iiJ^25§t:D pD Diysyt: n nn^JSJi^ iv n^^^^y:) Dp^^^y; 
iJ8^ iyvjs!:i riyrfc< "Diysyt: pd i«^:r y^fc$:{^^v8J,, s px 
y;n«i n .i:i§ni{5D j« n^iiy^ iyD«^:^y::i$ pn Din^Jtiijij^ t^k 
oJitDBnnstn n ife$i3 lyoniy: i$ iv t^n D^t^Dyi^n c?:'^vo 
iyi T8 ,n«iiya DD^oyj lyvy^D y:yi^^tj'i8D px rx Di^n 



T^np lytj;^ i§ D^ny:i ldj^m ,nyDiJ s d^jvq 7 DDi^py:i Di^n n« 
-OIK ii5 lyny: d^''^ nyjy^ isa r>K dj^ii njyrnD ro^m no 

.1fe$T yonn; iy^^ny:i 
lyorn:! cyn na ::iiy2iyp-i»Q n 1^0 iyrDy:i i^^ijy j^i 
ly^jiD^^v n lyni^tn iyD^:!j^K ."n^^jvDi^ntD. lyn ns p:«ny:i 
n Ts ,j:i:!yii^a lyn iy:!yii '?vf:)^\:i iyD^n:i «t!s: lyn^iny^Q^N 
Dyi na ynsitDJ^D n ^ypJ^'itj'iyT m lynj^n iyay:iDD^ui8 
T^K ;jn^jyn n m .t:^y^i3try;iyn:»:8i3 in Di^n Dst^P^yo^D 
.D^^pDfe§TpnyDaMK nn^x typjytj^ i^f i.T'n iy:iji>?i'ivy:i ww^ 
•typyitj^ IV in d^^ii i^d iyiiy:i do i:nj v>? lyn^^ t^k oy 
■i^Q iyi Ts ^iviyi Di^cy:) tot^tn ty^tD^o-i^y:i px ^yj:^D lyn 
HD \'-\Vf:)'\:i n pk .iyo«t: is ni inyo do iyiiy:i t^k 1:^2 
\^^? DO tj'^Dp^Q m ^y^v:i /lyi^^nya iy:^n dj^^i ,i«ni^ in-'K 
.D^^-^rDyDn^D lyijyD^n^n t^k oy iy:D^yii w^V)) \:i:i^^^2 
Dnyr oy ni ,DyD^Qi^i> iyDDyt^D:)fe?o oyi pd D^^prDyD n 
y^vfeSDo^ n nn^D^^ oyn nnx Dpjyitj^^?n ty^^y:i t^k ,DnK 
."D^"'V"DD>m8 n iyvi^"5i«Qr, ly^yii Dpy^i^iQvyty; nvi i^d. 
PQ :i:i^D8n«Q iy:^^Dy:^^ iyi ^n^ 4831 ,^>-is>s iyD23 nyn 
i^^ti'pjfc?^,, n lysny:) Vi'piii^vi in D>^n ly^^yii nj^m^D nyi 
Dy^v^Dys iyD^n:i^viv n^iiy:i lyoj^^^tj^^n t^k /'p^ovDi^nD 
nyii DiyD''nny:iDnN ^i<iT Dpy^i^iis iyi t« ,nyi pa iyDDJi:i iv 
D^>^^ lyn^ynyi iv .lyD^^ni^ lyos^p y^^ px ly^^o v'?^ ^nn 
•Dpy^i^ia ryryrpnn^s o'ly^iyo .id Dv^Dtj^y:i ivdp^ tyo dj^h 
lyn PQ nstj^ lyiy^ 23''^vi^3 i^d n^^ii^D inj<!^ ps ^no D^n 
••ii D^ni nr^ /'ritj^'iyD^uis isa DQ^tj^^yry: ly^^ji^^v^j,, 
Di^n nj^ii^D iyi ni oyiDi^j,, .lyDoy^Di^o Dinnii^n dv 
/'Dii^DtJ^ nyi cins ^^-"d 100 iiy ti§ ^nx D^nst^y^onx in 
-D1K 18 D^^DSQ Di^n» 4832 PK ::)iD^^v-iyD^m8 18 Dn^ntJ^ 
...DyD50i8Q DO iiy^ti^ y''V8T08:!ii^ n mn lyn^yii ^p-^^a 
-yapniv t^x y^v8t08:ii8 n dj^ii ^nniyi 3n:)ypip do ij^j 
Drrt^ny:) px D^ns^i^Q in n Dt^in nyDoyK^DJKD px ly^^a 
iyi T8 riyi^yD iv oik Dny^D oy pk ;iyvy^s yiyuK pK 



157 yi^-'nys yny:^'':fi'7^riy-i n 

yoDsi^tJ'yjBy v^V' p« ly^y^ oy^o ly^yjj^ns "lyi^-n i^^j>^tj^ 
"ivDMK nx lyunj 1:^ iud Dyi tDsnyj iyni;jn yj^yii ^ly^KD 

."njS3-i«D Dyi lynn 
Di^n ly^^yii ,p^^:dik iyi iyjsoti^{<n T^t< oy Di^n p« 
tD^j Diyi^ ,-iyDDyt^D:5<D i^n usm^D Dyn pa ^n s toDsoyj 
-11^ Dyoyii ^^Diynj^T t« ,yD:iV? nynt^ t^n oy ; D^iyviy-] 
-:fesTij§D IV t:i^nv:i D«n ij^^msa nyi D^^-^rnyD-Dj^^j^vKT^^i?; 
yiPDipyipy iyi d^d Djynpyv m Di^jn o^njn: pn lyp 
.]y:^^t^-iy iv D"iynyj2M« D«n "^ys^s mt iii^ D^i^))„ "•i px 
,1832 n^ij^^ pK ,^Dnyn{^i tDj^n n^o lyrsyj ,in^j< Dj^otj'Jt^ 
o«!n Pi< /'D^^'^i^iny! D'jyD niQ„ oyn lynyr.vDMij? iyn^^ny::i>* 
ni<:?„ PQ "DD>>:i» oyi n^iN ruyDDj? d^j ^on^oy; Donoii^ in 
"iJS3"i^D cyi PD tymiv n ly^aiv^nx /'D^^p*j'^{<^^tD-ij<3 pn 
lynj^n ^i^r yD^yii ,y^v^T^:«!:iJ$ iy^j§:«^v«j 8 Pn n^^c^pii^^ pjs* 
1^0 pyn 1832 ini^^ wo'o p2 -it^iJ^'^ pi< i^oij^np-DB^n nn'« 
D'"'Dnyni^-i lyjyii d^: pi< t^Di: njfc?3i}<2 oyi \vm) ^': .d>: nny: 

iy3^:irK t^k "ij^m^D iy^^j{^^vi?j» nvi PiD r»^3 lyn 
■1S2 yj^^oy:!^^ yj^D^-'ViD"'''^; v^vi:^ ps nfc^"ny:i lyoiJit?-: 
ly^iy:; t^k yDDroD^i m voi:^'^ n v:^'?V)'\ pa .lyDS^'j^^yryj 
••Ti /'is^jv-Di^nD ^{5iy:y:^n„ n nyii<t /"i^^^jr 'Diyi^^a,, n 
i:^yDti'yj:yDj<!Pv \vw:i t^k m .ly^nyj T^nijyD^^v n D{^^^ Ivd 



-D'n» n:K:N:«i inx' »ms t:«n ys'jyn ,1830 px ,in»jt ypixtstr 

•jHt lyo TK ,i!jn;T ttiniEy; lynxn 1832 pK 1831 p« lynnaiN 

p5 ]pNniy;5 cp's^y; IV^^'t iy^Ki'?ND-p"iKi3 .]yiKT^ND lysnoniK 

]y2N"iny;:yoKT'i:t 1«'-t n T'n ,1832 px ,D'trnn 6 p£ fr^xp « •]«: 



-y^-^yrv nyiy^D ,Diy^«toD :i^^oyj /tyj^D-'ii lynn \)^ 
nw cnynn^D .(Diy;y^-nnyn) Dnync^^s ,Diy^iD ,Diy:j 

,iyD8D n tD«i iiD yDD>t^'y:! iyi pi? ^sq nyrv:^^K lyi ty^iy:i 
yD^yii ,n^"iiy^ Dyi:n;yj T^i< \i^'^v yirD«iy-iyD » oi^)) 
t:«n nx nyD^>mi§-»n lyos^p y^s in t^« lyoijyjj^n^^ dj^ih 
m:^:^ V^VTi< o'''^i>:i'\:iVVi nn^x tyD^nnivonN iyDijy:n«2 nn 



D"iy'7ir'u pK D^iy'i'NUD n .Diynyno n ]is nynx Dny^Nt^D n pB 
ynynr ps wpia'7« lyn n^'bis lysKS-nn n lytsiix tDonnxa iyj>u 
p« iNi I«'rJ«'7 ]'« toTtaD'Tpy lynxn ys'byn ,]yn'7p-nintD y^«pN^ 
p« lyiKny; iDyn3n;iy; t'« y'i?«TijK;iN y'?;«N';i«: k .1799 nnxi 
layDND '^lips 'm,, ]yttNi3 oyn nyu:ix ,1827 ^bii px i^nix*? 
HNi iDTttDiTpy y:'7yn /'Di;:'Ktrn njy Diyt2:y2iNp n't'nysK ^^jj 
-xpKiaKna-iDsnpDiJNO ."]N'ji^ ^«iy3yB>n„ ]yo«5 I'lytsiiN isinn 
TK lyT'm ,*iyiDijy'b lyT ps Nii'n lyi p« t^t ]y:iByjj y^^yiT ,]y^ 
T>K ,1832 pN nyTi'?j!D'D 938 tD'?nytjyj mn y^xiyiyB y:»T«T n 
,1834 p« 6,774 eiM« tix ,1833 pN "iy*T'^;u'D 3,691 i!? lyDpxnyji 
"lyn .1865 TO t2«ny;j B^a ty^"''-^ P'P Tt 12? i2xn Dxn ^nxs ^ 
IKS tyitaDnyi2pK-i«3 va 'bnxif-iyT'bJtD'D lyn ]is Dpisn ny^yaty 
-■byTyj y:i'T«T n lynx .]yin«' yay ps iD''pJ^nnDi« iy:i'oy;^K lyT 
"]«'JT 'onyn"?'!,, nyn bio 'tntp'B' in'x iyn:n"iys tD': uxn lasNiy 
ynii'tDDnpy n tk ,iid lyi'sy;? iy3« unr ij^njK -ij?*t ps .1833 to 
nn'K BiyDyi y3'?yn ,"'t2y'^DKD ^^njyis 'DJND^'OiiNtDD ivu'nysx,, 
p« ^ysn !2«n ya'^yn "lyix ,1834 taaiT pytao'Tpy y;injyK)tt't2Dn'7yT 
]« tyii'^iK ynn^N ]'« tDxn ,1832 taau tDTBOnpy diks nyomy;? k 
,DynNtty'iyi{-nnisi'>x ]in mipn n ps taenpouxo ]y^yjun« 
n tsK PN PK ."i«'iT' 'Diy*T'7>n„ nyT ]is ;!it2iyp laoNiaty dnii 
.iy'T''7:t2>D yi2D3ynyTyj3K n d^k nynyno n lynnuis ]yi3:yoipKT 
ITS n 1^ '}^binv nnyT lyj^n Dy'3«oyny2? px mjpn n ,"inyi3 ^n: 
bm'? ]tn p'^trpnN' px "lytaninK-'bKn ]is d:«'5t y^no'bKONn n 
-KD d:nc»„ lyT p.s iTTiK'? yi3Di3'?y n tin yisn«ni3 nyomy:? « 
-n«n ps nytajys-'i'Nn oyn px n«T^y^ taynjnjjyjt ypNu ,"'Byi'D 
-'KtrTT niy DnyiDjyBnNp n« itsynoND >*7i:y"is„ n nyn ,n'7yisDiyt 



159 yi^nys v"»V^^'^'i'^^''''y"^ ""T 

oy lyD^yii rx ,y^viD^DD:t:jp lyD^^-in^DonK is pk DJsn^y; 
IiK -y^spi^^ K iyrj^^K"i{§D iv nnsD » pti^ny: oDsoy: t\s 
■^^siojyv 8 D^D oytj'nis^ y"iyijni<a pd y^Di;j:i;jD^"ii<n5sD 
m:pn n .pinjj^ pk ri^^'Doa^yi ny^^i:^ oyonjijo^iN "lyonM 
y^vfc?T^jfe<:i« "lyrTi^n lyi pd PV'i'i'i ^vi. ts .mx ny:?Piy 
t^ns-DD^uis Dyi lyD^^^jivD^x px [y^ynivaMx pn ^i>*t 
lyn PK iyDi:yj:^nfe5 Diyii di;?"ii is!D oyi P2 rniv lyiy^ p« 
inn nyii Di^jyn,/ ^«it tj^ni^^ lyny^ ."tDEst'^^yiyj lyrrt^T 
p« nyijnsn lyny^in ,iyD>>v m D-i«:ir"i^D5$B Dy:y:^^K pn 
/tDD^D^j'fe^n T^i< oy pi< ;"iyD^^ii ^n^ pj< nyi:iT5<a Dty^i^oD 
PD "lyn^^Jo^D pa nyii oy-un^y: d^j lyp t^n«^ i^\"?» rs 

-i^DD n^T^Jsni^ ly^i^T Diy^j^'DD nyiy^iD nn^:8Jii^ ly^i^r 

ny WT^o ,182 pn PD D^j .p^ Di^"n t^'nj^^ 8 ly^irsn do 
-i^K yj^n D8ny:i Di<in 182 "lyny^ ."jyis^y: ^y^vysD c-iyii 
-i8inyD:i8 lyi^y:; y^8 iy:^n ^n nyai^ ; lyvyryriyayj y:y: 
^1^8 n^i^yj lynijyjj^ tyj^n d^^ii ni:pn yj^>Dy:^8 n lya 
-ji^p yD^^nny^ yrtJ^n n .;!Ji^D8n8D"iyD8:y^yi ly^^^nny^ 8 
D^8 D:8P8n nyoyn /'lyosjy^yi c^n^^'D^n^,, n p2 nyiya 
.("iyD^^ni8"''in pa DjyD8^i85") "Djy»8^i8B 'Diyn^^a,, lyn 
T^8 P8 .mii^'? wiv' tiD lynytDt^'n^D P^8 PQ Iy:8Dt^'8n r^8 
-yryj \^vi:v P8 Dyon^D^i^ yn^ynyivyry:) yoD^yn n lyiiyj 
iyn^^^PDn8 p8 p^DP8D P2 iy38iD y:^^oy:^8 in^^^o^y ,iyv 



"iniK tsNi-ip t2Nin ,i«"ri«^ pK ]i»nyj Byiinjj?;! t^k yD'b^rn /'oiya 
n ,p'T t2'3 ^«T *7NS np m i^^K .n^'BDj?*? pK "i^tsiKnp-ttsnn 

,1834 ])S /']K'2T-DTntt lytaini? 



I 



nsD lyD^^nny^ nn n^t^ lyD^nD-isD Dpynn iyiiy:i lyj^n >n 
D8ny:i rojyp D^-'riyt^'Mi:^ lyi i^k nyni$ ^n w^m ,:iJi^Di§r 
DQSK^^yiy:! n .jJitD^«in«!Q-DBMn lyi d^d ;:nrnii$£) rjyii 
iytj'n^i^ n -typn^visn ytj'^£2«-i:«y:i p« tD^^''t:y:i:^^8 lyiiyj r^x 
nny^-^yoiya n ^v lyto^jy^yi lyp^tj' iy:iy^Q pn^^^sn lyiy^ px 
-ijyn3» 8 ly^nyii iy:iy^Q yrj^yii /lyjji^DfejrnsD-Dpn^v^n y^^^ 
■pyD-nyi:{§sDyi«ip s n« "lytDD^^D-ijyi:,, y^^^ii s /'lyoD^-'D 
pn ^«T ^n«!^ lyiD^yn lyo-'^ti^^n n« Pi'':^fe?n oyi isa nyoyn 
■••DipyTpy lyn iyi« /Pi^vj^n oy-i no "tJ^n^i^ ^yj^^nnrn,, lyn 
,iyi^nj^^ y^yji^n^iin yrr^n n .pi^^^n po ^vo^vi lyii 
DDnsnsn n^jpn n on^ lyni^n ,DnyDjyv y^yji^^vjniJ^iQ lyii^ 
-DQMn D^8 n^"*!^ lyon^y;! s 15§Q i«iJ n'-n lyn i«ti lyjyn 
.'o^^\^'?v^v:i iyv:s3 lyi pd iv^^va ^v)vd)?v^?v lyn^^ ^.t^nj^^ 
-D^K lyjy^Q DyD^o«ip Dyj-'-'ny^^is Dyn pd iy-i^^:iD^o n ^v 
-y: nyv:«: nyi pq nyn« t^'n^^-tDQ^in Dyi pq nyii lya^^py: 
Dyi D^D lyospv nynj^ lyn^^n ^n n^^^p t^^j t^k DD^t^'^yT 
tD^yDK^y:Q^iJiv /iytDyipyD-nyiJi$3Dyn«;p Ds^in px DjyinynQ 
•yrpy nyrtj^i lyi pd m^vin n .yirDipytpy y^^ji^-ivsj n 
tyj^n iy:i:i^os!n«riyD^:iy^yi y^^^iny^ n iid pk yirtsip 
^yny^ ; DQstJ'^yTy:! nyvjs: lyn ti^ix n«tTiy:i tDjy^y:Q^nfc$ 
-D^o lyn PD DDnssn lyD^^DSJi^o x tDp-'tj^yjj^ns tDi^n p^«i^d 
n .iyDynpyD"^^ny:y: d^v DDnj^m^rD s px tDcstj'iyi^^j 
tyjSDtJ'^n T^« yirt:)'ipyTpy ly^^j^^visJ lyn pd D^-'nisi-DQnn 
-pniv PN* ^DD^tJ'^yTy:) lyn pa p^tDPst^-iSD n iyD>Dti^i?n px 
Dy ^11 nts! .Dp-inDD fi^i« noDDn ly^n tynyj lyiij lyo^^n 
■yn,,) :j"iv^tDti^"iyD3ix nyi^tD"'njyiy:i mv)) DJi^Diyn tD^j Diyii 
/'Iij^jv 'Dnyn^"'n» n is ayo^^ti^ psny-i i^d iy:iyD ,("DD^Dyj 
ny3y> PQ "DJt^'>:)i\, yj^>Dy:^s iyn«i y^8:i^''vsj ytDD^^o n ^ii 
■18D tD''D iynyay:iQt!? T'5'D^^ti^D^iK m toj^n ,tD>>v lyrnoiitDtj^ 
.DTir"'^yn yiy^n iy:iy3 iyn^53D^» n ty^n^^D 
-••^nn^DDMK 18 D^o tDjy:iiJ38n d^:i in lyni^n iytD"»m»-'n n 
i< tDtftny^ T18 tynijn >n .Dpynfc^p « pk y''>;itD''toD:ii$p lya 



161 y'Tj5'''^yB j;ny:t5"'^^'i'^^ip "^ 

-;y^:i>*Dy-iyv. 5§ Pi) y^B^^JP V2V2'^^vi 8 ly^fc^PJ^jo^ns yin^x 
lynj^n "\^':v 'D"iyn^^n» "lyi no lytJ'ni^^ y^K d«ii /'dii^d 
n iyD:i« .nyn^^JD^D V2 lyonyjD^^K D^^n lyvijsn d^^dv: 
iv^v Tfc$ ,t:in^Dy:3^^8 lyny: t^k "::irj^^K^82 \v:v? iv^viv:., 
lyo^^n ni< DSiT^ii^nyj pn oyii iy ry; ^pyiitJ' ^^t n^^:tD^D 
yrnnDii< nx VD''r]v:i '^nvD n p{< Dsnmyn^K ,wnvi r^s 
n PK M^:]^'?: Vi< o^vyB^-'?v))^2 n pa m^ ,DJ«i^jr-i^nD 
T^« jnJD lyrtfc^i lyn .ij^t^-iynDinDii^J Pd Diynynjjy^n^ip 
; n«:'ny:i lysnyjpmv lyj^n lyvyry: n mi DyiD«: iyn^^ny:i 
n5<3 ly^iy: t^k "i«^jr 'Diyn^^n,, nyn px ont::^"'^ lyi px 
ni^Jiiyj t:in'£y:Dnn t^x dj^ii ,y^:{^^y-iyv ny^j^^ 8 ^'^2 iyi:u 
ynjyoM-n px ytoDr:ynrfc<„ n — t^ns^^ ps ytDos^a n pd 
PK "nyoyipyD,, /'D:ynMy-i3„ lyi /'"iyo\"in^D„ "lyi /"isii 
lyDsmJSiP n pd jjir^^^o^n lyi d^d — "nyin^D Dsnn,, 
PK n^E5n"Djji:yDyiy lyn nns .tj^ni^^ ti2 "iyT'^:ito^iD n p« 
-yj iy:i:iTyj T^Mijyt:^^^ iy:^n oi^ii ,Dyjo^n yry^r^yi n 
px lyjsiic pi< lyji^totj'j^n "y^ji$Dy-iyvDin^D:>^8„ n t^n ,ni^^i 
-Die yij^^p:yi2D^8 pfe< "lyji^nys ytj'^Dfei!Oii!'n» n pq DnystDjy 
v^ n Di^M ,D^oiyi Dn:yy:i m lyni^n y^^yn 4yo8"i:i vo 
lyD^n pi< tDDi^c^^yiyj lyi ^nto pn iv pyivj' iy:y^2 nyi^^jo^D 
lyj^n yt:»s8n n y^^yii px ^ly^to^P yo^ni n .nniD v^n^ii 
n tDi^n tyo it^M nyo^v iyDDr:yMrK nyn ,ii^Dyjjj^ lyiiyj 
/toy^ypD 8 ,iyriK yjyiinnsQ d^d Din^Dy:j^ni$ lyDsnnjsP 
Dn^ii'3D v^'ViO'D v^v^2^ PK pyn-DD5<^tJ^ n^v))^ nyrn^n 8 
-j«Q nyi PD tDDny ly^yji^i^v^nyo nvi nyDynnt<2 tyjy^a 
-jjj lyiiyj iy:^n oy^ji^oynyv y^^^jny *.y^jj^Dyiyv ny^^^tDosD 



t:^i:Kn vh iy m ,(1834 ,!«ijkV) ''D:K>:r-DTntt tin Dcp^*£y n^y 
-■r'n,, n tk ^''J'jyD t'k d:? ."ikov onyoyp'i'Kn,, "lyn ps pKny:i 



ly^nij^ yjyn^>5^nsD pq nysn n p« iyj^Dy:i i^d n^^ ; d^^v 
lytj'sii,, tinx mx^^n lynntj^nss iyDQfe§t5^^yTy:i yntDD^i^Dyn no 
pinx n:ypip d>j .jy^j^iD mv'?^ yDosfesn n dj^ii /"ly^tD^p n 
PDD >^n Dyji^Dyiyv n lyj^n ty^fe$2 yoD^^D n p« d«ii oyn 
-mij,, iyn«i "lynyiD^na,, n pd n ni ^''^nyti'oiN lyiiy:) 
-yiyv n pa y^vsDjyo p« :iJi:iyiQ^'ii< n iJ^n Di^n ,"Di«i^^yQ 
yr3yp-:i:na n ^inx pimj^^s lyoy^tD s lyDSD tDJi$py:i oy^ji^o 
lyniiDix y^yntDDnrx pd lytD-'^v pt< tx nyi^^jto^D ytj^^tDfc$:»D 
-ya lyn pa lyoyiytDrK n px iyDSDD^fe$iiJ inyj^n ^n ly^j^r 
lytstj'iDi^D Dyi ?^n« iyjjiD^nj« n ,D^i§Q:)yny> .tosst^'^yr 
,yDyis nyK^^DD^^fe?tto^ssp lyi px .oy^jj^oynyv n pa ii^iyD 
yijytj'iyn n iyp»iii^y3"iyn^fc< i^5'pi^ii ont? dt^^ti oy •<)) w^nn 



-KD ''jnjpB im iTN DID1K9 Ji'^' 'K'tT' j<« >m„ ps jmNJDnN "lyta 
taijni ,1834 ,DNn;j'?3"m tai^taNT /'DiNono n^ta^nyBK iik ^tajr^^D 
tajKOij?*! ta-i^rn dh^n tsKtatrjN .iD:NO"iy*T ta^j iy»KJ D'jjnyp Dyn 
n ps iyoiijr:!ip^N oy ^u iyn«n ,Dn« tar^n^ oy m ."i^on ntt'7B» 
ttpjnjiyj "pr taxn lynntj ly^n tk ,p;ta9nnK3 ys'jyn opyntt^ns 
j5:io«utyn« y'noN n .D^'birn^ ]iii tt'npDn-nn cyn ps prni D'n 
.i2i«pKi 120 lys'T Pin« VK Dy'^o:!nj;s-nn>5j''« y:j'TNT n pu 
nyniKfinxni n pu npn^s n lyny^J t'k lya'byn ^nyaDjna in«irn 
d:n'3V n lyjyp lytawntayjjDnnK "lytDysty vn ,1825 px Diyoyp'i'Nn 
1JP ps "mp-iyo n'*?,, -lyi pK ciynn ynyo « tapmy; taxn p« 
-nyTn'bp nyn'"? n lysnjyjJK taxn ny ya'^yn p« ,1834 ,ib'\^ px 
px B-iK n„ TK ,"iy tt'^nysnyn cinn n ]»« .l«'ii» D'"iyta^m« 
DKTi ,yi'7yTn w\)J^ va lyT^'bJtD^o yo iy«ny:Bn« ps yr^m 
nynyiT'?y:N'i'fi n ^^:i P'It^j nn«' i3i« n^^ip ia-ii^'t3p«iB va 
n '7y'^^ysD ,yi5Knyiys lyT ps '^''^ nyDm;; « .^inctaKi ps 
-BK i« ps Dy':«ttyiyir n ps n«nr^ ]yoiiy:j t'k ,yiysD"Bnt3 
•yn-'?y3«'?5 lyny; iy:>n ys'ryTi ...":'. ^^'?^yB^^K„ n ps ;:i*i"'ia 



163 yi^"'ij;D y-i>uy'':ii^j:5iiy-i n 

K T^K in«^ lyDDpyj Dyi na annjyi pk pn ; Diyo:^ ytj'n 
"ist ny^is"iyir^ n n^i^ pi^iiy:) tDDssoy:) nn:j«t "iyDrj^^x"i5<D 
-b*3 T^N nytD^^a")^ n PD ]!i)v^? yjyayjyjjs n .iy3y:D0^u 
/'nyiDPSiDJi^P,, "lyi lyt^iifcita in dj^h oy dj^ti ,Dyi i^n lyjsDiy 
■••u yvjy;: n iyD^«iny;2 iv iyDijy;-iyD:i« m oi^n ly^^yii 
rDJfe<P{§2 DD5<o DiyaifeiiD ly^isiyiv^ n pd D^itps^s s .D^ms 
•nt^ p^^jr ^b*iy:y:i'n„ lyi i«i lyDi^^ti^y:):}^ im lyni^n >n t8 
nyr^cy:^5<) "j:n^^n ii« oyosis ^■^^ pj^ n^^^s^y D:^T^tD-i« 
n5§-Mn ^u DrD2yc'fe$3 yj>n dj^ti niDx^D-^^yn pd n:s!ni5<D 
-n pK iyDDyiy:!r:)ix ,iyD^^nyi^ nyi„ lyDoypsin iv di« ,(d^u 
-i^iB ytDjym^Qnyiitj^ n pn^^j^s^ijj^o pa DyoD^D iyiji^:^« 
"."••m^DPfejioJi^p,, tDDn lyo Di^n ^ly^jyD yioyiD iin lytD-ia 
IV i^^u^na iy"ny:i d^: iy:>n D^nr-'^yn yj^^^p n ,i^^-i^d5<: 



t::yp;^;j t2Nn ]ytt dnit yb^ ]tk pnB'Kp:^'? p« '?intt'!:K-i pK d^v- 
tCKtr'jyTyji piN ps Dy^upy*? ]tn m:pn n ps ]:;;Nni:-ij:2n« t:2"? 

-KDpys yiy^cDio n ])h pra«i; n ,y''7N;v"i n tn oy^x isj^'c 
]iKny; tsTSKp ';pH^ li-'^^'T ,::''!: i>-y' P2 D3N':i' n p.E D^'ii 

-Ki ,(1891 ,l«i:x^) "ttsnts '7«ict:vo,, ]iu px ."mtsip^no 
-y-iys-in'BinN n ,(14 .t) ]NDJ'p'?m d«is .b^tt n^ymp tsn^na^ 

-J1K y;'t2'U2y;y:5 Vt2'?« >''« .D2«':T-DTnt2 n ps Dyi:«Dyiy:i n 



DT'»:t5"'^'^''"T^''"^^ lis ytDD^tr^:;:! i64 

D^j ^t^T IVD T8 ^nvD^ui^ yny^n ns :i3ny-iJ^D nyi d'-d Do^toti^ 
■••DK^ lyrTi^n nyn ns toroiDiy .dij^dp^idj^p v? w^'p^v'^ 
"^'? r« ixQ-'in Dyn iiq lyr^ii^ yjyn^^ji^iKQ n lynj^^n /y>^ 
: iy:i:inyiJ^Q yn^ytn-px-p-'X top^t^^y^rns rD^^v3^^^:i ^iQiyii 
ns :iJip::yn{i'^n s nyo^uis Di$^p lyiy^ i«d n^ iy::>^^; y: 
-Jis; ni< ,tD^^nn^-p>DK^ px -ptJ'S'o n^ix tojjnn^D fc$ ,iy:J'^"iny^ 
1^? niD^^tj' y^y^vysD ^ D5$ny:i lyn^in Diijii iy:ijny-i^^Q vrji 
nyn^K iy:^n ly^jnyit^s yrti^n n .i^no pd ^'''''n^ lyiy^ 
lyiiy; iy:>n d«^i ,piynn pn D^nn-'^yn n iv nJ>*"ny:i iynyjy:i 
D«ii 4i^D iyi:yn^^^«n is:!«tT pt? tynjT'topn » px iynnti^y:i 
-182 D^nt^v^n lynp iv ^^jnyn^^s lyi t:>D D^^^:!8n lyny;! t^« 
v^V'^t 18S P^nDD Dyi nnn lyn-'^^i^^D ly^yii ""n DJ^tii ,d^^^ lyn 
t>« DJi^tyj Diyii /'lytD^^itD^n n>o„ .iy;i:nyiJ:?Q yj^-'oy^^w? 
ynyTJiK iv tyrivsi do in dj^h in''« is., ^nynn n pq nyj^^« 
nn^N Ts ^yjy^yi i^» p« /n«nn iyriyny:i nvi d^d mjpn 
y::yiD6j' » DjymsD nn^x px D:inrn8S pi^tDti^ in DJ<;n 
■n^D,, .^ynn nyu^ tis! pn in ^m /'lyto^ni,, px ."fiJ^ntDtj^ 
1^ D^ni^vsn iy:np ^i<!t nii? pd lyj^-i^ lyiy^ ts n-iD ty.ij^^ 
a«iD lyiy^ iss -p^ntoD ps d^^^ lyn 18Q :};?d s ::^'?^^ ly^Q 

."tyiy:nvDi^j in tD:i8Tto:y in^« Dm) 
-i^yn n DD8iny:!sn:'!V mri i^iatj^ pd iyr?i<n lyn 
D«iii oJi^osnsD s finx .yo"'^ p-i^ pn tyo^^p y^s pa D>nn 
,tyD«^K^8n -"n iyn«n 4833 ,'»:r pk n«iiy:» ly^^^ny^Qi^ t^^? 
n«j nytD^^ni;5§ n pq iy:ijnyn«tD y^s tyt^mxwpm^f li^j do 
n3 .mor n lyDDoiisiQ i^ ;i:i3jyiDtj^jJ<! v^^mii^ ^ ty^^D iv 
D:ixpfe?n y'?\:i2v^v ^n tyni^n ,py^i^f lyrr^n oyi lyn^n^iyi iv 
-lyD^m^ lyrvj^^i? V'P m'^^v^^n do ly^yii ^n t« ,DD«Dy:i 
PiQ ii« iJ^iov-DT-nD nyi pa iy:i}?TBi^ ^yoiJ^s do m Dyn d^^^i 
"DJ^ ly^yoij^G nyn ^nx inyDtJ^^n Di^i .D^^p:i^DyD lyvj^:; m^K 
"i5<tor-i>nD nyi pi< dj^p^i ^'?i^mi t:i^^t vi< dj^ii nn iy:i{<ir 
-^':IQnN pixDti^ dj^h /'D^y^ip^n oyn tyo^ii^nyn,, d^x yD!D^K^y3 
"•n ty^^nyii^B ny^isiyir^ n .ij^or 'OiyD^^m^i-'n nyn D^Ninn 



105 >ni5nj;3 j;-iy:N'':;'i^b*i '>n n 

D^nr^^yn n ixn nyooytj^ojyirD rx n«i^y: tD^Jsnnymi ly: 
.^i2-)yir^ PK ^n p^tDP^*tD y^^yin iy3i:y::s lyz^-n 
n i^Hin ,(i^.'-5;^ ny^oyoByD pnj n^DSip iid iy"ia lyonyn pn 
"ij^D-iyo^jy^yi v:^''?'^t]V' in^x lyD^j^ny^sj^ "ti^^jv 'Diyi^^z, 
Dpyr DnyMiy: D«;n ^ji^DStnj^D n .nyoDyc^'DJso pK :iJi^»D{j;r 
PK ; £3000 ,DyDBnn5sa i:i']V'\'i ov ^ii .oDJ^pyjsjj mr] ; :yD 
j^^yan px oiyijin ^^iiv in^N pk tor^^^Dsa in lya^^n oy 
•lyD^oie: i:yr^iD ;^D^m lyoi^iDi^r: iy3i>*n y^^yii ,iyDj<:y^yi 
n lynvy^iv lyni^n "ojyDfei!^-ife?3 'Diyi^^D,, nyi pd lyjjwn n 
n D-i^Dym5< LDi^n lyiii^ oiyni^n .D^-'PosTpnyoDnK y:^^Dy;^» 
nyi lytDiN^y^yi n "ly oj^n y-y-i ny:js^ s; i^n px ,r:yiy2:{^p 
y^8 PQ '?^w lyn t^k D^^nis;,, ts! /'do wd'm:., pn oSiyv 
PD tDjyn n px lyn^^^n lyp DiDiD^n di^t t^ pk /'lyo^DD^n 
nji^vnyns y^s pq ijn lyD^^D^yn^s ife? inn lyi^vni^-iB n 
lyDJiN oj^^c' oy ni ,ni5iiy:i jyot^^i^^^n i5<"i vi< ov avo^'?p 
,Db:n:r?2nu pi< i^irn v'p^'io^V'^ ^ lynmvDMX ,di^dj^^j< pn 
iSi^Q lyi .D"iD^DDrN-D::"in^viy d^^ \V2vn imk ^i^t yD^yii 
,iyDny:i m dj^i ly^ '•ii /'^'?Hr] "i^^:i 'Diyi^u,, lyriJ^T lyi ife?i: 
D'jyiii^ lyiiy: r^t? ly^^yii ,tDpyD^D"i5i! 1J< pd n^"ny:i DDstcyj t^n 
im ^»T s iytD^sni::y DJ^n n^s{<Q Pdm« ii$^s iyi .i^D^n is 
.nyn^^jD^D n pd "^Vi^^? n ifeisD pyo^^fDst^p px oy^vpy^ 
V'^i^r:iV'\V'i o'^^y d^d pi^Tiyj Djy^y:i t^« p^tDii'-^ypm iyi 
D5<nj:^oiu pD "iyD^^an5§ n nya 4833 nynr^yvyi lyos oyi 
lyj^n oy pk ,y^'?b Dyi iv y^Dyvi^iB s: px on^c^-i{<D lyni^n 

•Dyiyi ]1H^'iV:i lytD^t^nyj 
"DJyrjyiT ^) "^iitJiic'T ii^'':"i^-Di>ntD lyii^ ny:j^^5» Dyi px 
t^K PK ^:yQ 1 DDJ^pyj dj^h d^^ii ,ypife?D » ini^ :i:itD^^v y^^^ 
D^^v lyjy^ IV ,Dy!n:irDiu px Dt^ny•)v n^^iiy:) iy2y:iy:Dnis 
D^D d:^p$$3 i^d pyii 4"i«^:v 'Diyi^^3„ lyi pd ist^ifc? lyn 
y>''^, n dj^ pd iy:y^Q yDni:i n px lyn^".^:! lymy^^D Dyi 
ytDDyiy: pk yn'nrr pi^ix Dynmjstn \i^':v S!„ ."iyt:D''ii!?^jr 
nyai: lyDtriy Dyi pi< ni^*tops:iyi "lyn ton^nt^' /'iy5^v:n3 
niD » m^^K ^nx lyDetD IV ron: dv^« T^t< dj^ii r^s t^«« 



iyj^Dy:iDM« n^yin ly^yii i^d : yn^^ia i^ pyn D^ytotj'yj i^^ijy 
.iD^^nns; ly^^s lyn^^n d^j Dyii n lyii /D^^prti^^Dnyii nn>« 
lyiyp :jna i»a ty^yn ,DiDD^n n^^^n^ns om .lyo-'^ni}? n 
lyn T8 /tyj^Dy:i i''» ly^yii iy:D^:ir« ii^:i m niy n lyanp 
IV iy3Ji«iivy:i pn Dyii nyD"'tDjy:>^K lyi ,p>:DD«s-nN-DD"i3 
't2i^V)) pn na lynciitn Dn^5< tD^ijit in^x Tfc§ n^"'8 ^^i lyoyn 
■"•K n«i"iy:i tojy^y:ii«is lyj^n lyjy^s yD^n:i ."Di^jy^^^x lyijj^ 
"«^V8: nyoMix. lyi inn u^^ no Dyi^^ny:i y^j? ryony:iviyi 
ly^nyiny ^«t tj>n«^ iyny> : "iyD^uir''n ns yi^>; iy^«j 
-•ooy^^s lfe$ lyn^-'^pD^N ly^^it nynytsnx n n^< nynyiD^iN 155 
-ji:yQi!?n yonn^ yrti^i n pfc< jiJitj^nD^y n .lytD^sinsD oyj 
"••n iyr>«iyia lyn^^t^sp:^^ n .D^fn; nx i^:i tyoipy:i t^x ly; 
-ji^ T>i< DJ^ii ,y^v«T^^siDjyv nyn iy:iypt3J« lytDt^nDy^D-'ns lyj 
-DyDsyD PN :iJi^o«n8D-iytDSjy^yn lyn nnx ni^ny:i \v^):iv: 
^^iiv w^^NnsQ yti'njy^jytD^D n no jjs^isq Dyn ti^ij^ nyn 
Div in tyni^n nyDoytj^DJ^o n« ^isiyiv^ p« dp^^dd yoni:! 
l^^s lyn .^isjQDin ty:in:ytDtj^^iD ^ t3">o Dn:yy; ini<t^ niD 
""iyj»^s» nyn iix "n^iiy:! iyny:y;QMx t>k "^^«n !'?'<:„ iyi PQ 
nsiiya T^fc< iy ikii ^i^^iJi^t^ i«tJ n^iiy:i iy:ii$itDynynn8 pk 
■••^^DJi^p nJi§nj ^m,, ,DD8ti'nyBiyp lyi^is t« pd is:iij^ lyn 
PD iy:i''niv yjyi^^tj^nsD n nyD^yii t^'-D /"t^^^jp-Dn^nt: nyto^n 
tDiJ^tDij^-tosnn ny-i px tix iyn:y:yrDm n px lyDfeHD-nn n 
ly^yiiDDyi^iQ .iyrj^^t<isD iv nn lyo^^^sn Dsny:i pitj^ w^nn 
n p« nytoDnpy nn^x iyD^«ny:i:)«t "i«i^jp 'Diyn^^n,, n D^n 
-BH tDtjn p^5 ,1834 tiQ D^tj'-in ytotj^iy n pi< lypi^vsrpQv 
,^n38 pK ^DsmrDn^n pk "DjyDs^iss. lyD^niv i§ tytD^»ny:i 
'm^ PQ nynyDt^'iJ^D ryD^titoisD mm tyj^n oy \v:i'?v)) pk 

.lis^i^K PK i:s^ 



,T^«'7nijr'7 « lis iyi«ny:j la^nj^rj;; yn^nj;; n t^n i^rtayBty * 



167 yT55''"^>'5 y-)y:j5'x^^^Viyn n 

na 5>^^tD » TM^a iyiiy:i iy:^n ,i833 n« 1832 px "li^or 'onyn 
.Dy^vi<T^:i<n«i lyts^ms n pk D^\'5rnnDiK lyj^^Dya^s lyn 
■y^e!2y:iD"in oyi pd in i^ lyoipyj lyj^n Dnyrsti^-^yiifeitn n 

,1H33 P2 DD3iyn PK ,(1831 PX 1830) p^D'k^'5§ pi< P^nOD Dyj 

-:nyiiy:i pn d^o ruyvytoii^jD r-'onynj;?! lyj^^y: n^o lyii 
-DD^uiK iynj>DiJ^-0D5§ ii< "iSD y^:^b'D^:s n y^^iyjy ly^^^ 
ifc5D 0D5§l^'^yTyJ» "lyi pd nj^iiy:i lynnnyjjyi t^k yD^yii jj^d 
•B'n Dn^ntj^ /'Vi^ \^'?b "iyi„ ."j:ny^D^ii<nyn^ii iy^st:«i^i*fc?j 
lyDtJ^ny lyuyoiP Dyi ons rs// ,ov2i{,\> D5§^^ni iv lyn^y^Q 
■»3 Dyii (ryty:) ^ ov^x) Dpy^«!iB lyi lyii :i{^d lyi ,nyc 
)'^ ini^^ «^^y iyDr,« nyirp pd d^^vdi:^^315$ n iyrv:yi3 

ny:r DD5§ TJ5 rpyiJ^D im« ^yjyDPssinyra^^n p.fc< y:yDPi§inyT 
"lyrDV^K ly^n px ; D^"'VDt:^^m» ytoDjjy^ n pn ^i^t jj^jo 8 
""•j^D ly^n pn ^«t ,nytj^ rvDyrpK'P^J ii§2 n^ ly^^^^jy^yii 

nyo^^ll PK /'nVli^ rViyC-pN-LDDJ? PD 1J>ni « 1SS V)'? DID 

ts^s pn iyD^jy:iJi^ lynt^n Diyrsc'^yii^n n t^ ny toiy^pny 
"lyi^^N ,Dp^nt:D i-in to^^vDD^^ai^ ly^n iyvi^Pi{§Q i^ lyoyn 
ly^i^T ^n T« ,:y:^c^-ii^c D'sij^ntD^j^ -ni^^ tD^i^ ,:jiny:i*yTy;i nn 
-Do^^nis "ly^n lyvn^pi^D iv Dpy^i^nsvyry: e^ lyo^niiv,, p^^s 
Di^{^DyjD«: lynj^n ly^sD-^^toDpytD lyi^^tj^^pJS!^ n ."d^^v 
-••^Dyi^K IS! nsQ D^n:iy:)iv im lyn^n px Diyj^st^-^yi^^n n 
PN lynnn yiy^n V)^ iyn«n tD>^v nyn pfc< .p^nDD Dyj 
•D^nn-'^'yn yiy^n d^o ^^^? lytDiyts^nij^D y; toin^Gy:j i^^-^'Pii^^ 
n«ny:i tDyijn:iy3 t^k yD^yii /'i^^jr 'ony^mi^^p,, ^vn^'? n 
■»T^:8n« n pd y:i^^x iyny:i rojyp t^x v^'pv)) pn i83i ons 
tDDSK^^yry^ y^5§:i^^v8J» n D^yoti'yiijyD^pv lyni^n DJ^n oy^v 
D^^ps^^jny ym^iipiyo » iyj«iiDy; mr) /'rv^nytD^^m{< istD 
Dy^^i^oyiyv yin^i< d^d ni^j to^j /'p$^:r 'Diyn^^n,, lyn iv 
.ytD3^tJ'ya px p^tDp5i!D in^x d^o inx ii$: ,y^vitD^DDJi^p pk 
■yj pinx lysnjji^ t:D{<tDy3 n dj^h 1833 ini^*^ ps ::^^nns pk 
m^^^'i IV ,^y^v lyDijD^niv nvi o^o lyT^^n-DDcyc'y:) yoni 



t3DDj;p«;a lyj^n iy:jnyi«D n .lyr^nQ-DtD^uis yroyoD^^^j 
-y: iyn«n D^nr-'^yi n .lyasiii y^^^jnyiiyj n d^o ni^iiy;i 
njn,. 8 ,iyDny:i i^n Di^i ^r^n lyo mi nn lyK^-iiiv lyoi^^K' 
"jiK ,DytDD^^Di{$D in \V2Hn ^n lyD^yii nn /'lyoj^pnaisD hd 
"lyi ns iyi^^:io^D v^? wro^v^^^ iv do ,ti«itDK^ fe? nyo 
lynyjwQMN DJiSTDjy lyi^t^'Djy in lyn^in nyD^ui5§ n .iJ^or 
-pjiii^,, i§ DDSDyj lyai^n D^nr^^yn n n« ; y^^feiiro^jij^ ^v'>'>] 
-y:iyj D«in nx d^k^ih V2''?^v tyD^«nyjj{>* DJ^n lyD^yii /'oitj 
■i«:d^^^ ytoDJj lyn^nc' iv D^Mjyjy^y; ^ "do^^d,, lyi lyn 

•ly^P^D 
rx r-iDiyni^i na tDy"ijn:iyj ini<) li^or 'Diyayto n 
"tD^D uyiMD toDis tD^nyvy:i 1833 pD t^jomyn px toj^n (i830 
m«2S8tDD 1^ m:8^j§n \v2Hn i2vvv^ opyr yrj^yii hd nyi^^:i 
,r^D"i«'^ytoDsipvj no lytj'ni^t^ n w ynya^x n nx i^^'^ 
Dyi tiQ ^y^SK^^u 8 iJ^j — ,i«tori^D nx ^i^Donn .••nim 
.pnti!!^ yjy px DJi^ovi^ntD pa dpikii lyD^^jnyiiynyDn^^ 
lyiiy^ lyj^n Dyv^tosnyi vwi:^ m yrij^i n t:^ni m 
.ijij^p DO T^i< ,tDDst5'iysnyp lyivD^nyiyQ p^x t^x orr^^n^^D 
lytJ'^DD^^^D^B^P lyn pd iy:iJiD>nji<! yjyDnjy:iJi^ po^s Pd n 
jyDDnisn yii^^PD^x n pi< /'mor-Di^ntD,, lyi ?inx vov^Si 
yoniy:) pa a^iD^^tj^ji^ lyn jy^yii ty:iJiD^^nyD>"'ni{5 n pk 
nyn^K nyi iv nn^D Dy^vfc?ro«:in«i yiyDyi:i n ti$ iyj>^xifc?Q 
p^K ni invr:^ pk 1833 nni$^ Dyi pa nn^i^s px Tfc§ ,oir^v 
y^8 PQ l«ov y:^^oy:^fe§ is,, tyin:i iv pi^iiy: DDs:Dy:i TiTife?Q 
4833 pD tiiD Dyi Diis ,tyiJit5>"'V ytj'^DDoyTii^ n ."lyDSQ 
iy:>>oy:^s„ m ps :ijnjn:i iyi lyjyii lyD^nj^a d^d ^id lyj^n 
D2{<{i'^yTy: p» fe§ "iistQ Di^ii ."lyDs^p yiPDpnj^ns n pa p^op 
pa lyonnyi in lyo lyp ,iyijnj i^ lo^s^ayj toi^n p^^fc? lyiii^ 
lytoaj^tj^^yryj yt^'-'DDoyii^i n pa oyij^i^p oyi ^nt< ynyi pn 
"it^a Dv^K i>''8 isa ^yii i>i<„ .lynj^DPi^ ly^e oyi ,ii<!-iji^^ pK 
yDni:i n pa ii§^B ly^Dsayj niP »„ ,D:ii^Ty:i iy Di^n /'WiV'? 
ay5>xi^B ly^yii yD^yii tix D^tj^sy: pyn v:i'?V)'i .iy:i:nyn:y 



169 V'^tJ'^iyS) viV3^^:i'i'7^5^^V"» ''T 

"j^^8 y^5<:i^^vfc<j v:i'?v\^ n^oni^D iv o;^a3nn^s:n onyii oy ... 
PK nytD>^3"ii< lyoyi^p y^fe? lyonyjrnyi iy^«T dsii ,iy:jioDn 
lyD^ii ^i^T jji^^^osyi lyiy^ T8 PK .vi^i'j^ni^ -lyoM-ij p^k 
v^v T^ ;iy3J^^^"'t22J;j yiyijfci: n pk -i«d tD-cp oy d«ii r^yt 
■nni<2 yv:fe<3 n t^ ; nynsMK ^i^i rjy"np:«!P y^ynnrirK 
... .lytDs^i^^^yiy: v'?^2ii''ii<: pd nyii tDin^sy^j^ >«t y^visp 
,Iy:^•^t^^ "lyiJ^ ov^^^^iio^ \'^'D'M^^ dtip ly^fcjT ly^^c v'?^ 
Dyiipj^a iy:^n dj^ii ly^nt^v y^^yr^ pD inyt:tj'fe<n ly^i^r d^^ii 
y^'^cvysD n pd lyD^^my: y^s ... : ::nn^D-DODyij'yi lyiD 
1^0 lyonnyi i^^nyi i^s^n * "nyi^^^to^D nyii ly^i^r m^x^D 
iyD^n^^i$D:«:p ^yj^iJ'yj n:y"iJ» ^ pd nyoonpy lyi pa in 
■yj "lyn pd ^jnysiypn^iiD n tyiiyj t^k yD^yn /'i^^^jvon^nD 
-ynyoMN lyopfc^iiy: t^k v:^'?v'\) px /'ifcj^:r-Di>nt:. -iyi::b*^3 
-y: c'^DP^D rojyp t^k y^v«T^j{<:ni^ yrti^i n .^yjt^ i^^jnyii 
■DBMH in^x ly^^yj P'k lynt^ .1834 nj<ij«> i^i< ni!ji^y:i Dyijn:i 
ytDDpyj n pq ^i^^i^d i^k .0DnJi<:i$<si;j*i3 px ii^Dfc<T>:s:nj^ 
lyj^^KisD Pt? '^^toyiD i^^n^onyoiK iyny:i iy t^k D^i^nn y^^^oy 
-nyvoix .iyDJ^^c^y:i:s *in^K i« in lyniijn uy;^ lyv:^: Tiyn^K 
Dy-i i^K ni^i^y: Iy:l:^^t^'^8D lyj^n lyai^p-i^no y^spi^:^ yr^ 



n ]i£3 ytiS'B'yj ii?n ts'D .1822 lynKttpK ]yt2l2 ps ttsnwn * 
-Ni TT ]j;q ij?p 1833 V2 1832 ps "D:K<ii'-DTni3 yjnoMjj'jH^ 
Dyn /'Dunp,, Di?i ,j?Dyi9 yiy't:D'::;r.K n taT*?'? ]i?o ^yii ,tyiyp 

.]ij;snp u'2 -inyo nynn"? ^yo ^^p ,i834 »iv px ,'^tht':i»-D'T'niD 

n^riK r:nit:pNnv'"> DiytD'^o IP'u ya^jm ,j;iyiJK pK "nKO'nyn'^^ 
1VT .'^v-Sf^Kp nn^f^Dpy^K ,'T<:2bn d'^^tttk pd lpNm:?:J u*3niyj?;j 



v^y>vyQD 11$ T^K 4834 i^nnvQ PQ :iytD ytDtj^ny n pn .njj<msD 
-:4'? D'jyiii^ px n^^iiy:! ivo^^nyjQi^ :iJi^D8n^D-iytD5§:iy^n 

^MK ,iyi1PD ^«1VD''Q ,Dnt:D tD«l^1«{i' PK ,D1tD^DDrK nvjj^i 

n^nD yiynjn^n pd y>vi§iy"iyQ 8 ps dij^q n jyonyjji^ 
-■•m^ PQ inyDtj'sa i^^jnyiiy:! 'p^^ min'^ "^v^v^ Av^m^'? 
-y^s yD^yts l^t< t« ,:ijn^n Dyn to^o lyni^ ,i«d p^i< pd lyD 
iyD^a ytoD^D^fc$n pd nyto^^nis :ii:y:i «tD>j lyj-'n oy ixii nyv 
."jyc'nj^^ ytDti'^Dy^,, pn ly^j^t ,Dy>v«tT^ji$ni$ yiyn:)iTi$n i^d 
"ly^iD ytDti'^Dy^, i«d n«iTiy:i D^n^ryj i^ix )'?'<q^ t^k oy 
,yDKP v:v:i''i^ is lyD^stnjj^ ^i^t tj'ni^^ ^v^v ."wmii^'? 
njsnisD tyvjsj nyn pd iyn^^:iD^D n nnx lyj^ny^^tDK^si 
nyiyaji<tp n -typynv p^ntoo nsD tiyii D^y^yjD^ns ly^^^r 
yjy:!>^x n nsD nn^Divj^^s ti^n^^ lyny^ t^nyij^iDy^D^N iDijn 
-jis px ,tyDsp-Djjiniysn oJiv^DtriytoJi^^-iypj^ip lyn^^'jtD^D 
]^m'\v^ \v^'\:v:2H in« T^i? oy .iyi>^:iD^o vt:i'?^ nsD jji^^^tDti'iyD 
-y:Dmfe$„ lyrtDDyt^sn ^^t ty» iki^ n:^^ lyjjn iv iy:is^ti>ni^D 
"j^^s n .-lyayti^pnyii yivtDsnyst^iJ^p iyi:n:i iv px /'yjyDit^ii 
j3>>v lyjy^ PD o:^':v v'?^ pd myntj^ pk Dy^j^oyiyrotDnD 

.n^iiy:i iyoijy:iJ{^ imk rtojyp iyj>n 
T^K nji^i"' Dyi px Dr^:j<t^ji^ pd vvi^m^ lyi px ^t^^j^^p 
*.D^\'5i:^iitj'y3 ST8 D>D iyDp»iiy:i y^v»r>Js:ni^"nytD^>nn8 rs 



t2''p3''?3ny :?n3i?j n irpir»«3 ii? tajNnpyiDi^N T'n oy • 

-»iNjin«-iyi3in-iK yiDo;»'t32:;o n ns y^nx t2!j»N inj vh pK ,1869 
UN Du^o im Ti« tyi2j;pD 'bxpnNtDD'n,,) .is^jrn ij;*t pn Dyi!?«r 
/'Dp'fSNiNpj? UN ^xjinB'n I'jiytDiNnp,, ,tain ,t ^-i^p ps /'iN^n^ 

.(1887 ,ini:k» 
n Tu taxn ,nNny;5 lynntyjr;: lyj^'t ly^n^ j^jitnt n tsiu) 
.pra^nyj Tiyainxn Npnyox ps J3urn«^"iyt3nniN nyn p« j;;;«^ 



171 j;'U5^"»ys) j?-ij;:y'»:fi'7J5'nyi •'t 

"lyi i« lyDi^^ti'yj:^ im lyai^n \v:iH^^ vd^^dv no ^im^ikd pk 

nx nyD^unfc<"Dnfe<D -lyn^yrntD nyr^n:nyv iyny:i iy:^n oy 
OD^^^^D \iv>?'\v iBtn: lyomy: i$ r^a in dti^^ d«t -lyniD 
T8 iy:^Dy:DMX D:i^pv: t:^:) n^o lyni^n dv^k tu dj^ii .D^Diyn 
-••u yj^Dyn^yjy"! ly^nt^v Dsisisn iyn«n ly^t^r iyi>^:D^D n 
n^D iy^5§nt2:yv d'jid rnxvin n lypyi lya^yn nyi^j v:v^\:i 
-DMpy n lyn^vj^ns! D:i^py:i dd^^^ iy ci^n nynnyi n^ njyii 
y^>j PQ jjito^nstj'isD n vi< n^i .Dy^vsT^Js;:*!^ yui^o 
lypn^v^n n« iy:)fei!2 yD"iM^jfc§nij-o^j nyns tu pk ly^ni^^ 
n D^D Dnt^T^n ,n«o{<D^:^ v'?V'^ -dmi: "lynnyioix lynyj 
-Kayiy^-DDntoj^^b: v^^dd'd n pn^DivDin Dn^tj^Do yronj 
-i^nD ni<D si^J^o y'nDi< i» pk n:»^ d«t Dt^nsn lyn^^n ,Dyo 
tD^nyvnyi 4833 lynoyvyi pi? .iyLDi^itDyj:^n« r^x DT^:i^^jr 
TD :iJi^>^tD5i^ I{§ iy:^Dyj iv ny^^^ vi< ov ^^. ,ni« lyo 
-i^-t«^:r ^ pj< pn tD^j ^{^T Di^ii n:^^bi^5^-3iyo px i»d » 
ys^yiT ,iyDs:iy^yi ^mv tsi ^DytD^nsn "ro^^tD,, n ."ijsiok^ 
-■•^tD lyoijyaj^ny: "i:y^iK p^« px iyn»n ,^in lijj py^ii:!; iy:>n 
n D«n lyt^yopy p« -lyDss yjyi^^t^'i^Q ps iyi3^u"u< n:yT 
■^^n >n"iv» ■•n >^n lyjisy: px lyt^^^y^yn ^n^v i:sj<di»q ^^v^^^i^b 
-o^p yo^ni >niv ,DypD8o ^niv ,DiyDyD y:i^»^ ""niv ,pyn yjiyv 
niy^iti^ lyvniP y: d^o "nrQ-tyonD yom: » /ly^tDJSD lynt^ ly^ 
PD ly^o^p ."o:yDstDDyD ^ pk ^yn^n s nyrniosr s m 
lyj^n ,D^n nyij» lyi pa ly^yry: Diyinyp:yoMp px ,D^n p^k 
-»D-^ynyo n .Di^it:tJ>-^ynnm nvi pk n^iiy^ DsstDy^J^ns 
nyn i« lyo^^'i^'j^ in to^i^ity^ onKDin ryn»n tDDse^yn ps Diy3 
-ya Dt^n y^^yii ,D£«tJ'^yTy: yD^^na^na nyni^ ,i^'Jv-Dn^ntD,, 
Diy28»^ynyo y5»8 pd ajirj^^Kiss n py^iv in^K *u<d okh 



-»<'? UK iKB^^nyiirs ]KpnyttK„ n oonynKS ttiK "ih'k iiit ,y:ysD 
-D''?KnB3ys inyt iyny:i t»h y»SKT»:K;n« ynyts^y n nys ,B»53nB 

(.lyvynyn^K — .»»p 



n iiD nyDP^TstD iyti^^Dnj:j!i lyjnDD^i^^oyn nyi m .njj^i i^k 
nyi IIS DMi5<! niMipiyo nn tDT>ni oiyoK^iJ^D y5J^^Dii<iD5i^Dni:i 
"j«t3 ynyijs nx y^yniD^iPn:i^» n nc i^^jv « lyjyn yoji^j^ 
-nyofe§n ni< d^h^iq 4n; Dxn^j^n ,i«tDJjnjyp nc "lyjn^ 

-j«n irtD^nysj^ ti«: m^},'? nj^i:i,, nyn .n^^^y:! Droy^D^jn^a 
'^^Dv:i nvi tD^o D^^prtoytD p« D'imp:i^p mn "divi^'^d toy: 

D:iynD "onypij^ii n^^^^^D ^^^d-'q iij^ min'?'' lyn nx ."n:^^ 
nsQ IV i^^piMi Djy^yn "tynn« 'Diyn>^jtj^„ nyn ^v ,DyD tD>D 
-«DJi<ip 5'»jj<!tj'yj njyn:,, n ^v .lyDoyii lyn^^j ly^iQ tyoi^n 
n n^D i^^Dii§nD:^i8Q \vw:\ r^x "iJ^-i^r-Di^nD nyo^n^^ 
vri'^v^) /'m^inn yD^i§» nx "DjnyjDnyriyMiD,, no ly^nj^^ 
-rnisQ ri< tynnoi« n pk DjyD^>vy:iDMK in ivt^vQ^ lyni^n 
:{^D-DD^m^ tyri:iDtJ'-DDs; ts 18Q ^jnyii^s nyi tD>Q :ijn 

.tDJNpXn tD>J T^x ,D^im^« px 
■yiya iy^^Di<t^«P lyrrt^i nyi p.2 lyoDyti^yj n >1T^?! ni 
1^0 IS Dysy *.D^J TO tyo^ni ,n«iiy:i Din''Qy:ij{^ tyj^n y^v«i 
-«n ny^a id^d ii^nji<i^ px lyoyry^ r^« DV\:i''Di^p lyivDipytpy 
T-'K :iJiD^^in«Q nytj^"'jyotD«fe?Dtj' px dmj n .ytoDssn v^'?:]^'^ 
lyn PQ p^tDpstD yjyDJ^iisti^yjDnx n .D>n:i inyr iyiiy:i ny^n 
y^» na P^nt^D-^^iyjy; is; lysnivDMi^ AV'\)v:i t^x y^visinynyQ 
ynj^iD no "i^t^n nyn^ -ijjs;^ lyvjsj Tiyn-'x lyD^-'nix-in^ 
p« Dtr^Di^D m'Wi moD n t^k ynyn^p in^x pq nnnjt^ 
lyi. iJ:j p^^^ in lyo^^t^'ji;? d«i tntj^ .d''3id3d y^yipi?!^ 
n»ni« yijyrjya ^ lynya tDQi? r^x /'i^^^jv- Di>nD 
D^^nis iyi pQ iy:ii<iT5J^ ty^j^r iy3y:iDD>^3i8 n t« 
•i^i„ Dyn lyn-'nt^'iyDJiK D^i^iiy: tD-*:) tyni^n Di^ii ,n y^« 






173 ynt!!''^V5 y-iyij5^:fi^^v.yn n 

MTiit .y^v{<TOfe<ni# 'w^'iv no BH m iy:i;jT ^n t8 ,"o:v^ip 
-cvTii^i p« nyoDy^ pD iyDe!D-|ypi;?T n pa jjiD^^ij^jiiit n oi^n 
tyD^yn PN ,p^noD ly^^^p^^j'DiN Dyi iv uin^Dy: ,1S33 ny^ 
Dv^tDC'iyoJix onoy:! lyni^n lyD^^aie; onyuin inyv^m lyn^x 
n pK no^P nyoDJiy le: lyDi^iayjo^K t^k i{^:r{<^j p« .py^i 
lyioDO^tj'etQ ,Diyp'nTpLD")S!p n D«:n d^^v "lyi px lyDj^s-Ma 
y-iyin D^D FiD5<p p« lynyj pi^i' lyj^n lyD^^Dis'^yayD px 
■Mi: lyn Di^ii /O^nDt^^ lyDonyiiii^ nyi lyaj^ .-lyay^DtD^m^ 
nytoni Dyjy^ pin^s^i^ Dnoyj Di^*n ij^*315§d ly^stji^^ve;: nyo 
iy^iD ,-iyjyD tonyiJin inyv^iD inii ,^3nyi ps< iy:i:{<:y::{^ t^x 
"lyi D^^nife? nyn pa pi^i^y: lyDJ^^^^^yjiD^x iy:^n nyirp pn 
n .ii;?^:v n lyi^^^n^s iv D:siTD:y yt lyaxn ^n dj^ii n5<2 
■y:i DV^tDt^nyDJifc? otjnyiv lyj^n "uiyi pd y^yoj^^tj^yjonx,, 
n P2 nyvy^£ ynyu^ pd onnn vi^v'^^''? vw^t mi .pj^m 
Dy^v^T^jfe!;:n«!-i^nD n pd lyoipy^j^n^ lyj^n dj^ii iy:xiD^^2 
iy3«: m Di^n oy ; n^no -lyi p2 ly^^^to yjyi^^c'-i^D n px 
^M ly^yn fi^\T lyti'^D^cytDD^D « ins Tfe? ,iyTMiy:DMii^ i'?^2 
:y'?'^ ^ PD iVD\^ ^ .lynyjnyDJix iv m iy:jixMvy: pn 
nyDMn;» lyi PD pi^My:i D:^^^y:iDm8ny2nyi t^n -i^^;d>o ps 
iy:jio^nfe!:3"i«t2 .1834 n^nnyD px "yiro^pyrpy ny^^:{^^vw 
n3 ,Iy^t^•^o px oyn^^ny: iy:np iv ]']i^r>v: D^^r^y:; iy:>M 
"ly^n ciMi< Diyp^ntoD ^^""D {? isd o^un^ lys^ir lyji^p iv 
U'^m ny^2 Pi< onjyy: in D«tn ^dsp iyi .pn'k^•^ Dyjy:)^^« 
Dyi tD^D PN D^nr-^^yn n ife?D ayn lyruy^^j^^^D st d^d Dns 
•D^^nife? iyi iv iyD>oi8 n pd in pnyp'Dix 
nn D:i?P^n o^nn p«:iiy:i t^n "uiyi pq :i:)iD^^t^DnK„ n 
-fei:j lyoni^, nyi tDi^onyipDn pi^idk^ tDJ^'n px iy:ijiD^^v n 

-:i^^ tDi^iDC^ iyi PD ^>^D ^ nyn pi^^y: t:iyDyinfe?D "ijy^^n 
n PD p^nDD Dyi iin ,iyDD:^D iyi px lyn^^ny: t^« mi 
DrtDDyt^'sin lyi^yj lyrn Di^ii nyto^^^ij^t n .lytD^-'nisnef:! 
lysiiitn ,Dii>*DtJ'tD2nn iyi px Dy^Ji<DD«tpn{<:i y:yi>"'t^'i^D n pd 
nD ,iDin^j»nj^ ^^dc' iyi pi< lyor^ pd ^n^i{$D pn nn 



dT''ji^''3T'-T'nt:i lis j;tDD''tyy:i 174 

■ya topyiDjy t^n "j^nyiitj^nsQ,, n .iy:ijnynj!?!D yiy^n iyny:i 
ly^^DivDMK iyay;iy;:^^i$ oy^jfe^SQi^P n in oi^n ov n« ni;?ii 
mn Dv .v^vi^^ D\D iyD^^nns-i«i>jr v^V''\ ns ly^y^s n 
D^i^py: lyn^n -lyo^uis y>>j n -iyn>^K lyD^^iii qiymyj lyni;? 
-Doyii T^K ,1834 ,YivD n^in:{s pk n&? ,nyny3 ^11 d^u"i^ n ij^o 
lyD^D PK .DD^^ in« T^m^^^tD lyn^^ny; :iyD yD^^oy ly^DJ^D 
n»Q tyj^n D«ni /iy^^*2J« tix ly^ny^in ps Dyntoti^ oyi pa 
"^s:»^v8J iyD>n:» nyi D«n ^Dp^noD n pq ni^^iy:i DD^nix 
n .rytyj rto^D D^iDt^^jyosn^ » px tyjiDy:i ^r^vi^s in 
,nyD p« nytoDyti'Dii^i pi? lyto^ui^ Dpyr pq ;:i^^^DTixifc§3 
^n ly'toBt^'D'iv D«i PK ,nync' n lyonyj rn^n isq 4834 
iya»iDy: "iy:n » n^ dj^h ,in^> lynn ?inx Dp^tj^ifeUD pyii iv 

•D^yn ytJ'^DD^ji^ovi^nto n 
TT lyD PD ^i^^tonix lytj'nsinisa Dyi inyDtJ'n^Q iv hd 
nimD n tinx D«ny: D«n oy :ijpini s i^q di^^i ly^ytDt^ii^s 
-''K lyn'xiiD iyi iyD8^p-iy?o''to:y:i^^N n px nyi^jyi n pd 
-yj DJfe$p8n lyj^n ^n lyD^yii d^d /'p^^Ji^-Di^nD n„ pa ^syi 
yDvy^ n px D:«i^jr n P2 p^dp^^id lyiroyi:!^ lyi iin n^^Ti 
PN y^^jj^^vs: PD 2jn:n:i n Dt^n 1830 !>&< \^w .inj^^ lya 
iyi PD to^^p?D«TpiyDDnx n iyQny:iDni« djj^^j^ y:^^oy:i^8 
-vy^ Dyi tDDSt lynix tyniiy:iiyn^x lyn^^in n^o nyn„ .:ijn^jyi 
•j^K ly^siyn^^ iyi ,ni^:^^y» n^^ Dn^nti^ /'lynoy^ii^j lyD 
lyo Dijn» nt^^^ytD Diyniyn lyo ^v nyDD^j^D iyt^n:iy^ 
-1S!Q tD«n D«ii ,iyDD^rD lyirD^inyoji^ip nyi) ^^3 Diyni^n 
■n^nD n ?in« D^"'Po^Tpiy»Qni< P^d tyrivyj ,(dd^ pn lyii^i^ 
yD^yii n:t^'? pa ly^^^tD yiyiJ8 pa px i:«^:!3y-pDv pa dj{^>ji> 
^nx PK ,.11 -N .K 4n^■DD^m^? Dyi \^v:^vr[ 1^ D^yvy;! rynj^n 
ytDoyia n d^s: ,ty^y^v yn^ytn d^d "ii^^jp iyj>^Dy:i^s„ lyi 
Dyi lyiDJ^x p« .lyjy^yi in lytin i>d ly^^yii d^» nn^ssya 
PD iy:)yn yiyi:» n d^d lyoi^tiv iyn^^ny:i i^t? pn pni:^^8 

."tDyiDDy^so t^n 
lyiyiiK^ lyrti^i iyi piQ t^y^nsp oyi lys^ym^^Dnus hd 



175 j;i^nvS3 v-iy:t5'^^^^i "lyn n 

.i^Dfc?: \'^vt:i'?v DVT met^y:iJ^^^ miijn^yD im^'? mr) ,yjs^ 

mj^DDPi^ PK y^Di^jt^py ytJ^^D^^^s pd -ii^joysi^inQ d^» po-iyo 
j< pD ^^M nyi o^D ,iytD^n:iv^v o^yntDD^xyi^ cn^x tDi^^■^ pi< 
Dpy^i^")5 {< p« 'V:^^^ "wi wm^ ODnj^n j<; ,D-iy£Dpy-ryTy: 
-yo^yDt^^y^iv "lyi .pyDyanj^iD y:i<^ n ^j^t di^ii ryryj &< ifc^s 
yl^•^L^pfe^"l^ n P« '^:etDt^"lV lyi^DD^^: oyi oD^^^^a t::yoipt^i 
r,y:«i^D^Di^p >mv n .D«:j«tpy lyoMiDisa Dyi ps lyiDDMJi^ 
iyijitj'"iij2DMfc< p^*? DD5<Dy3 D^: ,D^it< DT^Mi Dy ^11 ,iyaj^n 
r^i? roDn -i5<D lyDijy^ji^ \V2i^r\ m .ly^^^ms n lytj'niv 
,m^^Dn n i^^D5< njycnyjj^n^ ,D^ny^'iyi >n D^^n lyo Dt^n 
DijTi /lyT^^ii^n n .iy2y:y:ny3^« lynj^n D^nr^^yn n dj^it 
■y:i i^^-i^D«: lynyin ^lyn^^py^DMjiv i2ij< «T5< pinx lynj^n ^n 
"lyn ny:i^^D''oi^P n ^11 •Di^tj' lyrtoDj-'^oiK nstj » iv Din^Q 
nyi n>iK Ts ,::ir^v^yn^K "lyn iv Dnn^syj ^n Dy D^*n ,|y^nyv 
■"•K iy^«T y^^^D^E pn d^d lytD^^mfeit lyro^^^D pn *iyipi<j<: 
lyD^yii PD pync^ lyi^m oyn iy:y:i ntr ini<i pyn DTi$^y:nya 
"y^3>ns ^i^T D3j<pnnfe?D lyi n^x ; ly^s^cssn Dvn< Diyii ly 
,5'3tj^ pn nyp^oyD nyii^ tDDT6^'SlD nyi p« .^^d^enp pn iy:i 
-ynm PK yrDDMviip yj>n pd iito^Dpn nyi nyD:ix r^i^n 
-Dnni$n pn yn:yD^i^Dit< ^iTi$ tspjia n "lyifc? ,iyt3>^3i^ ytj'^-^, 
n«oi$D^J5§ VT'p^v lyii^^iyi ^i>n lyo n^ix ; iyLo:y-npj{^p y;^D 
PD lynDDHj^N n Dt^»■ly1v nn^^Nii^Q yD^yii ,Dp>nDD jyen 
,:^♦^J5§'^^tD lyj^iyn^n ^n ly^^yii pyto^m^ d^'pp ly^y^vysD Dy*i 
PQ T^np nyoyn: « r^« nyn^x ii^nyn in rytD^na^ife^D px 
yD^yn nyD^m^ ny*tD:yT^iD y:i^^ijnyv px nyn^yrnD v'pv^ 
cyn PD tD^^nns nyi \h tD^^m^< ly^n px rjjyns^ lyrn 
-DDi^iD^ysnmK lyn^-i^n ^i^t r^» di^t nnx — ; d«^p ly^y^vysD 
PD nnpniv Dyi "nn i-iv)) lyo^^ny^tDi:! ni Dyo^ ii^j ^i<tr p« 
DSJ^iDtJ^stn iyji;?p nynns iy:y^D ^n y:D^yii "lytDJix ^lyvyryj n 
-t^p "iy::y^ ly^J^r i^d t^ ,j^tD^: :jijyDi^n p^p t^x i^n — ; pyii 
-»p Dyi lyii^ ,tD^^pDp^i^'y:i n ,D^''PQ^TiD^^n-i5< n tyto^^nji^ lyj 
•IV PK .y^vstpnssD lytiiK ps D^^pjnn n yD^yii m .^sd^s 



rjyDDMpy nyijifc^ d^dd iij^ toDsanyn^K lyuix oyn d>d lyoiv, 
Dyn D^njynsa lynnyi \v2Hn ^n ."r:ijynQij t^« »I«^V8J d>o 
■D^^N lyjyii lytopy^^JiB vi:v:'')\:i^^v hd yn^n s d^d DDnjv.; 
,y'?D:v^v 1825 HD rytyj nvi lyn^vpm^ -ryty: ayn pyoi;- 
lysDypsn DTiDy:i nyaj;^ DJijn lyo ; oyiipya lyiiyj d^j Tn^ 
.lyxyiyriy^y:! yuypnnrT'j nn lyDj^tD^iiyn y^^^nytj^ yj^\ 
nr$^p ^j§t lyD^yii ,ryTy:i s lyDnyjivjrj D-injyDJ^pyn \v2Hr\ ^^ 
nj§D iyL5J!?msD dj^ti /lyvyry;) yjynnt^yro^j n ly^^D^^DD^i^^ 
■••n^ ^j§T ryryj lyi .^ynjsn no lyjjipjyntj^sn n« lyjjnynti* 
nyiij iinsQ iy*iy\, ^lysi^-iDtJ^ v^V))^ nyojix ^lyoi^mfeiiD nyo 
nisD lyn^nji? n« i^y: ly^o^t iv nn iyrj^>«nfe$D iv n^mv 
nyiJ^ ,ny:Dynrp^nDD lyn^nQi^ ^DiytoD^^D lyti^siDD iv "iyj>^t< 
*.t«^JV lyn i« lyD^^t^'ivJt^ in nyD^^ms lytoyn toitj'Q i^^dj§ 
-3nn pn D^j^fny:! toj^n /pn t3^j ^{^r ds^t i^^ms mi jy^yp^s 
-DD^ui^ .DDJ§iDtj^5$n an'mjDm'mK nyii n« tyoj^nifeiiQ onx 
n lynt^n p^^is D^«Ty:i lyni^n lyQ^^nyj yny^n nyij^ lyay: 
;ijnyi«iC2''iK nyD^^DDny^ s \nH av^^vd n^tDDyn^ii i:; dd^^o 
-Djynns t^x ov ty^^yii ife?D lywin ^n nfc< ^SiyDsn lyii^ 
n^D i:; in lyto^^ms lyrjoi^iy y^^yii ,D^nr^^yn .'ivvi^^ 
n'?vi v^Vi^^ 0^0 ]^V'\) 0Di<;ntD:^fe<n D^i^tyj lynt^n 4yrj>''K 
.DnoiD yDD«:nQ nnx pyn lyny^yjonx ^i^r Di<tii ,iyDi<!n:Dti^ 
^-^nnyi iy:fc«ip i^d Dfc?ii t^k» .ny:i$^D^DJ^p n ty:iijT /'Di^n D{<t„ 
-Dm^ nynfc^ in ^i!?T oy nn« .nnn:«i 15$ d^{$ pn^yoi^pyi 
ti^j li^p DytDD"'D"D:i:ir:^^Ki^Q Dyi pa ^yn>K iyi t8 4y:!^^v 
1 ^ o I y T ^ ?D I 8 1 ... 4S1K lyi^^D 8 ^nx pyii DpmiyDJiN 
-^pD^Djj^p tiD ^yD-to Dyi n^uyni^pyi 
Di^ii lyufc^D n,. lyonyjiv dj^^d dj^i .ii\'?d^sjj^p — /' y ^ v 



IKTiys T»K-Dy-y3^yn lymms dni tk ,iynnjyo^pyi ii»^ » 
ly^-iip K raio ^^nb'iv ir^^sy;? ]yu ,iyiyn tasKitatrijn ^kt ,pyns 



177 vt^nj;s viv:«"':fT7ti!iiV"i ^t 

PK Di^jt^ByT m iypyiwD::ir:^^«ifc<D n»D D^y^t<Tyj \'^v)) 



-^a-pv:'K ps pycK^'bn'n nj?i ]'k isBnpo'.iKQ pK in tt:>£y; ]ik 

lyjyn lyc^nxn is iy:KiD'DNp k d'jk tsiynyj taxn i«dkj lyiyc'?;' 
-2'n K t:trnEy;sK ly iixn ,Diynyn-S"nt:B'3yn-iJKn n jis y^Hb -i^n 
y:»M ta'':Ki ts'j lynK txn ly ; 1830 p« usnxn ]"t \)s ^"q lyar , 
•jMis njTT .tsDpyu pK liTuis lynxn td Dxn ,iy:y'r5 yn:v:'*.t:tyiy 

V3''T ]'.■< tSpmyJBN T^K ,l2iyn5y:2K ]S^H KTK e|MK tSKH iy DRr, 

.2 n:Ni ,(1865 ,i«n:«7) /']l'*<3i^''^i^<^2^!t ^jv^tn^nbis jin ytynKCD'n,, 
]y2Nn ,tynntyy;iK ]yny; t'« j;cjKTy;:y2'',K dkt 'n oyn^Kj 
n ,iNDBO'D ms pB u"p;''7ysy; lyn Tin ,iy;Nnpi?;:'nK i^o 
e]n« ,s]yn3 p« DiyEttiy y'jyj'jnK n ,'ind«: i"iyi2^y oyn ps iyt23«a 
v:yn:KBDyiKp yjuxn n .tD"i'T«n lyny; t'k canKn p>t ys'jyn 
ts': iy2''T nyi2Dycu3Nf3 ]\s iyt::Kpn2NS y:ynyTyji:K n tk ,BT»'n 
n ]yin<B:'i«-"iyTm ]ib ti'^poaT'^Ki lyi iy;yn iyiiy;i :«'J"k 
,t!iynK5y: j'O'ttS'iiiK l>^J?n 'u D;n /'jju'^'^kikd ]i'y;p ly^iyTy;,, 
:i:y"imy "^kt ("ji^tsyp'B,,) "iysy'?B ynjyp'nisD ]is ;:i3KnKn n tk 
]y3"«nK£ TK ,u2Noyj ik'?p i2': tin ly^xn '>t .]"iy'.i cExnus'Ki 
]>'N nyj'iTKo ynj ]is j:nn's:'m n t2"iyi:try; lynxn 'r^rn lybxr 
]K einx lynxn d:k'Jt n tk ,cyi:BMnKn i'?'£k kkh nyiy^DO'^^iK 
-yui^K nyn lysx .]y;2y"in:'nK 'u ]ys'7Knyj istk ]ycpyin:'« 
"^yn px ,i£i« "lyT t'k pyiiXBoyiKp lyn ps Tnctr "lycDtDSKDyn 
-j«p ynyn e^nx a^x'rpy; piNiiir lu iy2«n "ly^y^Dts^niij n pya 
]y;y:: opintD ^^i'tttry; ik:j<t px usyny; yjz^n ya^yu ,]yBiyT;p 
•yn ,iyt::NpnjKS n .piVDU'oiK Dyn iy"iy3y'7pi«E is ly^Kia 
]'£nN jsisiKE K iyiy;>y^ ^'t lyaxn ]ynNt:yo-DB"2iK yiyoys oyo 
■«Tis ,"iyia"a"i« yiyu dkii tt'Diyn lyT'isis p'T lyjy^E ,piKO 
,p-i'SKn Dyi ]'N lytsjKpnzNB y^nyn^K n pE iyi2'oiK n b'O lyo 
'•>^n pN ,pi'7 lis ;:iiyjy':p'iNE "lyi ]y;y; B;':''«nKE tt lynKn 
-1KB IS m ,B"n 'ITS iyJi«jyj )b^SH 'rNecEK ly^^'T 'u pB y;': 
-yay'7piKB-]n'7 yny t« ,]yj:ny'?p"iy y3'^t2BN»':''oyj: ]y3'^e:yEy 
/ly^^n ]yj3i:KTDnN yj>TKi 't ."tr'tpKiBaiN coayn,, t'k ;:n 
IS jK'jKfiKB ]y;mMipiyD pu i2;»tD3ynKi ,t:p:iBn2Kt3B' d'i«dk2 pc 
.Dy»stjT':N;iK"'iyiD»oiR iy;'ttiD"iy "itjs iyny;-DU'oiK iy£«n!:B'«i 



Dt^n "lyD^yi^ ,DjyD«^i83 i'isd ly^s^t^'nj^Q n too nx DDnsin 
i>D., .Dt^^spnsi iyt^^D{§T«^^Q ns oyn^yo n ij$ lyD^feitny; in 
m„ *,ni«!n^yD in«i^ on^ntj^ /'DPjyny:D«J id si p^^s lyni^n 
D^^pD^^:iyD nyi ty:iy'Ji yiyiJS to^D lyD^nsn tt lyn^n n^D 
,tyj:i^o»nsQ yiy^n ,Dj«or n pyDtj^ nyn^^ iyD^n;iiyn iv 
yD^yii nn lyjji^D^fi^y:! v^V't nyn«t ,nyiJJ^sDyni$p ly^n 
-D-ins ^^Di lyii^ in DJ^n oy ; ly^^yiDi^D yD^^^^yryj t^x oy 
iVT^o ,DyDu$TP'T''n Di^iiDy ij^d i^f i^^jyooix T^fc< oy t» lyrniy; 
"yi:^n ?i^d^ lyo^j^ii^ dj^iti ly^o^D v^'?\v^ wr^nv::^^ ^{^r lya 
Dyn nnx n« n^^^ ns lyD^M^na y^yjj^^^io^DDjj^p n dvo 
."tD:yD8^i^Q ns :!:)iD^Dtj'^v n lynp i:^ i^^jy^Di^ m)Vi to?i^ii 
iyi tyjyii DrnnDix^n p^^vi^ ww^ lyn^ f-^ rjyp iyi 



"1831 ,26 ipoyua^D ,nN'?"t3 tanynNi ij;d i:» ,niKi'7ya niN^„ * 
\)i lynxn lyjnKnNs-iytanmx n .(131 .t ,15 .B«p ,"ij;u5nt8'„) 

-iDU ims -ixiayj "lynK T^n dj; ip«n ^'t m ,ij;b'1K5 j;;^n:;5 ps 

TIN DupysjB^ ijy Diap:;t2»nnN ,iyup«"iNp„ ]t« ,(1830) "Di^nta 
]i5 lyjinn^s n p« nny;? d^t i^'bij^nxn ,(1834) "D3N»jTi-DTnu 

n ps nj?j^'« ,^j?J5it2 i«ia'7"i«p Tixmy ps ij;intry; lyny:: vn 
n aa^i'j'B taj'^n Tn hnj tan^'^n u px ,lpy:«>D'0Np-pnnN5 
-£3it2 .DT'3«^iT^"Tnt3 iy:?j?j T'K D«n I's Dp n«5 ;;:nj;'7piy y^Dyi 
D3«nvDTnto„ lyaxa cyi i^^tsiiK pits'Nin k lynntj'j;;! tmk taxn *?:?: 
yii^K tDxn NJ'unND layn^n p« ; (1834 ,'|Nnjx'7) "Dp^ntaD pN 
Dinp Its Dp'taD ni^ Dp^ntao nx idj^j^id im ]«„ Ij.^ane'j?:? 
-j;:j tan I'tt lP«n ipitt'Kii j;t^o .(1834 ,D:?n"in) "DyB'Tinn 
cinx lainKn ,'?j?p^taiN i^di't'tj^id "ijrnx ijnaTtt-iKSj'N-tau k .tnyr 
i«Q "imn :inninv„ Dj;n px t:;:iiyi:f t'« ,ip'?«nyBNtt :;;n«n n 
« nnK> ip'^j^Toyn taD^'^taiyeyiNSj taxn tain D'biNB'ta .1834 ,''711 
■JK*?) "Dp'nttD p« DJN^ii'-DTnta,, i^r:;:?!! yntrxin y;n'iyB"DpyT 
nyiytDO k lis dikb n lytti:^;?:^ taxn ^♦s^^'n ,(i:;t3nT 99 ,1834 ,i«t 



179 yi^nj^D y"i>*:^"':fi'7^i"iy"i n 

.ID *iy^i:^D vj:y-iD*j' lyonyji^jJij oymsP nvi lynnuy: 

Dt>*'n opy^i^"i3 t> iyjjy"i2Vi:^n5< ny"in DJ^n iy T8$ .1834 ,^^-e{< 
D«iii ,^y:y-iDi^D 5$ — -Dy'v«T^:s:jn«:"i^2 l^^^ysDix w^^'z ^j>*t 
**.iyD:s:pn2SD n lis n^^iiy: t:^*^D*k>'yj p■^5§DL^' is:i c^i^ii 
D«in D^\'^t:jyDyny:DMX v:)'?? D':i^i$3^yo i-ii>*^ djh nyai^ 
D«n Myvyry; yijyoj^m^D y:Jy-lL^i^' na D:i^':v n Dyiiyo^ny: 
D^^n:y:y^y:j p^P jyT^^^y^D-in d^j lyjyi^oDyijiD ;):n^jyn n 
.Dy^vii!T>:{sn{^nyD^uis iv DDsi^j^nyj^yj nn^x iyT"'^'ni<ivDn"i8 
lynj^n n^^c^pi^^ pd lyDJj^PnastD n nya ,1S33 DDir^« px 
PD y:i^iD nyn ly^yn DnJi^ii^Dyo » ::n^jy"i lyi D:j{<^"iyn 
,ny2Djy iyD^^ny:i nii^a^ya i^h^ tDj^n /'iJ^^jr-Di^ntD iyi» 
n ly^i^niyn^Ti w ^^^d^dj^: :nya^K isd DDi^iDSsn iv» Tfe$ 
tynt^^n Dyooy^^D pn P2 n^^DD^ro n dj^it jjij^^d ypietto:^ 
-jipi^ii yjDy^ti' n pK nyop^-i^D lyt^^nyDyimj^D oyi iy:yn 
-j^ij^'^y^ cy-i pi< Diyi^^u^yj \'\v)) v:^'?V)) ,D:i^'2v n pd \v: 
,pn D^J PCD DiLT V'? p^p Dy» T» ,iyay:yjiv oi^n px /'dh 
-y^DiN iy:^n lypyii^ v:v2v:v::i^ n n^itD iy:ijir:^^i<-i«£ n t» 
D3^{^2is:2 y^^yrs D^fe? lyjyp ^n Pi< Dy^vj^i^SDJi^p y^^^vyr 
nynyjDD>m$§ n ."ryty:i Dy^ynntj^yro^j Dyi nyojit? pyn 
njypip D^j .t:2~i^n5$n do pjikii lyrij^i Dyi ^ii ^nvD lyai^n 
-j^^« ny^n d^5§ ii^r]Vi ly^j^n y^^yn ,iyj^^Kij<D n DJ^n ^i^nyi 
lynj^tn ,pi^ nyni^ lyiJiD-Lr-DD^^nny: lyD^D'j^stn iv pyiw jyj^v 
^:i$pvi li^i nyni^ lyo D^^n n'^vyry^Di^? pn iv tDiyny^D^ix 
.jyi^nonx yny-iJi§ yjyn^^tj^i^a nytDJiN nyo^^nn^ n iy;i^i^£:"i^D 



D':"nH2^ya nix^, px ,1834 ,pi'D iy^30 p.s eiynn pn n^T * 
,tDjKTy; liNH Di'n civTKtrTT .1834 ,2G "jnEK ,"mpnya TT*'?,, • 

.(1834 ,29 pi*D /'i^^mx; o'iyo iib,,.) -."OJ^j'Ji'-DTinta 



Dr'>:i^''jT»-T'nt:i lis ytDD''i5^y:i 180 

-''''nn^Ji/j^D yrj^^i? d^d ^sd lyi iy"ny:i r^x oy >i^ ,D^^^"i:yD>''V 
-nsQ iyDD^:i<i^jvi>nD lyj^n 4832 px n^'-^^p:^^ pj< lytD 
rnesDiyi rn^n ^Jirj^^^-i^D iyD^^vyTy:!DiK i^d pii^iiyj m^ij^P 
p^ntDD ^ T« ^D^nri^yn yiy^n iv lynntj^y; lyni^n ^n Di^^n 
lyD^yii ,1825 HQ ryry:; lyi t^n ^j^odqj^ *.iyD^Pi{^D Dyii 
-y:D^iK MT^ /'oy^vpntDonj^ n^< iy::nyto5i^,/ tyDt;jmfc?Q Di^n 
ti$ nyD^uis ns tj'^jyiynivj}^ ytDDjy^P n is .pj^iiy:! ds^'d^-'D 
-IV ly^y^i D^^^ji^^JvtD^j ^{^2 rx lyp-inDO iv nynn tyni^jn ^n 
nfe$D 8 D^« pj^^w; DiDStntDsn rx /D^m» lyn iv pyn tyoijyj 
nyii^i^ii ^^? iy?D^pyn«D i^i^ '?^q ^vi''\^'W)V^ s .lyDyin 
Dvyry^j^n^ lyj^n ^vBvvi ly^Q .1835 dd^^x pt? ,t{^D2Dyn 
^MK (t«K^>n^D^tDJ>«) "iypyn:i'Q»» nss tj'^Jijysyj px \^i^w:i 
\:i^v:ivnv^. lynj^n ^n t» nyny:iDt:^oii!! ps nny nyrvi^^i? lyn 
nn jyni^n yD^^^pyjJ^ n d^^ii ,Dyi ny^^iv lyt^ns v^V't 
-IP DO PK /'lytD^^nn^ n pq -lynytotJ'-iJ^D D^i? DtJ'''Dy:iJ>n8 
-n« n Tj§ ,tyny:y:^v w^nn D^nr''^yn n di^i^ {^mi^-i 3n:yp 
-t§iDD lytDDjy^P Dyn d^d i^^d^ Dvij^n oo in lyn^^n lyto^^i 
T^N D»n lyii ^^^Qfc? nyDynrp^nDD iv lyn^n n«D .pi^jiti^ 
tDQ«i n«a lyD tD«;n ,id^x tyDD^^^ins nvi ^inx pj^iiy:) p^oya 
"D^iipyntrsi^,, lyi^ytDyi ps n:"n:i ranx DDJ^ntDtj^^iin nyiitj^ 
-HDisD P5 Dny^DiK^ nyD tD^D ^^Q lyi iyny:i t^k DJ^n ^ii ,ryTy:i 
■ns: yi:)yp^ntDD lyjiy^Q nyn^i r^^ pa inyo .1832 pk ,p-ii$ii 
n y^iJ ly^^n dj?sii lyvytya n iyD:iiN pyii d^^^pisq iyD>u 
lyi tyiiy: t^t^ ot^i ^i^ nyjyn px lytoD^^n lytj^niv iy:;jin^vfe?3 
n^nnyQ pt? ^'•yDij^Q-iyn pq Dnym«:i inyvynn tD>o ^i^iq. 
nyn nsQ tj^o^jyay: iv pi^iiy:i D^^^Dmt^i^s ly^^n.y^^yn ,1834 



T'N ny'"!^ *? -1832 ,"iyt3DJ?p3«'7 ^K Dy!iKnB N pS UDnxn * 

-fi>i« t^N„ "ij;o>t33y;i''«"p;iiojy'7nnp yDmy;i i!? P«ny^ lyantry;? 
]i« ,""ii?nyn:iy^nnp lie laextrnys'iyp k ps inxtappn n ]i5 jkiu 
-yn "lyu^^niK yomyji 'i'KS I'n t« ,px'nyj ta^NTy:: t'n oy lys^yn 

nyt) .;:ui3''«n«s ys^'bsyTyrta'j « d^« P«iiy^ uD«n!s«n vh 

(.1834 ,24 'SO ,"mpnyD n'^a, 



.^v* 



181 yi^nys >ny:^''^"i^^iiv"i n 

py-ity ly^n lyiiyi t^k oy dmij ^ii ly^^yoc-iiijs pv^ im lyn 
lyD^n^^^DJiiJP ^5<:i^tyy: n:y-ij„ nyi n^ dpi{<ii Dyi ni>D 
-ojy iyj^:ri< t^k lya^ii nyD^^vyryj ny^o ^ ."is^^jv-Di^nD 
i^K ,-)j>*j p« njSDt^'Dnx Dyi na d^^v "lyn i^k .pJijiiy;! opyi 
(123 .p ,3 .tyn 37) rytyj s \'\h'\'\v^ Din^syj^nn t^n ,i77u 
-Q^iN i5§ PK ^yu:^' s lycny: Dyi ".jsD iyDJ;!:iD:r^n i^ jjyiD'j^ 
lyny: t^x i:^^ d«;i lyn /isio p^ .Dai§:i'^yryj lyD^^vyiyj 
-DIN lyoj^anj^D iv Dpyi^iB ^ t^n ,D8ns:D lytj'^D^^j^a o^d ^i2 
']j^v:i opvh, yDDiNiT^n n p.d ny:^^j< lyny: n^yn:^ y^^^vyiyi 
■y:i lyv.y:! d': t^n lyvyry:; yD:i^DnyT n p,D Dyj^\"5 pN ."ly:^ 
I'lH'? D^ii ?i^ri^i njypip d^j ,iy:^^i<nfe>£ i^^d lyjyp d'pv'^ 
D'D lyiiy; .iso2 pj< ,v:i^'?? "lyDi^^j^rx I5$ pn t^n i^-\i^2:v'?v 
"HD p2 Dyto^Di^p 5$ PD t:in"'sy:Dnn nyni:^ « Ti$ jj^j^^o nyn 
"isDD VD^^v n pN lyo^^tJ'yjj^^K i^^ t^n "i^^ti'D^y^i p« nyiy:^ 
iy^^Dy;i:^^s: do Dyj^^*? li^: t^n dmn dt^mi oy ^i^ .lyDio 
n Tu ,D:i$or"i^nD iy:yp ryty:) iyD:i$Diyi nvi lynjyr.fc^ivjJi^ 
ijyn:» nyi pd y^vsiyiysji^p yDyDD^^D"ib*2 nyn^i^ ^ nn 
ly^b^D iynnny:ij{^ Di^n /'u^^^vDi^nD ivD^'i'^i^D:i^P ^J<Jl$t^•yJ 
.i:«^:ijy-D'ni pd nyaiyi n px ^^^as: Dy-i:{^"i3 
n PD iJip^'j^n^D n px oyvj^iB oyi pd ytoD^t^y: n 
PD -ij^T^sy ny^LDDDJ^iP^a nyi t^n nyoDytj'Dni^T pa nyiD^-im^ 
""iiD^ipnJS n *.yoD^*kry; -iyt5^''DDOJ^'':r-n>nD lytDC'iy nyi 



lV2>':y:"iyn'N ]y!i:K:i'K t'k yjx'bpJK n .1834 ,'?nsN pK pjro ]'k 
1835 ]15 ,250 .Di: ,"pnuyi DiNODNp tin ttkh,, oyn pN iy"i«Tip 
cyT ps aiiiDnK n;*:;:::'? « lyn^x t:'ji "DD^'ts,, n .('Jt> ]yi2l) 
,1834 ^V'lyo 1>^20 D;n .1834 ,pyD i;'i:18 Dyn yi:;i D'lye^n 
i;':>*nniyj;^-t2U « -l^'-^' "lyT ps m:pn n ]ynvj;y;i;;n'N lyiyn 
-;: n tazy-istTNa ,400-72 .t ,9 .n /'prv^yo anb,, n'ji ]•>» b';r^'>'^'\i< 



-iyo:'iK pi^i^y^ iyj"'n yD^y^i ,iyvjMiJ^ns-Dm n no iyto^>nn» 
IT iiK iyD^Djyr^«-n:^^ n ns iy:^^«"i«;3 y^^D^ n na Dpm 
.DTt^^8ii<toyT i^^jnyiiyjiyonK ni nt^ tDpJiQ "ly^^yryrpi^p,, 
8 TN lyiiyj :iJ^^ piti^ lyj^n /'ryiynyDy-iJ^,, wo"?^ Dyn na 
ynyiitj' 5'yvysD n jji^q^^ivisd nyrnyno ns njs^otj^i!^ 
'V^^}2 112 lyDnnD^ifc? jd^d tDrn^yy^ in tyni^n I829 pa lytD-^^^ 
,tynJ5<tot^-3MK-iy:iJin n« ,iy:iJnrvnyD:i«-ny^^tj^ ^y^'-iy^yni 
■s«ii8 nvi inn n«;"iiy:i Dpn-ny^^ix isso px px iy:>n yD^yii 
nyn inn p« lypi^v^i yrnnDiN n px lytDsn^i^D lyjjyii 
rtiSti'D IV ,y^D''o«ip-Dt5!)ny:! ly^y^vyoD ^ pd jJio^tDt^si 
^Hn '?v^:itin lyi ni ^yjti^ nts: .yjyj:fe?sy3 njytntD ni nnyo 
■yj^s i» ty:i:)^sy:iji$ rDjyp in mn /pyDyi lynnny:;:^^ in 
-ya ,1832 pN .pi^-DD^mijit pyDyn » isd :Ji:iyiisn yj^^o 
D38jyD^^^"iiJi^^ D^» ,mt23r^yn ^^^ pvi iyi ts p^o lyj^Q 
ni inyD Ti<; ,pii^n^yo iii^^ i!^ tDyD^n^n Di<in ,'-\^wB^vn pd 
l«"ii 8 ^jys is: \v'?m'^ Pi>vfc?n pn piQ lyD-im^ n pd toa^yn s 
••ii ,iyijnisQ ty:>n yD^yii lytDQ^tj^^yty:) v'?^?n'^ pa ry: ^ iv 
lytD^ms n,, .m^:i^ iy^^:j<[^v^j lyoniy^ s d-^d ,Dpjyi iy 
IV D^J ,ii^^:v iyi piD p«!i"iy:i ojyiii^isa lyj^n '•n T8 ,iy:iJ^T 
oyi^ l^^jv n T« px ^ai^^^tj' inyv ni iyrj>ni ii$D lytD^m^ 
-rK ly^n d«ii ,iytDQfe?ti'^yTy:i yrt^i n */"'n id>d rny^^ 



-m!r lyT^ipT^ ta'^xTy:? ]yn«n ys'jyn ,Tyj2ny'?p-iy >m:? tart^iDjys:? 
,DT>'7«iyi'^ 1TB mjinp n„ lynj?;! t^n 'u pa yii^N ;p^«b pre* 

,!«!:«'?) ,Dj?^n«'7 trniKtt'n lis ,'"i:r3NtDtryjDnN lyi'u i:;t3D:;iyD 
CD^^trn p& iy"T''^ n t:?:?:?^ :iiiSnyx"ij? ]«„ yB^ntj n p« ,(1837 
-nn p« I'T ]j?j>5j?j j?*7ni .(1838 ,'tNi:N'7) /'yini« px d:;'?^^'? 
■;i»« -iiK nxtaD^n,, D'^NS^«n lyDjysD inN nyt .m«:rni3 iytt»in 
-yn n«uiyttN^nKS„ D'TiNDi«n ]ik ,229-31 .t ,8 .BKp ,3 .n ,"!:«'? 

.13 11N 12 .2 /'Dani 

-K3 KnitMtn e)y'*^2 ,147-150 .t ,"dis?9'ib D'imNi'?v» t^^^ ** 
tDK TK ,t2piynyj :icijyp tswn piKi^^tt tin*? .1832 ,7 tiN 3 i^rnorii 



183 j;iJ5''"iys j;-iy:t>'^''^i5"i lyi n 

pi^iK ::)?v\) 8 DS!ny:i ro:yp lynfcjn ,pn iviiy; d^: ^i;?T t:^{<n 
PK 1MK "i«j n^^LJ'Eoyn r&< "ii^J to^J ^n^ pd ;jnyDyn -lyi 
ni^n p« ,^yTiE^i^D 5i-i«!T Dyi pk .iypi^vfc<3 yrons n 
n jyni^n ,tjij< D^iy^^nyi oy^iij^^ i^n^ti^n ni n^^troyo 
-j» "lyi p« ,18DS{5 18 lyD^i^tJ'y; iyD^^3-i8 n pfc< -lyoiyD 
lyn^yToyn iy:np ly^j^T ^n T8 ^n^roDiJ^i Dyi pd o^M:yTyii 
,DJ^^Dy: oj^n D{^i -lypi^v^n v^vi^^ px ^^^n^^v lyo ^ii ,pi^ 
pDMX .li^n 8 jr^^c^ tnyv T^2 DiyDyny: lyrip ly^iiji ^m t8 
■sa "ly^n piM« D8ny:i nonn lyonya n wii^n "in^^^ lyo^Miv 
8 it^: i^^"^^ 8 lyDnyjiyDjns lynnny::^^ lyaj^n px di^:^^ 
;:^^^tj' lynn 'ii ^nvr^ d^: o^nj^vy: lynj^n ^n vi j:^^^t^ 
nyi^^uis n tynijn D^M:y:y^-i82 lyrri^i nyi pk .i«n » 
PK /"iJ^^jr-Di^nt: iy-i» iy;yn ly^yiDiyn^J^D \Vf2):v:i Tt 
D^iT^n iyn«n "^8:j^^v8J lyD^n^, oyi iid lyt^^^y^yn ^^^i^ 
oyin^yj Dyoy^iiJ^^ n lysj^n nivy yny^n n^^i? -niJ^t cyn 
"^yn /'DnyiJ^n^^^ ^siVk^D^ipn:^ iii^ ^Dy^-'Di^D ^^i^yia ^m„ 
ny:in«ti "lyi .^yiiB^j^D pn "^m^'? om^, in^x D^ny; mn yD 
-yj ,^8'.Dn iyi:^m8y:DMt< Dyn iyoi:y;:« ot^n m^p-DDiJ^n 
PD Djyni^t y^«Ji^*^v8J n P2 Dyj>^5< pD ni^pn jik jyvyr 
oy '>)) ."m'2v Di^no iyt:^n^^{^D:{^p ^^^J^'^yj ^:y"l^, ^yi 
■SIT ,DD8Dy:i D^J D^JD^^nyj v^p paiyn ^n jyni^n d')h dv)) 
?nfc^n P2 nym^D D^^n iy2« nst: oi^jn oy^ii^^^ ]rM$^n on 
,iMn DID Dpyr nirD-iyo^D,, 8 ly^i^DD^ix ^i^T ny tD^yiDS^^n 
t2vi:83 m Di^n iy ^v:^'?v)) tD^» /'tDCst^^yTy^ iy:yr^x t^n i82 
"lyn iM lyni^n ly^iyD n .Dy^j^roy-iyv-Din^Dr''^ n ^^n 
iyD-21 nvi nv\:iy^ yroii^ n ^>3 t:'^y^s'y:i lyni^n px ^ypi^i*^ 
■••^ni^ n riiyjii^ii 4yD8P8^3 lyr^^i^D'-nst 4834 n^nnya 
"m^:r„ ny"i li^ tyo^^tJ^ji^ in oyii d^ii lyj^^N nyny^ T8 nyD 
T^« Di^T PN .ajip^tj'isD inj^^ lynn iv pyii t^sti^o'isiQ ^yn 



"»ta» IS ,1831 pN ,ttyuK'? DKi'bn^ ]ib uynin;^; ,"D:?Dy^p ;i'pi«n 



■"I8D lyn niijij :i«d ^m .p^jicj^sidd nyDDis p^-? jy^iy; o^j 
-•n^^ n jyD D»n ajosDtojsPsn nyrti^n ivi hd :JD^^Djyay 
■yaj>^» UN toi^DDyis "iyny^^:io^D yiyus iy>Q iin oyoy^ 

lyiiy; T^N nyD^^nis yD^^P''^:iDiK n dj^ na oyvi^ia lyn 
nx Dyoy^iij^^ n .ryty;) oyn ii£ jiJi^anpij^D yry^^s-T^spD 8 
^^iiv .lyDDHJ^DyD y'DiK^s iyny:i ^^^^^v? w^i ij^na yiy^n 
v:^'?? V'? T^N oy .-iy;nyns) ynjiyusii iyiiy;i lyj^n ^n na 
i«Dy; lynjijn ly^^ir ^n ts ,^>t iy:iyp lyny^ d^j nny p\"? n^? 
■«n 1^0 >^i ,y:)^y^i ,D'nyn:i' p« nn ty^^sjj^ mi ,Dny:ny oysy 
■y-iyvDionoj^^i? n iid ^^>d » tyiiy:i tyj^n ^inyry: v)^ lyn 
-OIK >n lyj^n ij:?: do ."^^:«i"'^^i§: iyD>nj„ oyi ns oyoj^D 
"D^fe§ii: iny^j^n px iynj$ iyv^o>5< "lypyiti^,, p« lyiiy; :!n^i{i^ 
DiyiiijDyj DO PN DP^nDDy:i do i^-id^ lyij^n ^n liStj ,iyDstD 
ly^^yii ,iyDDn lyn mn lyjy^iooynjiQ .pi^ py^yn p^"? 
,y^yD:^ pn ly^i^ipya nynna d^^v ly^iip {§ d^d D^iy dj^h 
,v^vi yjy:nvyjD>i5< y:Ji§^ » y:y-ii<iiit^yj n i»d tyD^»ny:i 
■ifc?2 Myiiij nisjD ^ iy:ijfeitj^n tyD^«:ii yD:i}$^pyj3{$ n ni nrs 
^Dyvfcjns lyDD^iip Dyi li^j ,DD«tnD5i'»i >n Di^n m .^^"^ 
tyan fin5< nyii Dp-'ti'isQ pq n^nDt^ lyDst^i:! lyn ^^'o 

.Dyi PD inytDMis lyo lyp ::noy-i lyi pd :i:iD^i$n n 
tiD niyD nyn iyooy:j{^ mr\ \^v2'^i< pq lyDDo^o nyi n^ 
-miyDJiK pn pa ^>^d ^ d^s lyDDn Dyjyin^^Q-iyoix ij?: 
,:!i:):^^r:i pn Dpmy:lD■'^^5 D«n ni^n^yo m?i'? .p>Dp;5itD"D:!:ip 
-ya:i^ rDDn n»a ^»d iy:n«:-i oyi px pn yv^v:^ lyi. T5§ 
■y^DM"!^ DO i{^j DO Di^n n«t"tDK^ n px ; "n{$iiy;i Dijyii 
T^K n 1}^: ,Dyrn«p ly^^iyn^^ nvi ps p^Dnp p^p lysn 
p« Dyv^tns lyn .tj^oy^^^^ dmi: pt< n«iiy:i Din^cy^Din 
tyD30 Dyn -isq n«ij ; 1834 ,nyD tyDis nyn lyoipy^ij^D 
osDDyis m fiMK DPfe?si5§Q miv^i yjy:i:^Dy:i n t^t^^ iyj>>T 
piK^ PMii^n Hfcj^ D«tn ^ns^ lyDis oyi ons pk ; pi^c^-|yD 



186 yu5'"^ys y-iy:i>*^:i^'7t:5r.yn n 

.^ya ^J8oi!?3 ■!«: :yn i'dmk 

"lyi^^K ,di;?d:^^{< pyoy-i: » id » lya^^n ^-i iyT^"ny:DMi{< m 
■e!:-ii^ lyi no ynyj^iJ'SD y^J8:i n .tDisiny oi^n :i:n^:y-i n 
-2j^ iiN oy^v^oys iyD^n;iviv pj^iiyj Duyiiy^ju t^k y^vsr^: 
-o^D tiD y^^^^o 8 m 'iy::i^05$T"ifei!D yD^^tjjyay lytD^siniv 
-y:s«i n ony^yiDnx -lyi^i iyD«ni y^^^oy ")ii!D oj^n y^:3S!3 
D^yDti'y^j^^s; lyj^n oy .-iyi^^:to^D n na y^nyjy ytDDj<n:j' 
■^yii ,DJ«!^:r yom; pi:^d n d^d ly^jin^vs^a y^^p-ij^ns ni^ny;) 
iyvriiJ^ns-ns^* n ^^^^ ,iyDi^^:ry:j« lyny; d^j ij^j lyj^^r yD 
'D-iyD^^n"i»-''n„ "lyi no t:"in''J5§j-)j^ lyny: i^^^yttDS^n lyj^n 
DpntDDH -ni^Dis!"i3 ijy n^ysD-iymj^n ,n^^„ n — "ii;?^jr 
"l^i^jr 'D-iyrstj'-ii^DCDJ^p,, n /'iJ!?^:r 'Diy^nii^j^p,, n ,"ii^^:r 
D^^n:y;iy^yj nyi ^^n ly^j^n y^^yii /'ij^jv 'Diyooi^B,, n nx 
no yiriDipyrpy lyn lys^yn iv \i^i:0 ii^: lyoyi^y^yn Dp^:^'y: 
Dn:y"ie!D in ioj^n y^v^tD^:ii< n ."^j<j«;^'i*^*j lyD^ij,, nvi 
-pyrs^ Di^ lytoD^jj^^jr-i^nt: 112 y^oyvi^ns "lyrm » ls^d 
— ,ni{$2^yD i'\^'? IV y^v^t^ys s: lysy^ivnyn^K ,DinytDD^r^ 
lyj^n y^^yiT /'Dy^v^iDDJi^oy-i,, yom^ n na yoti^iy n 
ynyr:^'y;o "iyi na 5'^''0 lyrDyn^y^yi s ]ih)'\v: o^fc^oyi iDjn 
y^Mi^n n pn^sivsin I5<^b "lyi .p^tD^^i^s iy:{^i:{^^ ns 
^u ^iD ,D''^":>rmnDifc< yDoyn: n lyany^DMi^ Di^n y^oyvi^iB 
n ny^^yii ""^n /'do^"'D» n .D'>kjik^ •"u ""^d nx i:^nD 
,m3T rx ly^y^yj ij^ij lyj^n isso nQ ly^jn^Dtus lyrns^s 
:n:yD^Ti^£ »iytD>M"iv Tdj^: ^yp^t^i^tD^^^ p^x topmyj toj^n 
nv Ti? ^lyoni DTi^^yj L}j<;n pii^n^yo tij^^* nx -tDpy^j^is oyi 
y^v^t^^syi T^x oy v^'?v^^ lyonyjivs^K iy:fci;To:y in 'oyii 
•ysD pi^'i"ic'y:j''^t< to^*n lyo .y^Dyv«:is i< ns y^v^i:y3 lyit^ 
■^i^D \H'^:^'? PK DD^"i3y:i :D«!n lytD pn ,iyL5D^v^!^j^3 v'?V''i 
-M-12 nyi T^N* y'pi^v .•^J^DL^'3nK is lyi^^oit^D ^v ns jyt^j^i 
irns yj^n px lyii^^ .fi834 ,21 ^pb^?) lynipy: ;}^d "lyo 
•jv nD .D^^Prnys Dni:i d^d yoyv^jiQ n Din^sy; tyni^n 



Dsn .tyti'^DJ^n^ tD^j in ^«it ■•"'V'^^is y^^j n tfe? ,iyi>^oi«D 
tyn>''^ nvi nyD^DJy:!^^^? nyi no ly^jnyjBi^ ^yoit^D lyo 
lyn^in nyn^oyv^iiB n i«ii /'Di^y^Q lyj^njysi^p,, •'u rs^s 
D^yt:tJ^y:Dn« no s d^d lyj^n on^no n .D^yo^n^jD in 
tD}<in iyj^^i< nyiy^ n« ,iy:ni<iD rD^nTnx"''ni ^v\:i:'n n«!iiyj 
T^« y>Dy^^i<tiQ iyi ns rsty t^t? .^yuyi tytom ^ iy:i{$itoy:i 
lytjni iyi nx Dir<!D lyn^^iyioonQ ly^iD pn pn ,iyLony:i 
lytDDns,, lyiyiitj^ iyi /'^D^jnin ^^h i«tDpi^i„ $§ ns r^o 
*i^ni .D iiD-i^ .11 /'D:><i^jvDi>nD yr^ii^Dt^Dsnn n na 
■iy IS iyi^y:i P2d ^^n t^^? ,^ni^^ iyi ion^ ^yvsiDDJi^oyi n 
tynfc^n v^'?^ Diyi^>JK^ n pa m ,'?\i^D'? ,Dnfc< lyrayj i^o .:i^{$q 
■ji«-nn n nt< 4yti':iyQ uyrnto lynn V2 nra no toinsiss 
T^i< D^^3i8 ly^n rst ,D:i5^^Pstn lytoyatj' in lyn^^n lyonyjiyt: 
yiy^n tio 3:i:!^^''"'iDsn iyi n^^iy n^iiy:i tD^yto^y:!S{<! ryvjsjrj^ 
ty:in Iyt5Dnt^'1ytoJ1x t^^^^D ^yDiya « ni inyo .lyD^-'nifei; 
iynt?:i:« n Dn^ i^^cs ,n« V't\:)VB iyi isq iy^ipy:ij"'ns 
Dr^^^tDsn in lyn^^tn lyt^jyD i:iyTnD ro^ni /'dd'-iio,, iyi pa 
"5'yQSD iy;inDD^i^ttyi iyi ton^ tot^n Di^ii ,y^Dyv}<!i3 iyi px 
Diyioin ni ahi^'? pd ^^^d sts D^yt:^y;iJ^Q in tD^o :!:nyp 

-y3 in ly^jn^DSti^ y^s pa ly^ispn^i n tyn^^n ^^nnyi 
-m ptK iJi^Dsnsa yD-'^tojyay ij< .ti^M iv lyoip iv d^^^s 
iqnN /'nyiisD i^^tpjy px m^p„ iyi px n^iiy:i iytD^^?ny:i 
^'y^yi Pi5 t«!DBDi^tD Dyji^iiyD ^'y^j^^^^p ,pnyi^i ly^^yn 



iy» ni ,tyo:?n ,pMni<n ,"ii'p Dx'i'Npii .ao i^t pk ivtsDns k 

100,000 ns TK ,p;'7pi:? oaNOv-Tinu ns lynKjjix .1834 ,'Ji' iik 
ysi'bin'fiDnK ik .tyii:;; li^^r^nix lyrn i:?i«n^£? 200,000 to 

-1!? ]^^p taii i^'bjnyii:?:? ,(1848 inijn^) "iVi3'o-i« i« ps :;i5n-i:i 



187 V'^b^'^ys y-iyj^^:{i^J5'nyn ••i 

n«!n PK iyDipy:ni^s t^k ytDi§ayi 8 ; toiyny: lynj^jn ^y::i^p'j^ 
■yiJi^ p-n?D'^ oi^n Drn fiyiiijtJ'n lyD^yn p« ^dji^'dqi^p i^^' 
DO Di^n ::noy-i n lyni;? *^^^tD"Ti« ly^sana oyi lysn; 

Di^n M ;;i:yio^nv T^fe< fiJitiD:^' n 15$ ,iyjyp")y:«! iv d:{;it 
.pDiyD ly^n lyoipst^ "iyD^ui5§ yD-'^p-'^joix n D\i}7v:i 
nyntr n tk ,DPi^iiy: mn 5>^^D"n^<■"lyDDy;^'D'^«^ nyi 
ii^^ov-i^^io n PD pyn lysiyiiiy^Dms T'^j-'^ty^yj^iN f*}^? 
\VD D«in iypn^v»3 p« on^no yoMiy: px djh ^oyoj^'^ynyv 
Di^n 1834 ^nss! PK **.in«^ yrr^« "ii<D jyD^$<ny;:>^ i^o m 



;*;n;'2us n nr ]yD ::«n 1836 pN pK ; "tsyt'nxp tv-^v^'C-ikt 
lys^'i^'SptriKD j;^;*anK2 inn .lynyj '^mo PiKtjs* lyi p.s i:i»*>' 
n I'.s ffiJ'S "i>n"« (1838 "bneK T'n) inK» '^tis ];*o',:;';: d;* ::xn 
,"iVi:DpyT "lyi .D'^"i« P«i^y^ ttsxinyjspms iy:'u y:y;:N£v^ d-;-t 

.■[VfiTpyjipmx lyiiyjJ lao int i'^'bn "i«: t»k ,1838 ,20 udi;'',.x 

"iyiK2i*Ktr lyn u'D ,vi«' ^ij'S y^is ]td b'^s k ins iTd nys'^iy^D 
n ,(miD:'D ikd T'?i:i<a-!::yaK'7-iKB) »y^*:Nn DKn«n'j ps si^in 
lyiiy: t'k ^dp'O'ind "lytt^nK n cxn ys^yn ,;:nuy"i y:y;"« 
.mNS'.n *;in'>ii 5in« D'^hk lyA^nn px ]y;!n«2;5N2 is >n ]y;:iKn!fy; 
K ,u'7ycNTy; d>'s ny? Tin lynijn nytai^niN n D«n ,n^y:j dkt ]ifl 
>'T ]yn ,n'7i3'3 W));:i »yt3'i3«p nyn t'« ,£1,300 T^y ]k ps yoiD 
Dy<'?'eND y-iyu B'd ^t ps qi's lysyiKa i!i ,iy»)py;pms lyj'u 
]y;Mi'y:;"i«s e«n "lyiDDpyr nyT .Dpyooy ]ih oyonys yi'>'>b^ f[nH 
-DUTinyj p»t p« pnypnp>ns tt (i:«s nyn ]is p'rn p'r 12^0) 
,1842 ,9 *7n!w /'lyDDciiDD tr»»»i3„ oyn pN ^yp'*^ti< ]k ]is) ."ri<7s 
inx nyr .(27820—320 ,"iyiS'TpDi:ND Dy'D'''?3„ pN lytDTNny^snN 
p.K ; (12 ^'IBk) 1837 ps 191 .ci: /'p'v^yi D:«.':T:*fp nx Tixn,, 
.253 .t ,22 .3 ,"DU'»3yi nKa:yoN7nsB D'T^NDi:xn„ 
DNn lyoiKS "lynK ,"DyoKoyiys""in'Ej"N„ ps *;^^';d n ** 
-'IT D«n ,iyT'7;i2'i3 y: lyanyjSMN d^o lyiyn i2iny;EK lys'^.tjT 



lyDijy:;^}^ "^^j^s^vsJ nyom:!,, lyi Di^n iyj^;irN .Dsst^^yja^ 
iyn«in dj^i^:!^ yiyus nx nyn^^ n nx ; oi^tj'sn lya^yiDyi 
mi< pNn oj^n ^^^D"iiJ< D'nyDsn uvi lynj^ .t::i^{<;syjD{^: ^n 
"i^:i •'"JT^ .DJj<i^:r n ns P'-tDpsD y^royi^s n D^ytot^^y^sj^ do 
yj^^K Dj^n ,iynn5$ t^^? y^oyv^siQ lyi na ;i^ijyiDnN n mi 
"^5§:i^^^:^: lyD"""!!:),, nvi no lyjJi^^^DSJ^ yioorDDni n n2 
n .ny3y:!Dn^^a-i8 yin-'N tD^D ^lasp lyDDJiy is lyouyjDMi^ 
\vw:i ao^^K DO nyns t^n ryj^n y^^yii ^onyn^ot;^ iy:i$ij{^> 
DDinD,, n oynjnay;! 4833 ^-lynoyvyi p&? \V2i}.r\ ,in jyc^niir 
tj^ni^t^'DMia lyDtj^ny) "on^^s^^^D irto^nys^ ii}^* t^^nj^^ njyi:i 
■i^":>iSD 8 i'-wiHii IV lyDJ^i^tJ'sa n^? .hyo^^m^-nyn^oc^ na 
n tiD "i:sDmv lyrDD^o nvi .D^^rDD^uis nyn iid 3jiv 
nsistj^ lyDoyD "lyn na inytD^nis^ lyDoynoK ?y^ jj^p lyo^-'^n^* 
nD» .D^nr^^yn y-iyn iv Dijyiiy:; in lyn^^n ^n lyD^yii d^o 
-i^p ynjyiD30i^D n oi^ii -jj^p^ni ynjiTxn n ?y^ytD:^ivs^ 



-j^Knys 1^ ;iu>o y;;njyuB' n s^nN t3in "i«s lypyi /''b^mid.sd 
-"iyoNn;;-ytDDi5„ lyta^N oyn tsixn lynxn iio .oyiiNoyiyij n |nD,x£ 
-KT "lys'^yi'i ,ip«ny,"; iDJKf^nyn nynnc pits' tuv oxn ^EsnpDiiNr: 
,1834 ps y'sxp ■iy::pmy:;ax lytit^'n:? lyi pK .1832 pa j!'iD:j;p idtiv; 
n "lynK ]ntr y;:^i^ ,Dy':Nf3y-iy!? n ps 'b^'a tyiau n B^xni::j; >t D;n 

iy:i:yin djjt i:yii /^xiiks ps ^xa pN tn /'^rny^p-^yT,, n mti j;:j,*;s 
nytt'ms -lyi .caxir^yTy;) nyn pa "t3np3pinei!?r3i« y3>S"3yitr„ n 
■"lyn,, n px ;iyijn>p id n tik ,Dit3Kn pip lao tsjijnu Dxn ,pm2K 
-2yn:N pa ;:ii;i»^:?'jts'NS n ]»n "inb^^'x "iu !:^yn:Nrrf"'NS ";i:ny7p 
■y: !:nyn 4838 ]in !:£Ntj'^:;Ty;t ijjn pa ]")N^ipiis n p^< .t:np;ijj 
-inieiii« y^N ^ys^n nj;'Ti'7;mio n pa ;iiittii2tt>?3« |« inn tn ,a;!KT 
-i"!K 'T;tt'''^«'23ytt«'7nK9 nj^n nyi^iu ,]iKir;; tse«tt>y;;5K Dyixttyiy^* 
i'7ie« "iy3« .lyttipixe sTi>n dnii ,DTi3K'3ii-tinu Ty;tyn jsjismyu 
n tie r'?« l':?^ I'T taty-i 1838 tia nn»a "ly^^^Ka3''^<nKB nyi p« 
PN "iy?3'U3i>i y •? N tie "iyii!?nKi>5 y'noN n„ pa m nj^tatiniN 
-Doyii^ Dyn ps pisa* ytSKn^ysimsttiN n :t'!::yp i«3 ly^m oy 
4832 ps "iijop 'D-iyi'?'3,, lyi pN bd'u lytr^a 



189 p^nyD viyib*'^i'?i5"»'^y"» ''T 

/'n^nt: Td^k on^xy^DMi^ :js;^ "-ir^? oi$>n rjy"npJJ^P y^y^vny^ 
y^>: VDMiyj i-in^Div:^^S! lyDJ^^c'sn i^d ly^i^n,, ^^n ly^^^Tj^ 
i:^^-]? rs< pnfi§ ly^i^T yD^yn ,15<2 pn Dy^:;s^i:yTDL:^n-i^ 
-re: i5< iyoipy;iD^n{< naiyi t^k oy ."ji^iDJi^o lyuyoip oyn 
rvj^i^v ,iy2y:y:ij{^ onyii oy ni ^lyD^yn px ^p^noo -iy:^voy; 
-is: lyt PD n^iiy:! lysi^rriyjo-'nt^ ly^^n lyo^uij^ i:yTMD 
?iM« iy>y!Dy; p« ^>t iyD^«iriDM« pd od^'? yvj«;i n p« ,d^u 
PD 3:ny^^Dt^'5<3 « ."^tf:ji#^v«J lyD"*-!");,, Dyn lis lyiJi^s: n 
T^^:o''D \v\v^ ^Mx pj^iiyj D:ytoD''ny: t^k D^:yQ inyvijfci: 
yon^y:! sj iyDny:DMi^ Di^n yD^yii ,1834 >fe?a px ijs^ I'lyn^N 
■:i$ n^y: 3i:y; iyo"ipy:j^n$< tD^: t*n oy p« ,D^^":5:yin2iVDiK 
]v:i''t v^'pv^'i nyi^ot^ n n^2 ly^ji^n^tvp^^-iOD n lyo^yinvi 
,iyny:i t^k tosD^nyi lyn .ii^i^ 5$ :r^''^ "iy^2 r^a ly^^ay: 
nyn iv Dinypy^Di^^ T^^ny^D^a in lyn^sn lyo^'-n-i^ n t« 
.D^nr''^yn n pa lyjji^jnj^n n pinx D^^nis 

-••n yD^yii n:^"? p£ ly^^^tD yjyn^^K^nsD px dp^^dd v^v:v'?p 
Di^DJ^^s Dyi D^yD^noyv ly^i^n n^n:^{<:Diy do lyiiy; lyj 
DDMQiK Di^n v^vo)pv^PV n ."^s!:j^^v^j lyDm:,, nvi pd 
-DjyDynb*c nn Dp-inoD pa y^^^in n jyo^sinivQi^ Dn^nns 
-Di^nD pD ly^y^v pfc< lytDnnjt;? n iy:yii y^v^n^^pyn,, i< ly^^^ 
Dp-intDD iy:iy:i 03«;ry:iD''*n^ in lyni^n ^n ly^^yi^ r^x /'D:i«tor 
•pvi v:''^i^i n .y^vpni^ia nyivD^iysi^j^P ind tDi^Do^ m 
in lyj^nojy ly^n nn n^^iiy: torosyipN^ t^n y^v^i^^ 
^ ii?D ly'LDDitj^ lyji^iiji^^ n pd ijnyii^ic iyi iv iyo''t5tJ''iviv 
nyi iJ<tj i^sn p^ntoD ^ Di^n ,tD3n:i oyi nnx ,jjnyDyn-pi^ 
in DJ!?n Di^i .roynto^^v do t^s* lyi^o^ n pa ^^D3in 
'it.n lytDDitj^ iyj«:ij{^^ n D«iii ,D^^iyi tDruyyj rn^n lynj^* 
\ViVu> lyo^tDti' 782 D^» ,2:i^^t!;nND lyj^^oyj^^ t» tinx lya 
lyj^n P5< ,y^v^iyiys iyi pc in lyo^niysj^* lyoj^^^^xn ,506 
•pnt^n Dyjyr^x lyn «ins p-intoD t^t? oniet 
PN "oiD^^t^Dnx,, n ryiiy^ t^x 5n^p nyiynyiitr ij>o ^ 
iy:^i3{^^ yrifcji n .is34 ^^r pt< ;yDs*D"nn lyji^i^^^ n 



r 



-■•^Ki^D lyDMia,, lyn i«i iyD«^tj'y:i:« nyoyn m iyn«n ly^sD 
iiD lyon pj< nx ; "i«^jv 'oiyn^n. lyn li^ lyi^^K ";ji;io 
-iy:^yvj^^« 18 liD tops iy:D>^j^^^ir:j'''i3r!?£3Dyn s D«in 1834 
s^n lyD-i^nns n .^ofe§P Dyj>^Dy:^8 i«: lysnyjoMnj? yoi^Q 
p^p lypriD IV tD^j lyDi^^tJ^sn tD8ny:i lynj^n to^mp pyn n 
-«ns D^5<: /'.»P nfc< n^y-Dsi^yi ,'>2f2i^?. ynn^Q iyi ns lyn 
-D^j»^:r"n^n^ ly^^DDytJ^sn iv in iy:i»TD3y ny^n lyjyp DoyD 
jypriD IV lytD^nsQ duip pyn n lyiijn finnyi -lytD 
lynj^n n^ oyn^-'ny: yny^t r« lyn py-ijs t^n ov ly^^yii 
ns:! tiQ nyny^Do^uis n .nyD^mis yny^n iyDi$^tj^y:D"'ii< 
^V'^''] I8D DJ^ior n nn« lyiiy:! oyD pn lyj^n y^^yii ,i«ti:i^^ 
-j^n ,tD^^ni8-p^Dti^ PK ^ni^t:p«iD3i^pnytoj^x iv t22«:j^nyj:iy:i 
lyari^v iv t:>^n3y:iy^y3 lyrr^i nyn i« D383y;:«i in lyn 
."ojyDiPi^n,/ lyDD^niss oyi lyn^ntj^iviytDJix lyD^uis yiyn 
-is-nn yD^y^i pn ,iyi:jyo»Di«5yTD:ijn"':yi n pa syp n 
p^t< pK D^ytDt^'ya in iyn»n ^lyny:! tDi^ooytJ'iitn lyj-in lyo^n 
lyn^sn ^n Distil ,D^Diyi iyny:iDtD^m» yo^nna n tD''o n>n 
fn lynvy: in mri noyiP iyi .^jnyii^a V2'?vvi D^ytot^yj 
■••tDsr ,DnK t^T^n^ ,ri^ "^2VD)Ph^. iyi tyii ,1835 iyn»y^i«!j 
■IV in lyn^in nyiD^^nis n px p«!^iy:i iyjnvy:ipniv D^-'iiy^ 
PD iyjji;ijn»n n ruyony^j^i ,t3>"'ni8 nyi iv Dinypy^pn 
-«ip iyi 11D .iyDp:iQ-tD"'nt:tJ' yriyrx n i^k D^nr-'^yn n 
.i^D iyny:iiyi "•'toy>"'Di^D 'DJi^D>^o:ii<iDD» iyi ps nyiJiJ^tsoyi 
T^pini D»i T^fc< y^^^iyi^:: s ps — y:i{§^iyi^3 y:ini^i n t» 
-j«^ n r^t< y^v8T^383i«t n ty^j^inyv lyvj^n^rx mn — ww:^ 
'Diyi^-tn,, iyi d-'d lyoipy^i^iD t^k dv dh)) -ly^^Q-nn iy:j<ii 
-i§:iii!j yirDSiyiyo n .li^^p tD^j t^n ^n-'tj'in v^v'> px "p^^jr 
-••^x iyi pK inycy^oiN ty^»Dy;3ya5?Tiv rtDjyp t>n y^v^ru 
-ypniv in lynt^n lyD^a y^yi-i^tJ^ititD n T1^? ;d>>v lyjyj 
•lyoDstJ'^yTy:! y5'8Jii?^vi§: p« lyni^p y^fc?p{^^ yiy^n iv Dinyp 
lyttiJiSQ lyiiy:) iy:)>n lyD^^ni^-nn lyj^ui^^ n nyn • 
n pK lyDipyniijD lyD^no^ vy'?^nv lyj^n ,?nofe$p ly^n to^» 
■•»^yi n lyntjn ,^6J^o^ ,n''^ pj< .lynDonrx tosnn yiyi^s 



191 j;ii5^"iys y-iy:^^:ii^ynyn n 

; "D:yoiPJ^i» nvi D^y:DC^y:iDMn8 lyi^ii .1834 ^sd pk ,D^nn 
lyj^n ::io5<"ni<D 1W2 n« u^oti^-iynni ;yp-i5<t3'^ {< inj: nx 
'D"iy^mi^^p» n lynyjwDMt? iy:ijixnvy: ly^yj nyD^^niN n 
DTt^^ynyn^x \V2Hn i'd v:i'?V'i) ,DivyB^-'?v)^^2 n ."\h':^' 
^s:-iyjy: 5< na i^^s D'jyi^y^D nn^D^vD-in nn njytD^n:iv 
-y^P"iS2-D^: D'D a«:D-DD^u-is ly^njicDtJ^'D^^ 18 "i«tQ p^ntDo 
IV iyDJ^^tJ'83 iyn«n ^lyD^^m^-^yn^n v'?^ ista n^ lynnyj 
*:» in ^fc^T tD^^vDD^unsi ly^n ns aji^^i^pn^s n is .pyiJ^s 
-sn tyiiy:i r^^ dj^ii :i^o "lyi /1834 yiv^ ly^cny Dyn lynnn 
na rytyrpnn^D Dy^o oyn pd ::nn^2J^^i§ lyi i^d oo^Dti' 
IV "lyirp "i5<D D^^v-DD^u-18 n Dv^:yi:i$n dj^h ly^^y^i i833 
lynj^n lypnnsD v'^vzi iiQ nyD^^m^ n .;i^o ^ r^v^ tDDSt 
••n lynt^n yD^yii ,D^nr''^yn v^v't nyi iy:iy'n wo'v, ori^^y; 
DVintJ^yjsj^ TD^n lyn^^n ^n t^h ^ro^yp .D-inJ:?:rx toiti^B 
lyDi^my lyn Dn^ni nyto^^ms yny^n ns d^^p^^iv^ n 
■yj :::iy^y:£si^ :i3i^Dy:n8D-iyDi?:!y^yT « tia ri? p>^n*jD-^ii!-^y:y; 
nyD^^n-)^ n lyj^n :«id oyjy^ p« .^jr ty:D2 nyi i^n pi^^ii 
nynni t^k p^ntoD nyn p« .iy^nji<n iv D^n:i lyny: to'-j r^{< it;?: 
TD lynt^n -^nv^ r\v2r2V\:iBV0 lyoi Dyi m ]^i^^)v: t::iy^y:5i^ 

n^^pn^ii ,1834 ^ns8 pn r]V2i^n lyo^^nij^ ly^sim^i^ n 
lyriJitotj'-DS^ Ife? iy:np iv inn^Q iyD^n:y:nv-D^: y; tD^^^yj 
y^'stp^t^ n ^11 nvi2i^: D«n T''t< iy^'ipy:n«:D .:«o-DD''^nn8 
n jJi^o^n^D ytj'^L}D^ji^^:i>-n^ntD s ly^ntoyv toytn ^^v^^j^b 
tin^Ji? IS IV \vr2)pv: T^x Dy ,t:ri^^toiy;D m lynj^n nyj^^-'ms 
ny^^DDJ^ n P5 iyj^^t< ly^^yii t^^? /pnnt§D 1yiDD^?m82 5? n^^N 
-jyn^Tiv iyi ."nysyirp^nt^D,, ^ pd ni^iiy:i tyDJ^ti^nyT t^k 
IV m D^^p nyt:^^nn» lyc^m^}^ nvi tD:iy-iy:i2^ix toi^n ontDt^' 
^lyna px ^v:vr:i ,Di^ntD y^^ P2 nytD^^nn^ n .n^t<tD*^2nK ;^ 
■D^n^D yrryn iyD^8ny:iB«i ps* o^^nii§ n iy2"is*iiy:i ]V2Hr^ 
'HI P5 rii^tiiy^ iDi^Dyn^ lyj^n ^n 1x11 /'ni's,, t'?:^ix tyj:^^ 
lynj^n ^n p,k ,^ytDDytJ^D:^?»o ps lyjiyn ynyn>^ *^x ^'^^vn 
PS ^n^ife$2 p« .3i^:D"DD^^nn« iyr"i3ioK^-DDJ? oyn t^nynj^isya 



DT'':8''^i''"T''''ita 113 j;tDD''tyj;: 192 

T\ \V2Hn lyD^nns n m nyins aii:iynDnt< n v^ 'im » 

■Dn^nD« yiynjs nj< "ij^nn^s iy^{§j«^:^»: iyD''n:i„ Dyn pD 
nj< lyD^^i^^DnysDix ifeii d>d DT«^y:DMN in lynt^n "Dji^-'jr 
lyijyDps^i Dyi nnt^ DytDDfe§y:iDix .^feUDDnn iyr-i:yot^^iD 

,^^v px .n>n:i^j^Diy-to^j wwi DiDynix lyji^i^jni^roD^'-n 
"jjs^ iy^:s::i I'lya--^ Dy^vs?^j^:n{^ y^'-D^nynyD n lyn^^in 4834 
$< PD iJismsD iyDm:i nyn .lyjynnjyo^iiv D^n iyD^i§ny:i 
PQ n»iiyj iy;t^^t^yj n^yo^^is t^s^ iyn>^:iD''D ij^^^-id lyn^sn 
■j^i,, Dyn Iy^yDt^'Dnnfe$ lyti'^^nyjy iy>n nn nyny:iD£o^un» n 
iy:iy'n iDDn^n Dy^ynntj^nsD p^"? d^: tyj^sy; i^d ."^jyoip 
,D''^ nyjy^ Pi< y>v«T^jN:n«t nyn pa :ijn^^^QnK lyc^-'DPfcHQ iyi 
"D^j nnyo n ?imn iDDi^oy: oj^in n dj^ii pm^^^is! Dyn lynj^ 
•:v^'?H^ lyn pd lynnyjDMi^ tyo \i^? tyoD'':«t>ji>-i>ntD yiyD 
D^D ^8JiitJ'nyt:"'on» t^ p^^ m'>mv Vi^ di^ii ,:i:nyn^^tj^ lyi 
lyn Dn^ntj' /'DJnj<"ny:i>''n w^i^n i^d„ .lytDystj^ -in«;^ tynn 
?y;ji^oi{§n«Q id ^„ /"?^:i^)mi DTino., Dyn pd iJ^opfe§iyi 
PK "tiifi^jr-Dn^nD nyD-in^^^iD^^ip 'p^2^^v^ uyi:;,, nyn pq 
-y: >n finx tDi^n d^jii aji:iyi2nK n di:i n^:i lypjyny; i^d 
nn^QivDin o^>p:yD«t^tj^Djy yDat^n^yQ^^iivoix n — toti^iyn 
■«n n — ty:i:nyto^y^« pi"'i« n:iypp d^j Iya^^;Jn3 yin^N 
n — lypiiyjD^nn? lyni^tn nynyi y^j^o dj^iii :!jnytDD^''; 
-D'-ix yD>in n — yD^yo^nists n pd :i:'io"'tD5i'^^^ ynoyi^^^ 
"IJ^^JV n yny^ oy. /'{§nin. /'^tii^in. /'ly^n ny^n. : lyan 



]pN:iDnN n nj?T .^nt yD''73n^ni;j;n:;DnN ]« p;ny:j ta^NoyT t<« 
tKp lasnNn ijrtau « .1834 ,^n5N t:?id27 d^ to i^^tolT'oy'T ps 
-26 nx ijrtslQ Dyn ]i5 ''mpnyo n^^,, nn px lyrs:;; nnK i:?o 
"'■b'OKB as^J-lp^Kl^ ^nn n« n«uD^n„ n tmn nyr .1884 ,'i'nBN i^u 

403—6 .T ,(1889) 



193 yi^nyD >nyj^^:fi^i5riy-) ^i 

nyi D^D ]vw: io^i^oyi i«iJ lyJ^'T y^y^D -y^y^a .n .t8 •« 
tyviJ y'nDi< rjyii oyn m^jr lyjMJijT lyi pd ryi ojij^>d 
-y^DMie; D^: lynt^n iy:ji^iJ8n"ij§D yin^N ^^m ^lyo-pomfc? 
n PL lyD^mK n ns ;jiDinyDJiN yjyos^yj ,yt2;?«!p j< lyrni 
iyroD^^:j iyD;yiyj2M«-njyt:tj' s -i«i: ,iy^3^N yiji^oonpy 
lyri^^iyn^i^ ^^i n« inyjiyans; n^; n{^*:i oyn '■\v:im) ,i:i<D:;nv 
iyn«n lyjjn^Dss n .i:^d*^iv lymynnD lyn^yTDyn i\s 
.Dyi3n:ii53D"ifc< m)v:i do t^« :ji:^^d yrri:?! n ts /lyTrnj^a 
lyjmyD^ni iv jyii ayi oisBtJ^nsQ ^n toji^n ^y:"iy3-Di$"iP 5< 
no tD^^3"is lyi 1^2 lyonyj iv nn oj^jtoii'js nx ; oyi^j^iQ 
-y:DMx nyoya ^n lyni^n jj'nytot^' yrot^'O 8T5< lyDj^ipyns 
Dyjyj^^N l^n n^t^ nyj^^x '•wiv >?n))i pnypivoii^ im lyn^^p 
-yt::^K n nyii^ o^^'^iy^n nyi ly^yii in :nJ■^y?D^•:5 do ,:yr. 
nyi n inyiiviv i^^j^^b iyiiy:i t^n oy .id*j' pn no jyoyn 
nyrii^i lyn na "lyin^D m ;y^«iy:y:i n ns D^^pjy^i^^c' 
-1^2 iyn"'^3yj yj^n ^n nya ,vvr2'\^ iy:y2«!f'y:i3M:w io ^m« 

* ""i^ys Td^s p^^5< lyr^^^ 

■«:iDy:i^^i$ T^K D^^prD^ynsi^* lyr^cy^^^ PD yi«!ny2 ^ 
"iyDDyc'D"i«i"ii^nj{$^„ lyi .o^yn p^ovi^nD lyi p« lyD 
nymonx lyD^^i^DiyDiN* i^ d^d y^^ ^h^ Dt^n "Dyo^oi^p 
nyn iy;yii oy^v^DyQ pk i^y: pd ^ji^dj^t n lyD^stnyjj^t 
••n,, 'wiH ]^VD^'2i^ yDp^:^iy!D Dpyr n pd :iJiN^n2st3 
T^N ""T jyD^yn pa ^^yi^x Dyi d^d lyoyin^ /'p^or-Di^no 
•n .yDi^DnyipDH ^ lyiJixiic^i^D t^k -lyjjns'j^yiDmfef! 
nyi^j iyntDDnj^{< y^o n pa lyDnpyn "iyD:yT^vD nyDiy"i:in 
njetD^v 5< pK ly^isisy^j^ns! nyini iy:^n iyD^^3i{< yDDi^ia 
-••otr pD "Djyn^t,, y^fc<j«i^v5so n .D^^'^Dino^^nj^-DO p2 
-^yii^n PQ Dy^vb*To^:i«i yoj^^wn^D n ,DiyDDy^^ P5< oiyi 
iy^^Dynyi:j<j^D in lyj^n nyD^^nnrojy^i^n px Diy:^stj^ 



lis lynnryjj jjiisjyp ,1841 ,1 p^ro /"bKiintrTT DT^nis,, * 
-n3T» i'?iiy"i£„ ip ]iB ij:i:y"ipvD-'7Niyiyj ,]KD:'iyt:Kn n;n:KDpv^K 



rvDMi:,, Dyi D^yDt^'yjjyD^ti^ lyn^^n yD^yii ,Dy"':^^pj5:!;:ii{$ n 
■T'nD y^«PJ<i^ yiy^n iv Dinypy^oii? pnii; /'^ft§ji$^^;83 

•lym^p 
Dy^o,, Dyn ns ly^ists ni< iy:i^^DtJ' nyi iid v^ymi n 
"■•nj Dy-i p« TJi« Dr-'Viyn^t^ ,i834 tu 1830 pa "DT^JJ^-'JI^ 
yny^n p« DDSDy^ \v2i^r\ -iyo^uife§ n dj^ii Dyn:i«in3 lyo 
.lyii^tDyD-^DisP yiy^n o>^^ -iyD^^^:iiv :injiy"ijy to^: .iyy"i>^ 
-•nD y^^yii .lyoD^^isyi^^ jyiiy:i ^n lya^n :!:iioisn^n nyi pi? 
-SMK nyn^D^j^oin my ly^o « pn ^yo^n Dy^^j «; pa jyD 
n«: lyj-'n d:^^'?^ px ; iyt:D''^^iJ^D ^ytoD^^^^^vi^D ^iviv'?^ 
-sn ,1825 pD yjyr^xn^''^ yo^nc^m^^n >v\2V^t2Vi> n r'?^ 
.D^P^i^n p« p^nDD PD lyasi^ ytoD«i3 n d^o r^i^n tojysmi 
lyDsn PK "«n i»q lyo^^P yijy^n^n n in typyit^ D^^-njyo^'''^ 
in lyj^n njyD^ ; dd^i^g in^n ^n nyii ^{^^oddni ; ■'n 
■•n T8 .iMt^ lyrsy:! i^d .u^^h ^ynsiyPD pfc< opn-nyDJii?; 
lya^ii ytD^s n d^o lyiiy^ i^n:^{<i2ny lyrjyii lj^^dp^q tyj>n 
•lyyn^x yiyD^nn P5< v^: d^d tovij^n >n w^i^D >n lyii ,1^1 
r« nnoD lyn lyii to^'-v ^ i^i? n^^iiya iy:ij§^tj^y:i tyj^n ^n 
\^V)) iy:«^tj^y:i *ii^J ^n ty:y^D ^vn^^Q nyn n^in yjfe$Dc^y:i 
lynj^n ""n ts; rinyt i^^n i^yii i^d pk .tyo^-'V ytDDy^tj' pj? 
lyn^n ^n pn ,Dy^vni<iQ yjyiJ^s^i^Q v^v^''\ ty^i&<^iy:ipnw to"»j 
PN yiyjy^P ^n« tyiJi:ijyn£oti'j«t yiy^n DintD::yv3{<ip lymi 
"lyDJiK nynns nynt^i lyriD 1^0 -ly^y^^ yi«n!D^nnyi ^nvo 
•lyyi^K y^>j n iv ly^ipyj lyj-in -"n nr^ ni ly^n 
u)^^ Dyn iJ^j iyDipy:i lyj^n dj^iii lyD^''^ ytD:)y^ty n pn 
"lyDnt? t« t33^n:inyT toyn^^p pq lyt^QntJ^ n iyni<in ,1815 pis 
lyD^nns y^^ 1yn^^? Dyoni^Dn^^ px di^qj>^s ly^-'^jnyiiy; 
yijyK^iyn n pd 3:id^ii^q yijyD^^n v^f .in Dyjy 113 
lyD^mrtn^ n iv rysiiD'-ix yrj^^'nynanxDix yj^n ^lyoN^p 
^VTi^ D^nr"'^yn n nyii iv t^^yi ly^n iy:in^^5i«Q ly^t^n ^n 
PQ ^^:)8TtD nytj^^D^^^ts nyi pd t:)nn^aDJ^^? ryiiy:i tyj^n ,r^>i} 
yiyiitj^ px ryr^ns ysnn n tis ,y>vp^yi lyt^^rnj^p^-'-^tDJSJ lyi 



195 v'^^^'^ys yiy3i<^xi'?J5i^P ''T 

-:i2» DVi inn a:iD8tJ^sn lymiynvTJ^ lyn ns n« .py^^DK^ 
-^vni^iB-to^j Di?^p lyuyoPDnx le: * "Dy»jD>D-D:i^^vJ8i 
lyoma Dyn ns iyD:yvi^"iB n n^ix D2V'?Vi mn ivd^V)^ nyn 
FiM^neiD r« lyrivyjDMii? in n^x oii^n y^vsj n di^^ii nin 
lyoDjy^p lyi i^^sbt Di^n -ly^a^x y^^yt^ — non^o lyi p.Q 
-••S^'B lymy^^D ysrs nyDD^^:5§3 iv iyny:i :i:y: t^k ^n ns 
i>n iDiK lyoD^yn Dyi n^ix iyvi:ivDnx oyni;?? ni nyp^D 
-lyD^-nife? n lynj^ .ddsip yuys^nijij yD^^D^^^nsDoix 
p>p D«ii ,p^^3DiK IS ns lyLD^^y: ivnyn li^j ly^i^n lyos^p 
; iy2n:5<n do oijn d^^v "lyjy^ ns nyp^to^^^iJB lyD^^jnyiiy: 
y^^j n m lyrtj^so y^o n ns 3:^1^1 n tyiiy: t^k di^i 
v^'?^ n DyDDoisD lyni^n yD^yii ,y^v»pnne!2 ns lyni^^ya 
,nyniPJi^P na db^^ip -ly^^^Dnn lyDSBj^^x nyi D^t: lyij^oyD 
-j^^s: ^n n« T^MijyBiDtJ' tDii^ "ly^n iyony:i{§B iv t:i^D^:» 
n PB lyoynyDJ^K n d^d :iJS!f'PJ^^8 pk lyostBiv pn lyjy^ni^ 
nyrii^i nyn pd nijmp n .tDinnsn iyn«n ^n Dijii ^yt^'jya 
D^n lyj^^K lyiy^ .lyB^n^sn oji^pyj do oy lynt^n :iJ0^^5i^iy 
; i^n^ D^8 Dn^N d^d lyoipyjit^B T^i< Di^i^ Di^i DD^Niiy; Tn^3 
T^« oy Di^ii iy:«DtJ'iy!B Di^n — D:s!pnns!B {< — rn^n iso i^^{< 
-«n lyi ."os^ PB ynDDn:^K "w^:^: lyi d^d lyoipynt^B 
-^D''^«B T^« isBiyi PK -tyn^t Diynj^n iyiiy:i t^k mo -^vy^ 
\vw^ "lyty^ yj^n pt< royai^p isb t^x dh)^ >v'D^''\Pi$r2V'] yc^ 
i{<T^"'n SI ni nnyo do d^^? lyj^K^ny dh^k n^iiB T^st"Pt<"Dy^» 
DiDjy3^^>?-"irDsnyBi$i$p nyn« ,y^D8"ip{^Dy"i ny^ynDDnrx iv 
nyBDjy "lyi pn ii>*p yD^yii ^ynDonrx pb ^i^idji^p p« 
D«!"ii /lynDonrx v'?^ px y^vi§iyBi^«p nytJ'^DJ^Ji^py lyn n^iK 
-a^B lyi PN ynyrtrsD -lyn inn n«iiy:i DDsinyiD^nsi vi< 
lyooyiDMis n:yDt^ tinx dj^h yD^yii pn y^v{<TOj<3"ii^-pn 



-:t« yt2KnnB ]tk iy;:n';yi ]i5 iKisy; tanyn dkt m ,i:;!::ysKiB 



"Din n tyi^y; ,iJ^io tosi^iyj D^n \vd Di^)\ ,ife§T y^jj^iy n t^n 
,T>N Dy lyD^yii nyo^^T ,ryTy:i DiJ^syi lyoMi; ^ no :iJnn^D 
no nyn:isn nyoa^n^ynyj lyn iy:y^y; .lypj^ny: yiy^n px 
-D»j ytDnytDD^"':iyn inyD yj^n nx lyiiJ^ ojnynjy -iy^^^vi<iD 
Ts: ,Dr^viyn^x iyr.y:i \v:''t ,tD^n lyo^ni^ lyj iiQ ny:i^j^D 
n»Q nyto^nnu? n iid :i:irj^''i?nkN!2 yr^Mrno yD^^D^yn^^ i{§ 
n DD8Dy:i d^j^i^ ,iyQ^^frn3 y:^n d^i^ ,iypyii^ yivtopn^^-is 
-D^yi"n5§2 « "i;t?D DDstj'^yrya nyi na y^v^fj^itjni^ yci^-'to-'^i^Q 

•i^T yrtoD^ioix :i^DyoD>j 
rx lyni^p-i^nD y^D-insi^n Di<iirii<tJ n no :iJiK^ntDjy n 
Dy^V8T^J8:iii§ n DTi^^y;nyn^« Dt^in ,1825 hd ^nn:yo^T1^? nyn 
.yiny^ nytD^na ny^n^^sn nyi n^D D^njy:!iv Dt^^p-nyo^uiN hd 
PK D«iii„ .tDQi^ lyn r^? Dnynt^y:! lyni^in lyoij^oy-i y^^!;^vi^D 
■jjy iiD tyostD n na D^^pjypjny:i nyn n« i2v'?i} oyn i^^tj^ 
lyrj^-ifc^,, ,nyDD8n}<[^n lynDD^j^soyn ^ Da^nti^ /'p^j^q lytj'^^ 
ly^^toiyiB v'?^ na ni ldi: nrj? /lytoD^t^' y^^ na lytJ^jyo m 
-i:)D>^j ,yDo«55n-pn^v^n nyDiys ; iyi>n p^x ri< lyo^^n ni< 
iyn^^:iiD^n nyDDn V'-\v::iVn n« ynyn^j ^lytoj^nDD^:!^^ ,y3^^ 
:i^jyp "lyn ,D:yD^^n5§3 pk ivv^r] yi^^n pa lytD^n yi^u nn« 
lyjyDDtD^so^ 4yL}D''^^n«iD ,y^v^j lyn iv lyoy-n^ yj^n i^x 
Dyoyn ,fc<Di:i lyti^^jyayt^'^n yon^^ n y'?i:v pn ; lyaj^T^^^^Q 
px mn^p *."i^^nynD''ii5nix p« inn in pyn oy iy:ii<;^p 
Dsnn n .tD^''njy:!y^y:! vvi^iv n D^ny:i lynt^tn Diy»i}^ayi n 
D^^v lyn pi? jyDSi^pnyD^m^ n pq y^^f«T^Jls;;^J$ ytj^^D-'^^^s 
•2i^ in Di^in ,"i3py^«iiQ Di^^syi,, Dyi iss y^v^D^:is iyi pd 
-mo v:i''?^v lyni^n i83i p{< .m^p-i^ntD » d'?^ \V2')r]V2 
,DntDD ^^^iii$ Pi? /'Tnn-^n„ ly^n i^n to^yo^iin^Q in ony^ 
"m^jp Di^nD i^D^^KS{;?niDyo„ i§ iyi:n:! iv ,DntDD nt^aopj^ 



(.12 ,1833 ,lNnJK'7) ."Dy»!f«: ynni y,z i:>»!:rs»TS iytr'i2>'7NQ px 



197 V^^'^^V^ V-\V:i5''^l'?«''lV"^ •'T 

nn^K nnj< ,;yDnyj-iyo:iN nx lysss y^i< I't pn iyDny:j>n{< 
-»p nD m^s lyoD^n^ynyj i§ ,Dy^vpJiD y^i'^DD^ji^^jr-i^nD 
•D'o^ n^D y^vs;D^:« yt^^D^^«3 8 nx y^vpniijnB lyirostnysfc? 
iD^n /oyii^^^ n^^'?')) na d^^d:^^8 oyn nyoJix "iyn« .oDyn 
•iD^n 8 ii$ yriy^^K y^8 osit^ti'isiQ iy3^:irK ^y^v "lytDvy^ lyn 
; nt^iiy: lyDiijinsD iy:^n ly^y^v ytj'^DD^ji^j^jvi^ntD pn n 
-nyt:j^n px ty^^sy^prnv ly^^n iy::nynDC' yj^^tDD^^yiiJ^ n 
n ns l«!'Jv y^8Ji5^V8: n,, lyo^iJ Dyn "iyD:i« m ; ojn;} 
("Dyoy^p :irpi«iiT n i^i^ li^^jr ^sJiiJt^y:") "lyDs^p-iyD^^m^ 
oiytD^nny:DM« Diy^«DD no toDsc^^yry:) y:yi^^t^yn n tt Di^n 
"tj'n^nrji^D nn:yo» lyjnp iv y^v^i^j^^ii^ ^y^^JJ^^v^: 8 pk 
Di^n yD^yT8 d^8 -("lyjyo yjyops^ny v'?^ 182 to^yvD^tDK^) 

1832 PK 1831 PD DI^IDC^ iyt5'''lD^^«l5 Dyi PQ ^M^ISD PK M 

-18 PD yDD^t^'yJ nyi p8 tDii^ lytoDrtDD^ii Dyn ly^iJisa 
ty^iy: ^^^d lyoDyu div t^8 px ,Dy^v8T^J8ni$"D8^p-iyD^''n 
iy:^n dj;?ii lyniio^x n m y^v8D^:8 lyn pn o^ypnn^Q 
."Dpy^j^iB Di«iDy-i» Dyi o^d iyi:m8D 
,ty:J8Jy:3in t^x m lyoipy:) t^x "topy^i^ia Dit^syi. lyi 
ny:nj^i nyn pa :jipn"'ii n ."DDy1o^Dt^' y:^^oy:^8» d^j nyni^ 
-''^«B nyDD:yDnt^'y:o1lJQ nyi pa D:yn n nn jjitj'^Djy 
,D>^5'S d^d:81d P3 lynnt^^n oiyi^ n:^'? px ^^di8S lytJ'^tD 
-i^HD nyi PD iyt:38n{^8n lyro^n 8 \ii$^\)v:i I8i t^8 ny^^yii 
IM t38n (1833) nn8^ nyn» .: nT8 r:ijijyr.83 ■lyt^'^DD^:i^>:r 
-18 n p£) \H^:v (y^8J8^^8J) n n:yTi^^iyn^8 ,^:i''\2vv:i 
-D18 n jjiD^DtJ^ nyDpmy: pi8tDi^ 8 p^< (iyD8^P-nyD>^3 
iyi^8 tDiyniij"! ris n^^iiy:! Dnyisyj lyj^n di^^i pny^ yrjn 
-jy:>>8 T'^D£86^':^^oy; m \vvi^^\i^:'>'<}2v: lyjyn y"iyi:8 pk 
— ,\v^y)) li^: li^p e^jyo 8 Di^n r^8 P8 ystj^ 8 iy:iyii ; did 
iy:yii ; ny^-nyo p8 d^o"i8 r]V^ ny^D "i8D tm^d d8i P8 
-DD8tJ'j>^Dya lyi pD p^n 8 iv ]v^:v^ lyny^ ps oDyi di^i 
-IV 18: D^n iy D811 IV r^8 ^^8 toDyn pn P8 .iiv ^vt'? 
-J1K D^nr^^yn n ps dd8d lyi ty^yii -rs^^vn ym ojy^y: 



^«T D«ii n^ 8TS fi^ix nytD>ui« Dyi iid to^yn D«n lyjyn 
DD8 18Q lyD^^Pij^^Dy^^pyn y^s yrrn n nx dh-'n lyny; 
ns w^v ns lonyn D«n lyjyii ;io^>ni8 nyt?^ tnyv nyit^ 
-j» T^N Dy ni rV)'? 8TS "IV nx :iJirtoDy6^'^n iv tyn^^DD>>i 
noD iy:^n dji^^i ,iy:D8T yD^^jny yiyi:fe§ n« — pJ^iiy: lyr^iiy;} 
na ,D3i^^jrnyt}^ui5§ yt^'"'D^^«a n ns n^iiy; D'iTn'ynyn^« 
-D«3 v:i'''?P Vi< w\'-\iv^ lyiiy^ lyj^n m iy3n:i yj-'^^p id s 
iiv)) tDDnpii$2 iy:iy^D y^^yn aytocnt^'-ji^D m wdv'?^ 
— lyDSD n r« \'^v)'\ D^nsti'isiD n« 'jys 5§ "i^Q n^yiiv 
n .nyiD^^nns n ^^n ...D^n s i«i p^d^^^^iq Dpny:i5j^ lyaj^n 
"sn nc \'\i$))v^ tynnt^^y: y^^ t^yoD iy:>n lyDy^sjoss y:in«n 
rt< :J^^yt^t^' yo^iiy:! s iyDi:i«D iyn«in yD^yii lytj^jyo yonyii 
DnniD ,tyi::»Pnnfe§Q ,yr^yi8 ,iy^{§J«;''DyD^n3 : D^yi^ lyi 
DStD^'uyn nyn .lyofe^iyD^^ ty2ny:i oj<in lyo dj^ii \v^:v^ m 
■ajy pN iyt3>^m8 n iid ^^^d nyoMiJ n^:i ^ t^ .lyiiy: t-ik 
^11 ,:iji:^^viyn^i< lyn iv iyoipy:i lyj-'n u^^D^t^ nx n:^^ 
T^i^n T^K Dy T8 ,ty^yto5j'"i«D tDD^^^ Djt^py:! Dy in Di^n jyo 
18 i»J D^J /tyrip IV nD lyry^t^iss in ly^i^r ^>t rtjnj 
D^^nns inx i«t:) ,3:nyDyn-?n^ yrDy^D^jD^yni^a yj>"'oy:i^i$ 
,Dyn t^K m tortonj Di^ii ,niD nx I8» .oyj-'-'X tyny^ 1^3 
-sn ^n D«n vv\'i^ yrtj^i n .iyi:iD^"DtD^m8 yviip ld^o 
n« iD"i« fe§T8 finx DJi^^jr-Di^ntD pi< in nn^:8:ni^ iv D:iyii 
*."DDiKiiy:i ^j^»:^^p nyn« t^n toj^n lyo Di^ii nsiJ ^t^ iv 



Kii'fiy:? :j:nyn'?'8' ya^'i'jny i« .27797—290 .Dii«D d»''?9 * 
Dontyn .86 .T ,p''j'« DiTN ]is /'tsyiiN'? DK^'jm UK CI''*?,, i^N in 
:Dj;i3y;i'rKS ,1832 ,nyni2j?tD£3j;D lytaS ,DKmNnn mij'b li? tan'nir ^to 
Dynxyia n m ,Dpy3''?nyB' dniiidj? ij;'?yiaB'nNS iDmN.a nn ]yp iyo„ 
,lui2iK nyn ...p'i'KS tytsDNis Di!J nxny:; isjinyisyj iyi"T dnii 
n ps iDsy") DyT i:;jyn /]« lajrtD'n tasjKS'nnx'? ny« ly^'jyn tinx 

ta'O r'^M PN ,0'EK1B ,]M^ n3«'? pS lVl3pnK"lB y'i'K e]nN 1j:!2''l"IK 



ry^y^v yc'^DD^j«^Jvi^no V2''?:r]vw^ ns j^^oyj lyi orj 
lyL^'ny:;y: Dyi no D1y^:?^t^'yJ ,iy;jnyntDi^ yc'^DD^jioyp hk 
Iyp-lfc$Dt^' » m "lyji^Mio^SD lyt^^DSJ^D s pQ Dpj'iBn:^^:^ 
yjynnDiyn^K-iDO 8 n6^'D« t^k *,"yDi<p-pi^„ lyi pk pdkd 
-«"iB iy:y^LDD^:y^i» "lyi P2 "iyDP{<-i5<D avi pa iJi^yoti'-ii^D 

-Dnn{$ D«n p« nn nv2V' Pt< Dst^pnyo^^niK pc onyin^D n 
Di^n y^^yii /oyDnsi^^^D pa y^^^in yDm: y:y^ lyanyj 
-«^vfei!J lyonij,, Dyi PD DP1K11 lyrryn nvi D2^r)V: t'?:^v^ 
■ife< y^yiio^ipn:iyi pa lyyons! yD^^D^^^;n«Doi« yj^n pn "^»j 
"Kn Dyn DiyDym»2 Di^n n dj^ii D»n -ly^ns pk lytD^u 
yiDi: 8 iyiiy:i pqd ^^n t^« ,D8^p-"iyD^uiB: Dyi pa p^ddikii 
■psns lyn px py^nys n pa lyj^^p Di^ii ^in-i^a-px-is isr 
-y:) D«n lyiii^ iyn« •lyDsiiii'syi d^j Ii^P p^cpsd "lytj^^D 
Di^"i ^yn^'-n ^i^ nTfe$ pk ; lyvij ^ii di:i nrs \vih^ iddsid 
18T p^p ^^>ii — ,Dn^« li^j lyny^ ,ytDDy^t^ d«i pk ytDu 
pyii» T^K DV T8 /ly^i^T t:^j lyo \i^? pjoyj tDfcjn lyiii^ di^ii 
tD^o iy:yp82 iv tt rt^n: t^x — ,Dn^x d^q tyo^pv nsp px 
"DS! ."lya^^m^aoMK ^yo^n^ v^nv'^ nytr^t:D^jt^^:r-"T^nt3 pn 
-iy lyn d^s ot^n "ly nyn DjyD^^vy^onx m iy toi^n tytooyn 
3J^ii;jtD8D lyriDaynp d^d ,ynt:Dnj>« pa i^o^sfciip "lyjyineia 
yD^yii ,nmo-Djyny^ nyi pia :iJipn"nytoj'n8 v:v' ooj^msa 
-"•jix p« ]V2')'?: lypistDt^ Dyn pa oso^iry-i "lyn iyiiy:i t^k 
lyaoypsn w lyn^i^j Dyn dij n^ p« .rjyiiP:i^P ny^^^pyii 



■DMK y;**?'! y:yt3«nK5 n .DT'e«:K5 prjniytsiy'^iB ps nys cyi 
ys'byn oycn^iK n ]is cap ijrjj;-!! ynxyts n v-''i?iT r« ^IV-**^ 

iD'?Kn p'7«B DHT ys^yiT Tin ,u*'7«np pyiiK jt'^n pk ij^::it2''!j 
ft /"?'D oa^'B'Tn,, D']»yn) ."pyii '^ly^py^EnN ivd;«2 !::Kpi» 

(.1882 iki:k^ ,363 



• 

n^nD PK :ijnyjvyTy:i iin lyD-'-'nis n pq n:niD-Djyny^ n 
-Di^Qj^^s n iy:i«iiy:i d«i iy D«n ,D^\':':i^DyD iytj^^DD^j{^>ji^ 
yoniy:! pq nnx n«j /lyst^noJs^^D pa n«iJ to^j ,yv^D:j^ yn^n 
■yn PK ,mr] ny ^i^^n Dyoyii 0^0 aytoJi^iipnnsQ yrDi»DMn:i 
ny^8J»^V8J i»Q DQSEJ'^yTy:!,, n tDynjn;iy:i ,1833 iyn»y^ 
■»i lyn PD :is^tj^i«Q lyDDir^-'j^Qyi lyi '*."oTinyrnynni 
^^i« D^^^-DD^^m^ nyn pq :ijivi^pi^d n ,D£3fe$tJ>^yty:i lyrt 
PD :i8^{i^i«D Dyi IV Din^syj dj^i to^n ,:i^d » nytj^ ddis 
lyjin n^^iii^spjs^ PQ lyto^ms-^y^i^n n tyD^yi^ ^inx ,iyn^y^o 
-t:D» 18 nsD p"»nDD-^i§iyjy:i DyjyjJi^yro^J ly^n p« D^ns 
y:j8^ n lyQny^DMis inx mn dj^t .:i«D-DD^^nnfeii ry:injiiotj' 
^^DDpyiD n PK "tyDyiD^Di^p tD-'^roD^^nn^ yviip,, pa vn^''^ 
-yj i^^n:)y to^^n oy y^v8D^:i8 yD^^i^onyoi^ oyDyii ,DnyDty 
lyD^yii /'ryty:! lynj^tDC^ io„ oyn pd jjionyjji^ nyn 1^f oin^a 
-yrpnnsD nyo^n^ "lynij? pa n^inji? "lyn lyiiy: pi^n r^t? 
■y:i T^K m)H t^ ,iyT^ii;j$n n^^^p toi^in yt5D>try:i n jjinyj^^yr 
.p>D''^i^B-DtD^"'ni8 pn PD ^>^D Dyn tDi$ t^« ly^iyj DDyi 
•»D^K 18 t:i^r]v:i l^x Di^sn P^io^^^ia-DD^^nis pn iyni$ 
.:iaipi^i^ yDS^n^yD^m^f 8 Dsny; mr) yD^y^i ,D^n ytj^^toD^s 
ni^iiy:i tossDi^s tD^yinyD^^ni^ n t^n di^dj^^s t^n nyD:ii< 
-Dnn-D''j 8 PK iy^8Qy3j''n8 t^k m nn:i8n iyrtD>^voi« t8 PS 
nn Dsn ny .yvsT^j^^n^ iy:3^^tDD8K^5'yTy:i pd is^q n^nnn^D 



l«;nK in'N d^n tt^n:;:? n aNn taa'itr D^r m .1833 ,7 nynov^yi 
DE^n »m ii« n^«nyn ^m,, i^axi d^tt id'd tisntriyrNii y:n>JVB « 
-ns ]iN I'T t^ji's:;;! ip^ou j;3''?tDj; njra^^ru pu /'niDon^'N iik 

.55 .T ,"Dpn t^pn Dontrn n« cin"?,, ])h asjxty'i'yTy; np tax 



201 VT«5"'"^ys y-iy:y'':ii^^Tiyn n 

8 T^K D^^v lyi no o^^PDn» y^^^nyiMK^ n rs /lytMiyjjij 
iiD t^sD^uyn nyD^^i^^DiSDoifc< "lyn ,:iJ^j^^tJ'ny y^^oi^ji^py y>o 
-nMinj^K iyD^^D"i«tnD:8"ife<DDiN nx nyniPJ^P ^vor:i''\'ivyo'': 
yrTJ^i n nyn ,iy^D^D"DJ{:j^vpni^iQ n ps rnsa ly^y 
DPSBDi^p n«i nx ly^'t^ ny^^nyjoix n^ny: lyj^n ly^^^o 
rDDMD-'iK lyi lyDJiK \v^:vd lytDnyuin lyrDcytJ^stn iv :ijyj 
,rDD^tD n^^iyn:i«iT nt^ iviyn li;?: iy:^n yD^yii ,y3^:^^K pd 
.pnstD na lyvjs:):^^^ lyi^ioyo y-iyt:^y n lyn^nDi^D \V2HP i^ 
-p8is » ns DPJ^siJ^Dti^ Dyi na rsi ,pn nno nyn« pd lyo 
-fc?: '?vo'2^ lymyjDMis inx in iy t:j>*n ifejDDD^^Dc^ lytj'^D 
lyD TK ^D^yDK^yjii^D in mns^ lyii;? ,^?:v'^Vi oj^n ny lyii ^ivk 
DitDjyr^« ty^^^oDsti'^yTyi-i^D n^ nyniPJi^P lycsti'st^ \t^? 
ly^ytr Di^ii ,Dy^v«^v«Dtf! yr^nrna pd 3:nn^:^jnij nyn nn 
Dyi m "lyo^ojyr^K-pnn^Q n na r»^3 nvi iyony:ii§D 
-yosi pK to'T'nnByjDnK DjyonysDpy Dyn o^^n iy .t:e!{<Dtj^ 
nyn pn /'y^jj^Disn rj,, yn:^^»y:i lyoonnyin lyn o^o spn 
toDsay: j^omiyn^K d^^v yomy:) s "i^a dh^k oi^n ^sDDin 
nyn pc dh^k t:«in jjit^n^jy pn nyni<t .Dvi^'r^v: n isq 
-^nyn lyti'-'tDpsiis lyrvj^^x lyn Dn^^ii /D^na^n d^j yni^^K 
ritn'nyn^K lyoijy: in oijn iy d«ii /lyiiy:! t^k paiyn dsio 
.Di^^jvn^ntD n to^D DjyonysDpy nvi 
-n^'a iy»i:y: iyDD^ji$"'Jvi^nD n iyn«n ynny^ pn lytDJix 
un lytj^^D^^tjB-D^j Dyj^^oy:^« is inn ,i^^jyn vi< oy ts .lyi 
n lyvn^pisD m Pi^ oyi nyDyn iv ny^^mrpi^ n pd 
Dijii» ,DnK in Dpm d^>5'S m /'nmo i§ iv» D^^vo^^ms 
yvjy;: n iyny:iy3 ^n ,Dni$ d>^^ lyviip nsd 8 pk /tD^«tn 
,iyt:^^ni8-sj;?p oyi pq y>vpJiQ n ."D^ms ly^n pa nojDn 
PN n«iiya tyoijyj o^j t^« ,iyni:Dnj^i< tia 1^?tDSlT^J5<:1i^ d^8 
yntDDiu^N ^yiistn lyn pn 5'^>ii ,ii<2iyi i^^^yo /tDSsiDsn 
rn^n n tD^y^stj^ ,(iy:iyDi{<2 » toDsoy;! t^yin lynyt lyD^yii pn) 
-«1B yiri:pni;jis yiD^^pim n pn y^i^i ynjyt^^nNnoiN i5$ 
l«j) in WW nv:v^ d^d bs i^^DyrtDBnn in o^: pn lyoy:^ 



Dfi^'^im'^ntD lis ytD:D''trv:i 202 

iyt5^^DD^QijDii< lyn p« D^y3'^y:i d^j v'?i^^ p^p D^iisui 
n .onyiDtJ^y:! D«n "i«^JVDi^nD n„ lyD^yii iv ,p^^niayn 
"81 lynny-i lyj^n lyD^sunsQ n« lyDo^^so^Q^P yi^i^Donpy 
MT8 nisi ov rs^a oyDyii ^Diys^DisD d^s pJi^iiy; dd^sid 
nyDynonsQ yD^nyiny n tis pyii iyDi:n«D i^^jyo mi iu 
-ijD nyn .iyi^^n«ii3 na oy^vs^v^DS v'?^?h'? vr'?'))'>'^Q na 
n na ny^y^s n ly^nyjisD i:^ 18^3 lytj^^Do^^s^v^iD nynyn 
"DiK iyiiy:i t^t^ ,t:s8DtJ' iy"ii$ Dyo^^«3^v^JiD lyi na yDQS^i 
■"lyanyp y^Jy"^^:yn y^«P«^ V?^ lyii yn^nys s pk n8np:yT 
m rnysDifc? d^s DDi^nsin iyiiy:i i^^Djysy lyj^n lyoDstJ^ 
-a-'^ij 18 WWi ^'w^^ vi< D:yD8^i8B lyi pk .oi^Dsn^p 
,iy:ii$^tj'yni^D oi^n miH om DytDD^D oyn nyDJix .y^Dis 
-•'•'K DJ^i ny^i D^«Ty:i lytDjyDnDDJ^x-Dj^^vpn^iB n ryni^n 
nyD0''DtJ'8n nyi tis i«:J .yij^^oyj iyv:8:i nyn pa d*": ,DiDjy3 

/'Dy^J8SD«p y^8:)«"'V8^, i^k nyii D^ynjsinsa D^i^jryj tyi 
"p^^:v niD^ipnji^,, n .y^vspnn^a yvjs; n lyn^niD^n i^ 
n PD i«^jr n njs^ D«n rtsn pk ly^nyj tD^i^Ty:i D«n 
-nsD n — DW^v 5'^tDDpyD n ,iyj>D n — lyD^^m^jyj^D 
"sn t^n pa nyii Dnn^ay:i3J<! D^^rya D«n T'nD nyny^ .lypn 
."tj'nK^ DMn3„ p-'x PK tDin^^8iojyv ,ii5>jr-n^ntD nyiDD^Dtj^ 
DT^^8^v«D Dyn iy3:yiniv:^n8 Dyn«na D'jyii« y^8 pa 
isa .yDD:iny n lyiiy: lyan yn^ns n pk ^p^tDPsna lyn t^t< 
DjyDDrjyii t^« Dny^y: :i:8^ d^j lyni^n y^^yii ,Dynj^^oy:i y:^n 
■^n lyv^jyn^ yjy:i"'^« v'iv'>''i px di^ii : iijin^itj'tojy n iyiiy;i 
■••v^D yr^^p ynon^aa^''^: n:yD65^^ia t^n D^jjrya -"n lyn 
":)y:iyp P''P t^n D^i^Ty:i do -"n p« tDt^n oy .tytDstsDtJ^ yti^^DD^^s 
lyifc^n nynipj«ip pk ^nyDso-D^ayiia m ; omv ymyrya 
-Dn^nD,, nyn pk nyn« .pyii D^D^nsn iyvJ8:J^« D^^rya 
ajir:)^''Ki8a ypi^n n vinn /DDsayja-tiK n dj^h iy ni /'i«or 
/lyi^vn^na yivDsiyai^i^p d^8 n^nio 8 p« lyto^^ns y^8 pa 
-18a 8 Ml ,nyiiPJ«P v'pv'i^vo^p tDa8tJ'y3Sij do nT8 dpjib 



203 yib'^"^y5 V-iy:t5^:^T?i5Tiy'^ ^T 

t^irrtosMn yDsts:^'^ is: mi "^nvro do lyny:; "irT*ii;ii^-DM"i:» i^n 
iyvMj$3 Di^n /'lyDssc^^yiyriy^vp^ yt:jo^^«"i5$D» vyw\ na 
DO lyj^n nx -ynDDnrx ny^n p« ly^D^o-ojiij^vpni^ns y^i§ 
D^s D25<u^^yry3 lyi ns ^{^"id:«:p i^^p *iyD:"iK lyDiynnyDJix 
IV lyD^^ti' 1^ Vi^'? 8 r« tyiiy:) lynnyn lyD^i^jii ^n .yvji$i 
n ns nyD>^3i« n lyDnyjrns m lyn^n v^v^t d^>v nyny^ 
,r")^ iyn:nnipji>*p s nss yD^yD:^'y::iJ d^{< rn^a nnn y^o 
D^'o iDix ^T« ^nx ;njyE:s:^'e;n ,iyD^»n-iy^vPi§ d^s d^^dk^^k 
-«-i5 Dy^o 5§ n« Dj<^p iyti^^DD^^t<D^s5<P nv: 8 moc^ p^x 
DnyD^^n-iy^vp^ yosn^sti'-DO n ^oyey it^j m .D^nsiDy^ 
IV HD ,Dy^vpt?; v^vi lysMpnsD lynnnyjji;? ly^oj^x lya^'ijn 
TK I21K fc?T5? ?iM« n« ,^SD^3^P ny^n lyuyiitj^iiiiD iy:yp 
•^513 Dy^o Dyi p« ty^i§2J^^^» lynrp y-iy^n d^o Dyj^^i< 
l->:^'rvp^ y-iyrnyD m v^'^VDr]v:^v^2)i^ n nya ; D^n^Dy^ 
IV nD ,Dy^vpy! yjyr^x v\vi dq^pissq mts dpjis lyD^i^ii 
an .Di^no yD^^^yiDJ^^s inyo ii<D:yDi^a no -ynyiJK lys^p 
t> nx D«^p iyc'''DD^^SD^£t5P 8 ni^J DO D{<ny:i i^D lyD^j^ii nrs 
D^Jijii T'^i2V .vnv2 yui^^ipysD s inx li^j ,Di§n8Dy^i^i3 
-•^«ii!<s» n jytj^Miv ^Dfc§PT:yiiPJJ^P i? iv lyoipy:) in« oy 
tysiDti'iVDms tonnyj lyD^i^ii y^^yii /'DJi^ovty^vpst vo:^: 
.iy:i:^^^^D5J^-ynDDn:i''fc< yjy-i-'^t^'n^Q na v^vi:^ n y:^^K 
-yj .lys^e^ v^^v'i'?'n \v::i^f2 V2'?V)) nv')T^'^ n ryD^^n >nsi 
mn Dsyt^yj t^x ^n d^d nnipjfcjp lyDsio-^'yDyp n t» ,iy:iQ 
-y:i lyii^ lyD^^jn >n n« jys^ti' yjiyr^^s iyD5§D ^n dj^m oyi 
^stD^B^p-iys^t^T^tijn ly^n ry^i^sin^s nyii^ ,iny:)nyD:i^K dtid 
nynPJ^iP 8 t^x tyr^^i^j^n^ nn nt< ^j^D^st^p-iya^c^-tyT^^s; px 
-oy-i T^« iyD:yiipji^p v'^v^i^wr^HP d^» onyD^o-^yoyp n d^o 
'2^ lyiifcj iM D«n D^^piyiiK^ nyrr^-i iy-i nnt? .n^niD lyn^yr 
I^iorn^nD lyn px iyD«iDy3:^ns t^k ^y nys lyonDt^ya 
nn tyn^?n ^Dr-in mi mt^ D^j^r^yn ,ty3xQ n ^^••ii ; a:i3yiij<3 
-r^DPJ^s "ly-i yjOD D>^njyjy^i^D iyri:yD5J^ » r^« lyjiny: 



Dr'':ij?'':n''-TntD ps j;ta3''ty5;:i 204 

"•.toy^^Di^D 'Diyrii^tJ'n,, iytDyijn;iyr"'0 lyi n£3 iy:3^n->i^pj^D 
lyjnyryjji!? is lynyj t>« lytoyipyD oyoyii) i«i:it8^j pk 
ly^^jyn^ivQj^ iv)\^ ^nv^ iyopy:ij» -"n t^n oy ts /(DD^jyiii^ 
"jy^yi^D-n^jytj^tri^ pk lyo^uis^ynyD n iy:yp is!q ly^n 
lyD^uis v^'i^vo vo'))Vi Ts; .DyDsnnsi \V2i^n y^^y^i nyD5<:D 
iD»n DT^^si^^J^D D'jynj$ ,niP •'•n n tj^iyusi-tD^j iy:iJ«!^sn 
T^K ^v:i'?V'\) .18^3 tytj^^iopj^na s lyj^^tj^iviJ^Q Din^cyj Dn^« 
iyiiy:i y'?^VD d'?h)) oy lyii ,nx t^-'toD^^s^v^D iid d^^i lyiiy:; 
D^^j^Q D>>PD^^p-i^"n lyn p« ny d^^ii ,nn^DivD-in Dn^« 
tD^j ptDi^n^ /n:)^^ ns ^sto^ss^P dj^t D^^^Dyjiynji§j«D-pniv 
.nynD^D iytj'"'DD^^^D^Qfe?P nvi i^i:v^^^Bi^ ^viH :in:^vi2V 
"lynix tyD^n:i^n d«ii n ii§D ij^^p ^it5§ pn toyn r^s oi^i 
,rynn^:i ty^yii to^j ^n in toyii oy ti$ ,DyioD^D lyt^^^DD^^sD^ssp 
ni DD''^8to^Q«p lyD^nj^^iDiy n« ly^yinscny nyjii^p j$t8 is 
ny D^ni ni tinx .t3Piyo5§n lyn^jn DtJ'-'Jii^a d^i ^«t 4yiii^ 
tyanx n lyD^oisQ iv i^^D^nn^i -^j^d v^t o^d tyjjsjyj t^k 
nyn^K toDys rijy^n ,Djyjy:!sn oi^n iy 0^)) lyD^^'^'iyn^' tiM« 
tyDST lytii?^ nyi^^K lyoyn t^n :!jnynjy ytoDjy^p n rs ,d:i^''^^ 
iynj$ T^i^ ov ; ly^yDtj^i^a d^p in lyo li^p ^lyj^n ^n ni 
s tD^D to^yi:»ny3 iy toi^n ^^^d iytDDyi:i div tsi ny^n ns:) 
iy Di^ii ^\:y3 ruyoni ^'<: dik^b ,nj"iD iyoi3 lyjn^yDK^^is 
DQ^iP iyi iVN lynn^a iyDv^jy*^i,i{!?n»"iN ts t:i^nv:i mr\ iy .did 
nnx PK ;iyDp;sib*3 ;i2 :i:n^oii^Q iyi ^'>)i< :ij'i.i^viy pq 
tiQ nnQi!? t« Iy:){$1st^'1fe§Q li^j D«in \^'?b p« oy lys^yii 
tyny:i i^ 3i:ya pn ^{^t d«ii d^^v j? ^inx i:y^y t^« D''"'pDni$ 
in p^« lyn^viy iv D^''pD>^:iy» s iy:i^h^D3^: yj>n pi< dh^k 
n tyT«^wiyn>« D^na tyiiy: iy t^n ,i:«^ tiQ lyu-'P n pa 
iy^8i«iD iy>^j,, iyi isd iy:^«D ytj^^DJ^ji^py y^s pa mv'>'? 
D^«!ii :ijin^viy lytj^-'DD^jyiiJ^ pq in iyi Di^ dj^ti /'D^yii 
DDyist^i^D ^y^Q nts ts ,DPJiy3 pqd ^^3 Dt^n iy .lyDfejtj'sn 
-Dn^ii^D D--: iy Di^n iviyi m ; "li^^JVDi^nD n„ dh^k 
tiQ lyD^^y: Di^n iy .lyDii^tD^nyi yt^^^D^ij^^py yin>« tnytyj 



205 V'^^'^V^ y-\p^^:ii^^r.yn ^i 

nto^DD Dyn5< >u iy:-ii^3 )'i iytoD>^8^:^i^D iid nnn onn^cy: \V2 
tD^oiK T8 ,yni^yD y^^^sQ n iyDD^Di^:i^py "ytJ^^D5§^p„ n r.N 
nytD^^n :njynyj t:^j /tDiy^i ns -iyDi<i^s:n nyrvj^^x ny-i tn 
iyir^D«:ispy pynyi^^r n« iyD^^:yn«nmt< Dy:y^ lyoip^n px 
■:?v'?^\> pa p^DC'^ypjm ynsD ivi t^,« "lyDpyii ,ryryro:yi 

.y^Di$:ijpy lyirtD 
pn ^n lyoijy: ly toiijn y^oiijj^py y^^o^^i^s pn 

"18D ,Dpnii!D ^istp /i^D^n "lyonn: D':^PDi^^nj^n pk ppDtj'nijn 
,w^viv: tD«n PK /Dijut^'n y:^n y^s pn ryryrD^yi ayi inyr 
"\^., nyi tD^o is: nyii lytoDi^oy: iy:«!P lyDiyirt^^iD y^« tj< 
-y^ IV D^^'^royD nyt^^^tDD^jyiis nyi pd '?''d ^ ."d'^'^'dd'^i 
'1^ P2 :i2)2v^v nyn i:^d DT{^^y:DM« ti^^DP^a m dj^h o^^v lyj 
"'D PK pj^nyj DD^Dtj'{<a iy:^n lyr^ns n ij^ii ,iyn«Ti<rDD^u 
pini< lyijyiniiiD pd lyo Di^n d^^v n Tfe§ ,DPi$D nyi -lytDi: 
pnsD rcnj? ly^P^Dis yDK^jmyj y^^^jny ps iy:jy-in ayi 
n^it»>nyD:iw ly^^^i^tosj Dyi Dn^ iyn^^tj^-1^2 ny pi< ld^j t^k 
Di^ii ypyito:^ lyi pn ,iynsn oyi pa t:>^':5is!ntDD'nD lyi px 
lyii^ -ijfe?^ yt3^: "IV D^^'^DJni^j n ,pife<D div \'\n'^ ^n ^isi lyo 
-yin IV lytD^^pD^^^y^D n dm^ ; Djys^n nyis My^yiriyD^ii 
PK D2»ip-pio^n i^D ^«nyt:«ov^^n lyij^ ,D2S!"iP"iyD^ii lyvi: 
D^^prnys n D:yDy"iy::^n« ,iy"ijfe$tD*k^'DiK yiyn:^ Diyn:in $< 
-«i5 Dyi pD iyt:^fe$^n^3 div D^^PDp^^i'y: n px nT^:j<ni$ iv 
PK pi^Miy: lyoijy: d**: lyv:^?:^^ t^k r^j< Di^n — -lyn^vn 
PQ t3^^m» n T8 ,Tyiiya lytj^o in Dsn ]V))i^ .DDsitoynjt^ 
n«: ly^yii nyt^^^nisniD^ipn^st oyn pi< nyD^u"ifc?:yro oyi 
PK lyij^otj^ PD Dn^n Dyn n''"it< nyii o*ki'nDy:DnK n'ltj'r 
^'SBi^JSo Dyn ly^np ly^i^r nyD^u"i«:y:^o n ry^i jytoiro 



(.1824 ,lK^i^<^) iKDSDKno 



"j^''8 IJ^P "li^^jr 'Dnyj^-iD,, n ts; /D^^p:3^^:yD n inyry^OMx 
''1 na DiyDP:i^ y^: ikd lyn^n yin-'K wo^'?^ 1^^ ly^titD 
"Qi$ in i«p "t«>jv y^yiiio^ipn^s,, n ts nyi« ,1yD^o-^^!;■^:fc?!^ 
-Qn« 1K11 /'iJ^^jr 'Dnyn^^n,, lyi nsa r^^s lyDyiDivsj^ \vw 
,Dy^ni^nQ nyi^^DJ^ji^py lynynt^' lyi ,y^\p .ivvn ly^yo^iv 
nyvy^Q yiyoyn na iy:ii!^ii?a n ly^^^tDivr-'^ an'ntj'r mts ^ii 
-i^py ytj^"'DD''jy'iii^ ytj^^DDsinitDjy n isa dj^h 4yto^"'n:iy:!y^y: nx 

-j^^p T^« ,y^8 tiQ ytoDrDDMi Dpym n m /y:i^iQ t^^« 
■■•^v n ]v'?V)) nrs ni : n»i^y: tyDijy:iQn« i:^j DDJiy ^j^o 
,iyDD^^st5^QSP n 112 iynDDn:''« n ly^nyjiyrx lyji^p djj^ 
-yi yt:jyDstiiy!rt:)i3 n« yD''^nj^^Q s in iy:iyp lyii^n ^n ivn 
■yiiiyn^K n t» .lyiiya Dnon id t^k lysDjy iyi ?:ijn^j 
lyD^D i^^:yDDiK Dyn "i«^jr-Di^nD. iyi tiQ ^hj^v yuy^ 
VD^^v n ni Dpj^.Q ,tyii» ,D^8D:)yiy^ .'•n ly^yj n^^p ^ 
pin-Qr iyi '^1 nt^ ,iyi^n iv lyiiy^ D:)ny'nyj t^n ^yt^Dnp 
.o:yn«i: inyr ryiiy: intj' tD^«ii :i:3i:iiii^ lyui^tDonpy iyi no 
Dyii Dns nwm Dpyr t^^? T8 /to:3ny:i 1102 in tDi^in nn^^ 
■D^« n .iiyii i:jyiii!jy:iJ''''8 i^^pini "D^yii y^t§ii<tD y^j n„ 
iy:yDJ?P^fc?Q 8 finx DytDD^D iytJ'"'DD''^8tD''S«P Dyi na ajiiyuy 
Dy'j^s^vi^D^ yr^nv^D iyt3Ji« ynDonrt^ ns y^v«T^:)fe?ni$ 
-vi^s DDi5?K^^yTya iyi «^nx ryoip,, D^i?ry:i Di^n ,iyi''^^nj^iQ n^ 
fcf lyj^n Di^Djyo^p /'ini^^ t^^N px,, /'toD^j^>n ij:i s ni ,:ij^^ 
DiyDtj^yv iD^yii lyt^^is; iyi na nyny: iyvjt§5 iyi ii^p. ,i>D^n 
ytj^^D^^j^s yv:83 n i«p iiinst^ ty:i:)"'5vi^3 t^'-t^ tD^D tii< 4iyii 
*/'iDDy:ip Dyi iv i^n Dyi ns tny^iynns 1:18^ na 2:ii^:iyi 
iDQNtt^'tDiSP^n yDK^iy n Dt^ii ,nyni!sn dw i^^pini t^k Dy 
-y3 T^K Df^8^v«!D Dyi ^^D tJD^ji^^ir-i^ntD iytj^^^3jy Dyi na 
Dsn lya^yit js^s lyD^^-'Diixisa Dnxiija na » iin iy»iP 



.1883 ,12 npKttp^ /'Dn^np,, ]'k ^::piEnKt2i>'? 



20? v^'^"''V2 y-)i;:y'':fi*?t$'ny"i '•i 

D^^an8"DJJiD^n:*iv ytJ'^D^^iiB y^^^i^^DiSDoix n iyT«;>y3ny2^i< 

n« "iy:y^5 yoMij yrt^i n na oi^cj^^st oyn ny^Jix 
orDiDiy iyDD^:j^':v"i^nD n d«"i iy:^n iy:jijyDi;?n y-iyDM 
-ij<E fc< \V'i'\:^2 PK jji^yo^ yn'nryn n lyonyjivjiis n^j^iy: 
D"i^vj^Tit^iB \V2i^n yD^yii ,D^nr^^yn n iv ^s"l^t^' y^^^oDy 
iy:yjy:8a iv ^^snyir^ nfc< "lyooytrDJ^o Iid lynyjots^^mj? n 
-^$i» oyn D^D ii^^jr 'Diyo^''3i^-n3 lyn na ::nyii^DDmj5 n 
-^y^i ,DJ»^jr n pl "^^JSi^tD yD^^:yi::nyiDii<„ n ."o:ymp 
T^N ,Dpnsyv pnsDtJ' nts lyni^n lyn^ne^ y^noD^i^DyT n V2 
■y^jfcj ^yo^ns n px ^11 "inyo d^: lyj^totj^sn D^^^DjyoD^^c 
,iytDD^ji^^:r-T'nc) n pa lypniD^iK yjyanDiyn^K px y:yr«^2 
lyT PD "lynn^D yroDn n d^s; DDsnofe^n in lyn^^n yD^yn 
lyi^tDyD n lyo^D^sn iv Drcrv-j^n lyj^n dj^jii ^ynoDnj^K 
v^V't pn ly^^T Dy "lyii -nyi «; iy:i;?T p« o^^ms lyi pc 
tiisi lyo pN .-lynyTDMK vivt i^^Db* pk /Dn^n-DD^^D")^ 
"lyos^P n lyn to^^v » px d^i vi^ lyoipyjii^a ts r\v?:]:^v: 
PD imȣ "lyiy^ tj< ^pnstoc' nrs! lynyj iy:^M ly^^^'onKij^'D 
in lyaytn ^n lyn i^^cn ,iyjJi^i:j<ni^D pn^s iv lytD^"-!")^ n 
D^st n«iiy: t:D5<"itDsn t^n ,nx"in tytoDyi; nvi 0^^ lyrivs^ 
'2V^^ nynnyi D«n D»^P"iy:D^^m» lyn .nsvin j? px nryn ^ 
pn PD t3^^":5D^^Dyn t^ -tynn^:) iv tD^n^ ^y^Div Dstnyj ri 
D^^v lyn pK T^ nyDn t^k oy .lysni^nyjDnnfe? i^n Dyii tD^n 
■ny yt!^^t:p{<iB'oix n r^i^ ;ji^nii?n "ly^^'^DDoyiiK nyi ps 
Djy;y38n ,n:^^ Di^n lyt^nyn^n iv ny::^^nns: n ps jjidij^ii 
"lyn n pd to-'^pjyDj^^ii'tDJy "lyr^noix n^^jny ;^ tD^o ni^i^y: 
iJSitse^w s pK ^H^ D^3 nyto^^niy! n tyj^^n iv lyo^^p yijyi" 
■njytotJ^ nyi .••nyD^^ptj^ p>? D1:^•s li^J ,t:^-pjy2ii^inyt3Jix pd 
-i3y:nv ""n ••^n toi^in ^Dsyio^totJ^ ps nyo^^nis: n lyo^^ti'DnK nyj 
"iD^tDDJi^p s! n^ix D-'^'^rtoytD ly^n nn^civ:*^ t}''^PD^^:]y'D n iy»D 
Dvi:y3D>iK lynfcjn ,iD^n ny>n pd ^D^n^-^^yn n .jdik ly^yji^^v 
in« iyD^^n-18 n iy;y3 d^^o y^^^Dsny: pn ytj'^D^^fc^B ny^n 



VD^y^i ,:iin''3yn n :in:yvynE)^i« ,K^^jynyn''^s t^« oy lyD^y^i 
wiv to^D ty:^''Ki«!S"nyD''^ni» n iyD''n:iivjj^ iD^n:i tyiiy:i t^« 
-DsntD^in .'•n iy:iy:i tj>^j<^''Difc?!B iy^i:«n hn ^yo^D lyri^^^yry;! 
yiy^n na mn^n nyi lyn^x ^^^idj^p lyrijytotj'^is) nvi njyt> 
-:•»« lyn tiQ ist ynjyiiDMJ tojunsnoix m i«Q lyD-'u-i^ 
ty3snDJ8^''Q v^DDi^ n i^-ids lyj^n ,y^v^T^j«:inj^ ny^yn^on 
-^*i« lytj'^D^BDyn ly^n ^^ii^ iy:3»t:tj^8n D^nr-'^yn n lyt^^niv 
nnino-'D iy:iyp .a^^t^^pnyn rt^ nx pn^^a nyi r« Dynn^^D 
D^: "'iOJsis:! P^P ti'^DPSQ T-tN tDytoni^itonK lyriJ^T lyn na 
yD>n:i ts! ,nyii tytm^n oy li^p D^n nyiJ« nyi 112 .iyiiy:i 
PN :ii^ovD tyiiy:i i^j d^j lyj^n lyD^mrp^^ n tia ly^^-'D 
.2jnn^aa^iK ly^n pi< D«Dni§ny:i m^ ih^ ,iy:ijny-i{^^Q yiy^n 
tyiiy: lyj^n lyD-'-'ins n ij^j ikii t« n-'o lyrsyj ^^d ^ d^{< 
na D^ts^nyn lyn lyiiy^ dj^t t^« ,rt3ytoio^«ii:i ti« iroyij^ 
^-iiTs .D^nr^^yn yiy^n na ^^jsi^to iy:)^^jnyTiy:iyDnt< lyi 
IV ly^feito Di^ii ^yD^t^to^^ii:! yrijyjDK^ n t-o lyni^n ^^ij'o^ 
n px DT^Ji$^:r"T'nD lyii^iiTb*^:! Dyi na v^y^v:^ n i:^?^' 
n ya^yii ,i3iyi:^nnni§'' tytDvy^ nyi pa nnt^t^ rviya ytoK^iy 
IV pniv nn^a iy:!JiDinyoj^K yti^nfe?to:iyDx^i^a y:)yn^^ti^isa 
-iyD"'ix iyiiy:i ty:^n yD^yii ,iyD"'tojyr"'«"pnn^a ny^i^:!T^^:i n 
px tr^3^n^t3 tii< tytoanj^ yiyn pk t^^Di^ip^ton^? i^^:)nyiiya 
^lyivDyi^^ lyi io^D nnx r^x yjy:i^''t^ mi .^jnn-'aanfc^ lyn 
iy:iyi"i ^lyrj^a-in n pa iy:iJi^"'^Da{^ yo-'iiy: pa :ijnn^aanN 
ly^^niv yoyna iy^^toD''^^t3''a^p iyi px in L5:i5^^p iy» y^^yii 
-^jtjp yoni: n Di^ii ,ty3^oa}<! n .i84o t^« isso pn^^^ n 
lyoip Di^iv, n T8 ,tDiyni<tay:i iyni<in to>^v lyjy p« n^^tspfe^i 
tyj-'n oy ya^yii pa /'lyn^nt^^1yioJ1^? ly^i^r lyD^-'nit? ^n iv 
na iy:)3nyii^a n t^ typni^n -oya^p ytDPimy:! hi dj^^h 1{<i:j 
181 * tJ^''J8i^D T'^:!yiDiy"i»ix tyiiy: tyj^n iyny:iDD^>nifei; n 



d:nd'io3inod nyn >n i>t tDiis^;:} ,1837 tan^ONi y^SNp k * 



209 yi^nys y-ij;:^^:fi'7^'nyn n 

■^yii ,y^JKon3-Dm: ns nyo^^msjyrD n ld^d ^«d nyi ddip 
HD lyDfeitD-^yQitD D^fe? iyo«!J lyoDy^t^' inyi s D^nv) wi^n yj 
■DMis lyo \i^? D-,^vj^iii^i2 ^n Diijn lyo mi .1844 r^a i837 
-••Miv pn pt< /lyijj^iJJ^^ i"ii$^ DJijn /DDy2^Ji<D fc? 112 inyr 
D:»jyD^"'^"TiJ^^ D^s n« "lyo^o^yr^K-iyro D^fe? y^j^-i lyni^D 
D^^^ nyi rfc< iyny:y:DMi^ D}>*n ,p-i^v«n nyo^mj^T Dyi pd 
ns!2 1844 pK iyD^ms:yrQ n pd p^noD lyDMi: Dy-i pd 
t:«n i«iJ D^J .in-iy;:mi§D d>u iy;iji::n8n yan'itjr inyo 
iyDn{$iiy:iDM-i8 ,DJ^:yD^^^-Tii$^ d^» ,nnj:^'n pn lyojix lyo 
yny^n lyoiJiSD px T^Mijyo^n lyo^^n v^V'<'t pa Diyp^nDD n 
-y:i Di^Dii^SD^x ^y^^ysD lyj^n Di^n nynjy^-i^t< d^d "iyvy^3 
jjynDC' iMfc< IJ^J ^i^n ly ni^j njs^n^x pj^ -lyo^j yj^n pa pi^n 
nyojix /'DxnyD dhj^d^ pn„ p2 ny^ijyn yroii^ n ly^nssn 
nn ly^i^T •'n ,nti^ px DD5<Eri:iP pn p^^i^d pd fiJ^iD'j' nyn 
pn^D ]}:>'?]})) <nyD"'Oi8 n iv t^^bi^ tya^pn^D iv iy:j<TDjy 
lyjyp jynp lyTi^^rr px tyo^y-iyjnix is,, oji:^^d pn tDM^ ,t^ 
*."D^nn-"»^yn n^? nyD^io:y3''^N* yiy^M 



-«n iy;np uo 11T ty'i'NT ]2iN lyi-'K ]x si'tn "i;nx r2'inp:Nip inn 
lyn ]n« usKtr'byTj;; "i:;ik m'bp tyjj'isEi'pi:? -^'jih i:;;<t2iiiN pip ]k 

-:ki:k'? TiN^, .1844 ,i'7t iyii27 tin iyr:6 ,"nK'^D ]nyn!2iN:„ ]ik 
,DKny>D uiKttS' pu p« iy':i:yn ]tk lyoinp y7« ipm *^:ii<y> nyn 
-'iniN DKu iyBimN2y:i» n ^npp ei^TK }»'7n -jxi l^^z'; 'u zmn 
ly'jyu nyunniN yjuNi n tn ,]«'ir lyi ii? lyiynyj ]tn c^: U'i^ 
ly'ryn iu px -lynyTSiiN ]tk lyt::;^:^ yj^n p5 ]-iyn tajya^siKS 
; ]y3n;2yS"inp ^'J'n pK iy:np ijij tsn^-ix pip nn;-:: 7Hy2:iip pie* 
p« "inDD pip nn;*?: vjtjv^ ht tn ,]iit lyi^iT i;»;iV2 lyoyip n px 
,D;'a"iifl yoin; D'nyn:Ki:N^ tik7 l^rj ]j;jnp 121: ^jun"? ]iip 

.py^tr ]y:yp in: tsyn "ly dnii 
,iyo;np px -iy'n:yn n lyom ny^im utn^ nyniNT:^^ tin^„ 
DBny'D ]iK ;:iTii^ lynT ttnyDy-i;iNS Dr:i« p:si k jyi^n yr^yn 



Dr'':8^:i*'-i''nta J1D yt:)D^tyy:i 210 

:'d:v? vi^ DV •D'^'n lyjy^ hd i y : j i d ^ •< v n « i y ^ 
ts! n^T yo^ytDtJ^yjDDyD 5< d^s lyonyjivji;? nv^ji ^ lyiiy; 
,DPi!;iDJj^irDDjyn i^n ly^^anyi i«j d^j ^n5<n lyiD^uns nyn 
ly^^n Dyi -lyoJiK lyaiJ^^nyDJix lyvjs^r^ pn imk tid iy ii;?j 
niD^^tj^ s lynj^n dj^ii iyD^\"?rj^^^p y^s pk nn.r^yn pn pa 
n PQ Dp^noD px iyj^^5<"i^2 nyD^'-ms d^s lyny^ i^n i^ 
PK yti^^viJ D^8 pi^iiyj D^^iDsn iyj>n /'lyoD^tJ^ yny;nyn^j,, 
lyD^^i^DSJ nyin pd iynymvDnn« in lyDitn^Q yD''^vyTyjDiK 
f>m'i yDDyn;i n ,niP .D^^Pjysn^iny^oJiN ny^55^:i«D pa yjs^ 
iyn«n ^ajix^nDsmy^yj pd o^-'V nyn pi< i^^ss: nynyjoto^^nns 
Dyn i» in lyD^sny:! r:ntDDiKii«nDii^ d^n tot^ni oy ^^1 
/■•y^p njyn iv lynnti^y:1^f ^v^vB^i^ mr\ \vd d^ii nnsK^ 
y'DDi^ n„ T8 .'•nyD^^PtJ^ pd nyn^^DiSD nyj^pnyo^ Dyn 
D^^m» P« ^8to"'a8P \v^'))'£ 51D8P iyrn>^« oyn pd iuu^"-^ 
nyD^uis Dyi PD iyD^Djy:^^x lyi pyi^ ^i!?t ^stD^DSP rs 'Vi^ 

."ns'ntJ' iyi«i D>ni r^i? iy >^ 
ya^^ns "lyDvy^ Pt^ iv^^^v D'm)n> pd yjyvo-Di^:^ n 
iyD^fe$ny:i:i^ DJ^n oy rjyii ni ,dp^ii "iJ^-'jVDT'nD "lyi,, tD'iD 
■yiistn p^^jvn^nto nyi pd tyny^ ly'riDX Dyn pn ^^^dj« pn 
y^^n pD Dyj^^N lyDnnt^D ny t:«in 4834 ddipin pn jjij 
PD lyjst^tj'ytn tyj^n y^^yii ,iyDyi:iJ«iP ytoti^^Dy:; yD^^jnyi^y; 
■^yii lytj^niv ^ytoDstj^^yry:! t^^^oo^jy^^^^ '>'^"\v'?^ pd tyD8:iy^yi 
Dyi nnN .DJ»^jr i^no yrj^-t^ lyjiDy; in lyii^n oy yD 



IS ttsy'bty 11N tt>ngi nTt? pn |y'?yn nt snx t« ,"in«' lyusj?"? 

'p'>^)^ IVDK^ti'EJy taoys 1^ T'N ,pn-mD iyr'''7i);tr Dy*T p':r:3y'7-iK0 
3taDNpT'j p'p T^^SN d:?di'S yiin its tysnpinx ^'jh ijrn'sis 



211 yi^nys y-iyjj5'':;"i'7t5Tiy"i n 

n v'2? n piM{< iy:ijy-in D?«Ty:i o^n y^^yii ."ii^i^jr-Di^nD 
"18D ^yoii^D nyayjDD^u"!^: n8< "iyD^tDjyj^^«-iJ8^ n jjn^:y-i 
■••^i^DJi^p yiynjy^D^iK n« yt^'^ona,, "lyi rx niijTiy:) o^yue^ii 
■:yD^"ii m DVO':^D)n ,ynDDn:^K "i{<:d yv^^vi^Ofci: yoin 
y^o «,, HD jjn:nj n >y^v o^fcn im ij^d njy^ytoc^ /'ocsslj' 
lytD^^ii -tyofeii^p y^s ns i^^^jd^k is -nn /'D^yii y^sn^^ 
lyDjyQnysDpy yTi^^oDiiQ nx v^''''?p ^^iiv "lyii^ Dy:^^i< 112 
iyjjs!:iy: d^: D2Si^^yTyj n t^n y^vpn{;j"i3 -iyirDs-iysi;?i;?p pk 
nn^« .y^suDiK D'm^H ly^^^p-innj^a iv lyat^tis ynn^K pn 
ajio^ot^'iv V'l D^D rojyp /Oijyiitj'nKS ^t oJsjn ddsip yv:^:) 
■DoyiJiD .Dp^nDD yivDyij{< vn^'i s ^int? ,::irDiD"iy m 
is'ijV'T'nD "lyn px ^Jij^^tj^ny v^^'\i^Vi2VD D'jyn^t tofcjn lyjyn 
n .::i;yiisn lyi n^i« prnj^^is lysy^t: {< lyriij^ynyn^K o^yii 
D3»^:r-n^no n ns lyDjyoiPi^i y-iyiJ5< n« "lyD^r^ypi^tDi^is 
^^D iy:^n r^ijnyvin}^^ iyi3yDiPD«t: nvi ns nx d^^v pn pa 
nyn pd ::i^^^iOJ^^8 n ^11 ,y^ji$^i^yTen2 lytr^DDoyiiyi nyn d^q 
-DSisyii^n,, PK "iyny:n^^^„ pd lyos^p n pn ODS'^^yry; 
— DS^P lyLDvy^ Dyi "lyojix o^tDjyp onjynytDtj'nsiD /'oypo 
yc^n^s n ii!?j — n^i"iy:i iy:stDK^"i82 "ly^n dj^t t^k ^ts pk 
,yyn^N n lyn^^nyj fx ov d«ii nyai^ t^k iy:iD^3^ii .lyiD^ms 
ly^fcjT nyi^vni^i3 pD oy^vs^vi^Dyi d^s ^DJi^^jrn^nD n t{< 
•lyo^yo'nDDrt^-DJ^^^vpnj^-iB n pd ^^nojt^p n ryrnp-pmv 
n«iiyj toDsoy: lyni^ns yr^nyvoix lyj^n m d^^v lyjy^ pa 
yjy:^^N y-iy^n lyrtosyt^sn iv m^jm^nt: ^V2V' tyn^ lyn P2 
PC yn>n y:i:s;^ n .Dy^v8"iys«i^P yirtDpni^-13 px iyi^^ji:^!D 
n to^o tDr"TjyisD in lyni^tn y^^yii ,iyp>^:iniK y^yntDonrt* 
-D^^x 0^3 t^r^n i^^Ds ^H^ lyn^n «1874 tiQ rytoDi^nsiQ yo^nj 
■y3„ lyrr^n Dyn pc lyvDsn^-'^nnyn^x v^'iv'? n o^yviijiiyj 
PD iyiOD>^j?y-T'K n >^n "DT^^^nnrnrK-ty^vPi? ly^^^tDSs^:^^'^ 
T^x lyn^n yt^nn-'j^a-i^ n nnyi .iji:y^isn ti^'-jr-n^no nyn 
D5<^P""iyt5^^nnst pr 3:ir^rD "iy:i>^oyj^N nyn n^ix i:ipi""ii T^n 



Dr''i^''ii''-T''nt2 J1S VD2''tt^y: 212 

iyny:iy:s« in lyo^^ii vo lyn .lyt^nifesn Vi^i^pvi i^^nn^sD^ix 
T^?- ni< /'lytnyn-DD^u-)^ yD^^;Djyi»,/ /'D35§ti^-ii;ji^jv„ n t:^D 
n d'?^ lyDiDsiDsi i{$p lyo y^^yiT ^oyiJ^-'Dyj y^ynoon 
,«iJS3»a«is ")yti'^DD^:yii« lyn na lytosD^ityn yoDDpynn 
-j^DS yiVDSinyBi^^P yr^nyv^ix n ns ly^sstp^tj' n Vi^D lyiJ^ 
lyDStJ^y:! iyn«n oy iyDi§:iy^yi oyayii nyr-i^n^ns na oy^^^s^:^ 
"^A^m' v^v p« lyoynjjj^p yti^^Do^jyiii^ n na p^-iypn Dyn 
■j»;irK iyn^^ny;i d^j t^^ :ij^:!yn8n yK'^oD^j^ovi^nD n 
-■•^yn yDJiy^y: n .n^ys nvi lyT^^nsa tjj^n lyi^j^ nyn ,DnD ty:i 
■^sny:! m lyn^^n lyD^^a lyp^jisDyo ti« nypm n nsj niDx^o 
"Sin lyj^-iDy:^^ lyi na lyD^ni ns ^nyr i^fe^a ty^yii i^d ni ,iyiD 
D^j ,ni$iiy;i Dinn^n to^j iy:^n tyni^pn^nD v'lV'i m oJijyii 
Dyi n2 ^'2 nx y^v^D^JS iy:n^yoiD lyt^'-'DDoyiit^ nyn na 
nyn Di^n ly^sa v^vi:^ v:}:^d Vi^ .innjya^Ti^ lymyioystj^ 
"y:ijfc^ 1834 T^n i830 ps nn«i^ n na j^^sny iy:yTJ$^ny:DMx 
lyopsiiy;! t^t^ \h'^v 'onysyo n .-iy:i:y^ inj^^ y^^^t^y lytD^sn 
jynjytD^n^i ^ iyjo^«ny;s{$ n dj^h isss pk p« d^^'^i^dej' pk 
n«iiy: iyoi:yjj» t^« dv nyn ,nyny:iDD^>3is! n nyn^x :yn 
iyn^^ny:i io^^v y:ij^^ ^ t^x lyD^yii /'in-r^ns ^v^^^:>, nyn 
nyn iv Dnn^cy: lyni^n lyjjnyn^^D y^>: .n-'nto pn DDnnjsi 
("DnyDDi^'p 11J5 nyn^D^^ti'tD,,) "nyo^p-D^ynj^n,, ^ pa ::njn:; 
■n« n P2 nn;ji$ Dyn inytDtJ^nynn^ iv nyny;iDtD^''nn« n ps 
i:'^ny;si$ jjyntitj' t^x ":iJitDD^^Qn;s2 y^^^nny^,, n .nytD^^i 
Di^.n ny^^yii ,ty3«tnnyjDn« p^? p>ntDD nyo-iina s px ,n«i"iy:i 
PD nnnjyo^n^ ty:injyD:j^^iD Dyn ld^d 1837 v^ Drnjyy:i nn 

•ti^^Ji^ nyn 
n Dyn:n:iy:i nyvyt^oanti' n.vnjy^toi^K^ n lyn^^n 1836 p« 
■^yii /'n:^^tD«!pD 111$ p<!tJ^^^^rD{<lDs; ^^p"'D»n:j^3^tD 5'«nyjytj^n» 
-•'K ^«!nt:)ji^p ryn^Tpnn^ ^ Dn^^^yjonx nni^> y^^^toy DJ^n nyn 
nynjyt3^n;5$3 s iyoipy:nj^Q t^k nnj^^ lyn^yroyn .n-'ntD I'nyn 



'y:n>D .ono) nyoKS ontso lis /'y^jKunn-onn;! ]in ^juyv,?^:: 



213 p^-'nys yiy:i5^:;i^^'n>n n 

nyi:i^>i;y"i"ODa;?yT nyi ns jjnn^£j^^5§ yj^^ayj^^ n on^tDbT 
^^* r^« jjip-iMi yoDDi:5<n-iyMT n ly^j;? •pc^siD-pBC' "y?it2» 
,D"iyjy?:"iny-i pd DJJ:?^:r y^siynya n .lyDj^D-na n pn inyr 
-i^nmyDJ^N-DO «; iyD?8nyjji>' lyniijn Diy^i^tDD px DiyiynD 
yD^^nj^nS/, n nya '^Jt^o iy;i^DJ^"'n Div r^n nyoDMpy yjyj 
iyv:{?: cyi mn iyn^;?2-i5$D r^t? "lyiyno-p^ot^ pa osettypyry: 
■n^v n .DJi;?or v\y'^::v yoDrDDyn n pa yj^^N i:-iyi:imn:^^ 
y^s lynyjyjDM-is lynj^n lynyMD-p^DC' yt^'^^jjy n di^ii .pi^^-.p 
Din^syj \i^':v ly^n dj^h -i^^jj d^j T5< /lyr^mfeiia MyDisJii ^n^iv 
t:i^n n t^ i^i^j ,iyDpi<Tiy:i ^yjc^ t^k m \V2V'? lyrcsyip s 
pn^aivr^j^: Dp^nDD ]}'i'\)? v:i''''):'?i^i:')V id » Din^Dy^^nn 
n iy;iyii ."pi^-D^^v„ lyo^smv^i^ m "niJpn-DD^m^. 
ly^iy: iy:>n ^n r^ ,D^ny:^-iyn D-iyn lynyno-p^D^ v^'m'^ 
"•n pK .182 ny^n p^^i:iyi px lyD^nDi^sj^^s Pi< nyirt:p{< ii^: 
.njiii^DJ^:^ PD lyiyMD y^jii DyoD u^^jr *iy^n pt< Dstnyj lyni^n 
yivDSiyiyD y^yani^D-o^j i^d lyp^i^n isnj^s inx iy:^n oy 
,Diyny^iD:^^D'^ ps dj^^^jv y^^Ji^^vsJ n lyt^mv iy:ijn:m{<D 
lyni^n ^n dj<!ii .iyny:i t^x nnv n .Diy:iy^-^yrv px Diy^i^DD 

n P2 '•n ,DT^JS;Dyc-DJl^^V5?T^J8J-l^ Dy3iyiJ;?0 i<Ty! D^nVi tDO 

-nsD y;n:yt:tj^ pk ,|VDy-i:i:{^p p^^jr-T^nD /'d^^d:ii^p i^ntD,, 
y:y£ii^"nyv n Dnynt^yj tD^^n oi^i px ,iytDyD^D{^p ytD^j^^x 
-{<n lyj^^oy:^^ i^ pa j:n^Dnfc?Q nyi i^i< Dy^vfe?T^:y:jii^ y^iitpi^^ 
pK pj^iiy^ ly^j^iniyDriK t^k ij^^Dt^iv iy:ni^T lyn jjijy^i 



Tnu ]^£ ;nTis -in'N }»^k i«: t2"i'^«ni::Np (1848 px cTT^ix:: 

-^;i^ 'D"i;n7in„ nyn iis ♦;i!?i!2'r:D:Kp y^xi>nv£ n in -n: c^kh r^x 

"Diy:iKtrn n:y Diyt::vsixp n« ]n':v '7Ni:r:ytt'n„ n d'?n t::KpHi 
-KD tiiyTDpy niy Tnts 'Diy^pni ivts^n^'Ex *tv^>'2t,, n pK 

/'luy^DijD D'ny'»'?pns ivts'nygH,, nyi px "Di;:'«iyn n:y Dn;»D 



DT''j^'':'i''-T'nD pD yi:)D''tyy: 214 

n ni^:its^; pK Dp^ntoD i;^y:«i^v«D:yD n mn ,1837 -in«^ 

-8^i5<!S S! ps ;:iD''t:t^'«n iyi mn n« /ny^n^D yny^n na m 

-pmv ny"i nc iy:i^5<!Q n lyrjniyDJiK iv ioyjo^DJ^p lytj'nstojyD 

.":i:irj>^^i»D iy;yp iyvyry;i„ n na ^ijisn 

ns D^DiQ n o^» iy»ny:i55Q i^ in nyin d^j jjt lyntjn td 
nyj^stj'-^yiisn iy^i^:iT«^;i fiJ^a n hd oy^^i^na lyoDnnsn oyn 
yD»TtD^8ii; ojnyiiii^iSD pK d:ij^^pi»d iyiiy:i iyj>n y^^yi-j 
■Dto^unfe? yiy^n pQ :jnii$Diy lyn isq t"i« iy:ij^pyn^3{^ 
"\vov)ii^^B ^oa^in. y:y^ pa lyj^^N iyiiy:i lyn^^ r^« dj^t .annn 
-y; pa pmonx lyn m /DJi^^jvi^nD pa yoD^tj^y:; iyi px 
ni^^'p DT^ni iyany:iD^ni§ isn mn oy^^^ia lyn dj^ii ty^Tia 
-lytD^^ms n lyD^yii px nj^Dt^iv lyrtoo^^:! Dyn i^^D-in pk 
-y^ lyj^n dj;?iii iyjj*i:i{^TD''ix n *.iyjiay:i m lyni^n lyos^p 
Dyi ni?!a ni?^iy:i D'nTn'y:nyrN pn :oDnyj pj< \^H)'\v:i ddsid 
IV nyn^i? d^j ijn:i p^p lyri^:^ 4838 tia DVt:i'>j2i^? ty^y^vyao 
ytonn^J8:iii^ is d^5§ a^'^'\^ 'onyj^a^-^yiisn n is ^y^a^i-n:^ 
Ts m .li^iyt:) pa toasti^iyn is tDin"'ay:iJ^>8 Di^n /Dastj'nyaiyp 
^n^iti^ T^JJ^nya iy:>n iyT'^;ito^D yD;{^^Pit§a n pa v:i^^D 
■t3^8ii:i iny^sn px v?^\:) n^j ,iyvynan{< pj< li^j d^j jy^iy:! 



-«"is Dyn tann^sy; idkh nyo'i'yn ,!ayBiDKp iK'^T'-n^niD lyn * 
,iy;(3itDn5? IT pK ^ytDDnxn :Jb^s iy:«ipy:i tDNn iy D«n y)n^ ,Dy!? 
Dys«ns Dyi n£3 uDnxn « Tins oyin'jp ^$ nKs upmyjBM inx awn 
y-iyn:K »ms .lyni^niKD ta^i ry-iy PK t^n lyr^yn- ^ly'r^'tt p« 
]y» yr'i'yn ,pNnp iy2y;iy;DMnK jyj'n lyamjjn y:i^in»2Dn{* 
-i^jixn D«ONiD ne Dy^jxis oyi ]ib lasn^n n„ : inyraNJ inj iNp 
-i'7Nnityt3iK ]iB /'18B8 pK ihjjtn'?;} pk Diyiieiy-'bynNi y^y^i^J PH 
nyuiKH DKDKta ps oysxns -iyi„ ii« ,(1838 ,:innjny) iNtDimo 
-n«D Doiitrn ns /'DnyjiStt»-^yn«i nyi«;;TK'7; n — ,ynyni« p« 
--IK "lyD ]TS yiB«i:i<'nKi2nK„ n inx nyt .(1838 ,i«;tk^;) ^K3» 
—1837 pa "-iNt:0 nyn!:-i«J„ Dyn ;(1883 ,1«13«'7) /'tKD'^y n^K3>tra 
p« ;207 pK 206 .T ,1838 n«s "nytsDitynp 'bKPJK,, Dyn ; 183S 
;1838 ,iyiiiNi«s iy;yv, ttya'axp ly'ry'iiyED Dp itjfl. tyjiiu^TOMK n 



215 y-ri5"'nys yip^^^i'i'^'ny-i •'i 

pi'*K lynyj iy^:s:rK D«:?pnyD^u"is oyn pa jjir^Dyj^^Djysy 
nnt^^ lynn ^imx ^n iyp^;jn5<£2 iv ?^^tD"n« lyn m 'O^n ly^n 
-mx "lyi ^11 jjiDDnojy :?y^2 mi^ d^d iii^^wsi lyDijy:^^^ rx 
-intji^ "ly^D D^s ■lyDDyt^'o"li;J^ na "lyD^-'ms n lya^x ^^^d 
no lyDSD^iiyi yD^:?"i^L:5$j n ns ny:^^i< lyny: t^k diijt .p^iiv 
-SMK cyjyci^ DyD2 nyi nx DT^Dt^sDyTiyDj^^p oyi 
in lyvijsn oi$.i .\V2'^^*^2 vvc^ lynj^n i^o lyD^yn -usi^c 
-"18 iy::Di<n"i8D 8 iy:iyp ''o ,iyt:^^2"i5< ns ly^D^o-D^stnj d^o 
,iyn^n yjy:i^^K yiy^n r« -lyoyniss ^ ly^yp ^^d pn iy3y;DD^^a 
-'•^ijB n ni iDiK lyn^ytDyi ?i"'1k dpjie pi^iiy: oD^itDija t^j< 
nyDJiK DpmnyojiK t^k di^^i ,yD{?i $< pr: DjyDynan^s yj'^o 
i^\"5 -li^j c^^DPSD iy:^n lyo^o yD^yry; .D£:s!t^'-iyn lyioyiD s; 
\v\)v:i w^'t iy:Jfc<:83 ^n iy:^n dj^jti n ts .lyny: o^j t>mi5<3 

lyiopytisD wo^v'?^ iyD^^:ynys i^« onyrstj'-^yiisn nyii^^r^^j 
WW^i lyj^n ?iJ^D n P2 ly^s ajy^or^yn p« ,iDnn^DDnN pk 
*.tD^''p:ynynyn^« px D^^PD^^iny ly^n nj<£: o:fc<pj<3 p>Dy:^s! 
3n:yDn8i^ ly^j^ipy: wnnn ^n di^ii 3Ji^iJi<ns;n vodv'^i^ n 
»|yp^c^"i8D IV ^n ^^^D"nN lyi '^nvr^ ii^: ps ,Dyvt^i5 I'anx 
ytj'nsDjyDs^nsiS n ps y^DSBo^D n tyjixnyj ^n nfe<£ dj^h 
in Vii^r] .nnorc isd "lynytotj^ii^Q nyi /••^p^yii px -ly^j^pn^n 
,DJi^Doi^p iifc^ Tit^n px ^stD lyn lyiuy-inwit^s iyto^{<ny:£i^ oo 
.D-'^prDDyny^DiK p« ^Ji^^i^cij^c ivy^'^v^v: pa ^i$D i< d^s 
p5»nn pD D^Dy^^Di^D-Di^nD n jynj^n tD^^v lyn toyi onai 
lynii^ns) v^v't D^o oyj^^p yDD:-iy lycny^Dm^ ?^h? Pk 
^i!?Bi5tji^D ly^^^DPSQ 8 .ly^D^D-tD^siiii jHi^ D^j tiK ,nn^cw::nn 



zv^^'i^ .n^jny; tt;!n«i;K2 1840 pk tp'n y2y;iKfiyjs ei^'fi n * 

''T r.fi s^nn "iy3''7i:£Ntr:^ii2y:; g t2i'rtt:v£y"is£ t'n ,1840 ,ttDT;i',K 
-x't:«'? 8 pfi I'^yi^y^ c'ryoijTy; 'u -i^fi t'n D^n tt^yj dkt iy;yn 



Dr'':t5''J'»'''T'^"lt:i lis ytDD''try: 216 

-pm) ly^i^^K'yv DJ^n ^yjj^P'i^ .dosiisd \m^ lyonyjiyDJns 
n p2 ^siQ Dyn iyDmyDJii< lyjyii :is^tj'n}^D lyiD^^nj^na d'^^ 
->jr-"T^nD iy:iy:i y:!^^P3i$ nyDDjny i^ nn DiyrsL^'-^yiisin 
ytj^n^K n pa m:pn n DssnnyioD^^o njnn'i^^jis .nv:i?i 
y'?pvi^ lyiiy:! lyj^n ^pn min po lyo ,yD^yi^ ,iyj>''xi8Q 
viv DDsmt^D ynyn iyp-ii?DtJ' s p^? iy tD^^n ,t^''DD^K{^:iy 
-nfei!rDt:)^'»nii§ n n^^i:iy"i i^ lyj^^xi^iiD-i^s n n^^o yn^^is 
--i^nto DynyiJ^D pD ly-iJ^Dyo ytoyiiynjiay^j^^s-Di:! n .iy:i:'i; 

PQ tyj^'t ,P1^-D10^J^D 55 PQ :J1D^5§n2ni< H ^"11 ''ITS ,DT^:)JJ'':r 

px yD^^t^Qstj^^ytyrto^j n "'^i pj^iiyj D^snsa ^ns w:)B dh-'x 
Di^ntD y^n:y^n^t? n v:i'PV'\) ^^d ,iy^^3^J^o yn:ypmnyDJiK 
n iDi^n 33n^:yi n .DjyD^^vy:iDni< d^^v y^jfen^ i§ m lyn^^n 
-i^p ly^yvysD s lyr^^iisn Dyn tD^» iyDijy:iQM« yiyn y^nj^i 
■i^nD lyi p« ; y:isiQ yv3fe§3 n lyDnnytDJiN ^j^t dj^ii ,tDytD"'D 
■nsn IV ,yj«^ lyn pt? w^^^v^ ^j^ds lyT'ii in mn nvni^^^v 
nyn p^^ tD:)yDy^y nyijynyoK^sn s d'?^ ty:in>''tDisD in lya 
iyii^:iTS^: n pa oyvi^iQ iyi .yv^sT^JiidiJ^ lyD^^DSsj^^yty: 
"nfc?Djyo»^isa Dyn m PS :i3iD^tD{^«n n px Diy^^st^^-^yii^n 
^n^BV^i Dyi t5ny^y:iQnx nyini to^^>^ s 1^*2 lyn^^in ,DyD^»i^p \v^ 
-y: » .D^y^i iyti^^DD^ji^^ji''-i^ntD nyi pi< toytonfein^^i^iD pa 
tDynjn:iy: r^x ly^ss lyii^Ms^j n ps t^yt^-'Oi^p lyD^tDOs^j^^o 
-ji<i n pQ 2m^^tDi?:?Q iyi isq ijj^q » ly^DST iv pJ^iiy:) 
-iyn:sJSQ py^-"" ^'^'^hi oyn nso iy:)^n nynn pN ;yt::ij^^pyj 
yuytD^nsn .D:!«>.^r-n^niD ytDJspsn y^s iv pJ^i^y^ t)p^{^»y:i 
1103 T^K Dyvi<!-iQ nyi nyn ,n^iiya to^yDsry: tyj-'n lyj^Dio 
; ytDi^tooyii^ n pa lytDD^^p yiyiitj^ n nn« .n^iiy:i ^:iy^y:isj^ 
:n^^^ tyjisyj i^^i^y >n 45}^n lyn lyii 4838 1^1:)^^ t^^« P« 
y^vst5^2s yDr^^-'t^isQ « lynnnyiiii^ in tsj^n ,tD^''>tDiiNii^Q px 
m Dn« .tii^ii:tj^ iy>n pa 3:"iiytDn>''^i»Q lyt^ni^^'-tD » isq 
tDyi^yjs^sy: tDiyii oy t« ,t5Dixiisn iyiiy:i pitj^ fx to^^v iyi 
.Qt''ji<fr."'-i^nD Tyayi"! aji3inyt:):ii« y^nst:)3ytt^^n^?S3 is oysy 



217 yij5"'"iyB y"ij;jj5'^i^t5i'jy"i ''T 

-y:oiK iy:yp lyni^iietn iv nnya in hd /lynyjyiD^iK t:s;nyj 
-iy^8$:yi y^s Ti§„ ,iyDi^^t^'y:n lyaiijtn ,iyLD^^-i:nyiiy: yD^?:^.. 
-•"nj^D ly^J^T -lyDiyin^Dj^B ni< oy^ji^jDyiyvin^DJ^^s ^lyrj^ij;:: 
D"iyiiyprD lyj^^nn n ."pyii oDj^-j^yiiBJ^ iyvJ5<::^K nx d^l) 
-j^n nx ni:pn yD^^D^^^D^x viv'f lyDn^^jin^D ^yoii;?D lyaj^n 
nyn i^^: t^3 y;fe§^£:nN iy^>j s ns) yn^^JD^ns n o^y^y^si^ lyn 
,]ynnDiK n hd r5<^Q"0BMn nyi ^li^*:?^^: px jjmnyD:i« 
— D^y^t^'^D y^fesp{>*^ n ^n lytj^^ii^ — Dy^v{?r^JS!J"i{^ id s ty^i^n 
ns lynons nx "iyDu-^fc^pi>*Di^n3 v^vf iD:y"ia-ife§2 n^^DDnn^ 
-1i!3 lynj^n iy:^^KisD ny:i>n:i^^ n ."ini^^ Dy:y::{?j-ifc?2 uvi 

"iy"i p« "IV lytj'^DD^ji^^jr Dyn \'^n'zi ^i^t Di^ni — "yyiDo^o 
-yj 1^1 T^« ny^^yii ,Dyiii>*^ .::i3inyD:ix lyt^^nj^o^y^iii^ii^s 
^v^v'\PVD \^i^))v:i vi^ ,iyp^tD^^i^3 ny^^pnsi d'?^ Vi2^?^2 lyn 
DJi^^:v"i^nD n iv oyny; lyijinn s iy3y:y:DMii§ Di^n px 
nyn ny^j^ *.nny pN t:^y:i lyp^*^ w ^n njytoyn ,"i:fc$^ pd 
nya^iK ii<itDy:i to^^nis! pn Di^n tsyto^Dt^p iy:i^n»t::yo«!^n^Q 
Dn^t< Di^n yD^yii ,::n^:yi n ."ijyr^vnyn^x-D^j Pn i^^^y^a 
pa tD>\"5D^^::nTiv lyi po pyii iv niDS dik rn^n i:Ti^^-iyi 
,nyD^^"nv iyi pa r^yjj^ip'i^ pa m ^''f P^« ns T^^P^yii 
T^K Dy yD^yi^ ]Vf::)nv^ iv tofeitny:! d^j nym ni^3 rD:yp Di^n 
:n:yD:i^ t^k nyrj^yii ,Dyt:''Oi^p lyn p^? ; r^jy oyi pi< jJi^ytoK' 

^^iN t:pJy•^t^'ii:n {^"•i^pss in t:5i$n PK 0Ji3"inyt5:iK v^'^r^v:! 
t^'^n^vt^v'pv: n lyji^npy: tDi^n ^yjt^p'i^ .ifc^:iTsi^3 px p^nn 
,nny y^yn^^py^onx iin ,iyT^"»ii8n iv ^DDiry^ DJ^n ny Di^n 



.(1838 ,lNnJK'?) /':^'r'KiKfl 



D3Mn nyi t^k ,iij:iT8^:; DayitDsnjj^ DJ^n .oji^^jr ycj^njy^i^x 
-^yn ,ii^D^^y — i^i^n^^i^Dis nyo ivv^vb^ — ^^^v^ lyiiyj nny 
-^yii^n n D^^Dtj'y:ij^^8 jji^i^sn ny;i^DiD pn iO'-D dj^h lyD 
lysn IV jyiiy; ;i^Dn: d^p t^« ov .dih^^ "iv^v 112 D-iyj^atj^ 
T^« nyD^yii ^--Diyni^i in^^tj^n lyij^ ;Djj$^jr n nijiiD nny 
pi^iiiyj DTJ!?^y:iv fi^ ny^ijynnn m lypm s lyiiyj isi ri&j^ 
-J8D PN y^v8T^J8:ni$ 'onyrsK' nyn ns ;jnyn^^tj^ s lyny;! iv 

.1829—1831 PD Dy^V8"'VJ^D8 y^n'^TD-D^^'fiJ^ "•! tIK lyODytJ'D 

D^^i nn{§ /tDK^^jii^j to^o DTJ^^y^DMN in mn ^JiDinyDJiK n 
-DM« tD^D lyDu ^niv pi^i^y:! iyny:y:ij^n8 lyj^n "rnn,, pt^ 
DMi5 DT^ni Dy n^ .^Dnsii ^yp^DK' fe§ ini^ i^^Di? ,iy;:i:ii^T 
iDD^Dtj^^n '': Di<n PQ t:yn DyD^Di<ip lyn ts ,DDny: in tyo mn 
:jivt yDDpy: n lyn nyni^ ;D^^nis pn lynjyiss iv pyii 
. .iya-iJ!?instD to^^niy^^DtJ' poy nvi \vd mr^ lynipy; t^« 
-^*a Dyn nin iyoipy:i t^n d^ii ,Dnto&j^ "iy:i^^>niD>^v lyn 
,DyD^Dt?P iy^nfc§DjyD5§^i»3 Dyi px oyvj^ia 'Diyr3tj>-^yii 
-ijm^ntD PD ^^Dpmv iyr"iiyD"'''ii oyn tyD^^ny:i3i? tD^: Di^n 
-ya m iDJ^n nyD^yii nnoo nyn .-ijs^ m^^^ I'lyn-'X dt^:ii$ 
•mynynss :i:^^vt^5 m to^^n 1836 D:n ly^ytDtj^si^ v^ lyts^sn 
^m ytDDiyii^o n t:^D Dnjyy^ in tDi^n r^i:inyvin«i^ iyi 
Di^n DMJ ytD^nssj'n^s-D^ni ^ px ;yDD''tJ^y:i iyi r>K ini^'' 
D:j<t^jr yjyn-'^nyriyDy^ n pd DD»tj>iyn^^:it3''» n .Dt^iyny: 
n itj^DK ,iyiyn^r''tDtJ^ Vi^''^i:v n .tDiyjy^pij^s i^:i m m^ 
1841 pK ty^'"'T ,Dy^v^T^3^ni^ yrij3D^i^»yi n ria ytDOpifentsK^ 
Iy^^^p^^a»1^? iv't inn dj^ipj^s tyioi^t^Dn^ iv iy3Ji?:inyi 
33iK''niyn^i< ivi ^"-n lynytenN lyoDsnisa « iy:iy:i p^ntDD 
-y: lynynDi^^DtJ' yt^n^y^Dt^tj^ n .iyp^n"D:)yoi$^i»B n ps 
-jyo^Tiv T^i< pi^totJ^ nrfe? topjiB lyiiya pn yn^yii ^DQ^K^^yr 
-T^^3 n .t5ife?psnoi« niN ry^^n dj^ii tya^niN nn ,iy3i^iny:i 
n nn :3in^:sni<tDn rijytDtJ^^i^B iyiiy:i tyj>n lya^D iyii<t:i 
jyni^n i^^K^t?pj^^ PQ lytD^ms ^^t^Dpyt: n .1837 tie di^sd 
yuyopsTi ys^ytfe': nyn ; ]v:iv'? pb io''D t^^p ryTniy:)Dnife$ »': 



219 V"it5'"^ys y-iy:^^:fi^^Tiy-i n 

"np-i«D iVTiy: lyj^n ,D-iy3etD^yDyp m Diynn^y^^D n nyo 
PD lyDKD Dnoyj lyat^n >n Dfc^ii lyjji^ii^vDnK n i-in D:?ys 
-DtD^oya "lyi ."lyi^^jtD^D yTfc^^DD"'U"ifc$ tv Dyofe^p v^vi 
nyrDDJU ^y^D iyiiy:i o^: t^k iyD{<^p-iyD^u-i5< n nc iJiitD^i'iv 
-j^i iiK D^\'?jyinDWD'iN yrn'KTiD .-i:s;D:^"ivD^y-iJj§n iyi ^ii 
-3;b lyjy^ 112 Dp^DDnytDPs:nfe$3 n iy:^n d^^pt^u yoyni^sy: 
mv)) YV^vSi Dt^i) "ryryrD^Jvap Dy^>:„ Dyi ^v Di<n « .y-ii^^i 
nn« iy::iSii^v5{^ yD^yny^Dix n iv ,(D^^^yoni^ isiEi npiv 
/lyos^P yn:ytj^-iyn n ns pm ny:^^Dyj^8 oyi )'i ,v'b^ 
nyn lis lyD^yD^t^T yt^^^DD^jj^^^r-i^no n pa dmi{< oDbt^Q 
'v^:^ vi< D^)) /'lyopjis Dpyt,, n ii§s y^V8D^J5< n .o^^v 
'DiyiD^ms!,, iyi i^K yiyn:8 px Dvm"? pd pij^iiy^ lyn^^n 
-y-iDtJ^ n PD Dp:iB^yD^D lyi pi^iiy: t^k ,i836 ps "y*vis'-^'j;5Di5 
nyD^yii ,"-)80D pyntoii^:,, nyi .D^^pnyD^^ms pd iyj:n 
DJ^iitj^y; t^i^n 4837 pQ tiiD D^n IyJ^''t^'^y lynnny::}^ oi^n 
■nij^T y^y^vriii^iQ yiyijs y^^ y^^^^ipn-'V px ^Dji^-'yjiynns 
nsD lyni^n ":y^^ m'^ n^^P'^t^^^" ^yi 112 oy^vpy^ n .ly^titj 
->vy5D nyn lyn i^^C8',t:^^pjy"inDiVDiK yj^^oyj^s n t2"iyDyi:i 
tjn«^ "lyj^^Dy:^^! ife$ .nyijyn:^^ v^? iy:i£y:i to^j Di^^n nsnn y^y 
-jyDp^V; lyi 1^ tDin^sy: Di^n ly^i^^Byn y^yji^^vitD^toDJi^p pi« 
-nstJ'D n PD v'^^vo "^2i<ip yti'n^s,, lyi pd o^stDiynx lyn 

• .1839—1842 pD yrtJ'tOtJ^'lli^DJn iyi IV PK -lytDD^D 

D^: lynya nn^^^ yrti^i n pd ty::i^p^^iojy yt^^D^^i^s n 
-yii^n pDD^tDn^ti^i: n .piyii nyi tDi^ pd Dm ny-i px t^n» 
Dyi PD ytDD^ti^y: lyi t^x y^^i ytoortoD^ii n D^y^Dt^ ::"i3 
pD iyD:ns d^: Dny^ n pk 1842 m 1837 pd Dsi^p-nytD^^nn» 
lyn nin tDpysDyi m iv :njyDnDniy: .1848 t^s y:n^3 lyi 
-8D n PD t:"'^pc^n^yn nsii^t px tD^"'pjyny:inyn^x ,to''^PODny 
-n^K PD p^t:D^n?oi^n iyi inn ni^iiy:i tsn^tonynpon n t^n ^lyo 
niDnn ypon^n yti^^tti^:)i^py px yti'^t^^^j^D n px ni^t2fc?ii^ yn 
n«r^"nKJP oycy^i nyin^D yj^nyD?o^« px ytJ'^fe^D ynn^x pd 
D«n .Dtr^:)ni^:i iv DD^oy: y'?i:v "in^x ly^i^n Dyriort^ px 



^yjjr lynix n^a tyvu d'-ii; pd ww:^ to^i^v. Dyi lyjyn 
p^*? i^D^J f« Dy t« ,iy:!{<!T 1^ :i>tDnj tn^n t^j^ i^i .y^Dfe^ipi^fiDyn 
l^m'Wi va, Dv m) lyj^n DJi^i^jv-i^nD n rs: /iynn^:i iv ijn: 
••n ni ojiJiyiisn nys^^^DD^Di^t^'D lyi iiq ^^^io ly^^oDm ^ 
,1833—34 lis yv^D"':!^ ly^^toD^jyiiJ^ lyi px m^v^ oi^i lyj^n 
-piistDtJ' n P2 yDJ^D D^ytDK^y^iv lynj^n iyi^^:!D^a yiy^n on 
,iyD«2 yrvr^« *."iytDi«{^io,, nv\ ns iyv^Dt^iyD:i« yoo 
-y:i3"in iyvj^;:^K lyiiyj ;^Djyp lyj^n ,DiyDDit^ n ^"n nr^* 
tyn^viv-1^ DDuy: njytoti' lyni^tn pj^ Dt^toi^i^tD d^d iy:i:m 
yt^^n n .:j'i:iyTi^n nyn 1^ lyj^^^^i^sni^Q yiyn:^ l^it< 
v^^'^^v'p^vtoi^j^ n p« ni< n^^tr^pj!!<!^ pt? i842 pa Dp^n::D 
lysny^D^ns lyj^n ,DyDQMnt§n tDiyii oy ^11 ,yD^yii AVi^v^v^i 
-y3 DSSDi^D,, ty:>n /';y^^ J^i^^ pj^p-^DJs,, lyn pd ni^iiy:i 
pj^iiyj D^ynj^in^D d^j iiy^K^ px lyt^D^ton^t^t: n pd "nt<i'n 
n pD 3Ji^o^ni5?Q-iytD5:?:iy^yi n .lyiJ^DtrQ^ix v\^'i2^'?^B px 
tDJ^n yD^yii n^^t^^piJ^t^ p« \m^ ^^^^^?:^'? px lym^p-i^nD 
nsQ,, iy:3^:iyi3{^ Ii^n T^^? dj^iii /'p^nDD ^^nyjy^,, Dyi tDin^cyj 

-HPV^ IV ^yOi^^tJ^^n 1842 DDi:ini< pX tOi^n /'1840 PQ 1^1^ Dyn 

lyn tn ^D^m^ n ly^ytoti^ivQi^v nyt^^m^-pi^ y^^ nnjyo 
pa tD-i^v i$ n^D ."ij^^ PD Yv^v^ DJ^T pyii toyii ly^oit^tj^D 
-T»nD n ^11 ''iT^ ,inyTy:iDM« l^^Pini oy to^n lyD^ii y^^^t^y 
rtoi^tDonpy i^n toj^n n ^y^am nn« ,2:)i:!yii»n yti>^L^"'"'j}<fj'i"» 
n lynj? .Di^tntcK^ iy^^i:''^{<!Q nyn tD^n iyD'':!Qn:iv in Dyii 
1!^ lytJ^jyo yrny^iin lyT'n:)^^^ pa tD^-'p^-'^iy^y^ yi^n^iyaj^; 
n3»^ pa ynyrti^^D yt^^^D^^t^ss yvi^:i n V2 lyp^noD tyn-'^^n 



,ia3yoipKT N lis ]y»K3 nyn lynyji t^« "ij?i2if?tra d'^:;s'3„ * 

IjTJ^n ly^JinynxB-tDSnn n ii?^^:?^ p« ,1838 pK — tyttD'taiNtrta 
VDi'i'nny^ ^ly^tsys mn ]v^'»^^ ,tsDj;iS-iK'n y5''oj?;i^« :iyin'^ 



"iS!D yt^'^DD^Di^^t^o nyn .lyoD^jiij^jr-i^nD y-iyn'^DK' n lesD 
"p^nDD :?i$nyjy3» 5§ iv lycny: ]V2i^r\ i^y^cy^i' px iyj:i^D5$T 
tynn iid pyDyipyo n lynj^n nyDii^i^'D ayi lyr-ipvi'D^is 
T{< -LDiy^p-iy nx iy:JiD"'^v n px lynntj^y; oji^tov v^^Pi^'? 
iy:i:i^D8n8D n d^q p:?d iv iD^j t::j^>jn{^:i ly^i^n di^^d y-iy^n 
"n^no n ^:^ ,P2d ^ pn ypisD iiijip oy m .Dy^vi^j^ry-i n nynjij 
ly^-in y:3^yii nyi^^^o^o yoMiyj iv ry:ny:iy3 pt? ,j<2ij DJi^^jr 
D^{§ D:!i$Ty3DMi8 ^yDi^s lyn m lynt^n ,iytDS!:y^yi lyny: ijjia 
"OD^i^Dyi n p2 iy^{;?pi>*D^"i3 n Vi< .nvD'-\^^D pd -iy:oyn:ij 
-Dn n PD ^11 ,d:^^-i ii>*: p^oonpy yD^yn -oji^^jr-i^nt: v:in 
-5iQ{§"i ,Diyj''BK'-^y'n^n ,D"iyD^:jyr^^8 ,DiyvyTD2ntj^ ,D")yn:u 
P2 i^D^J i^Bc^ p^"? T^^? nyiyno:^^tDt^' px iyto^^n"is;-pJi'fc$D 
"ip'T'D ■'^D^^JDiJ^D,, 1V1 n:n ; Dy^vi^i^ryi yj'^DD't^nsJ'^o 
T^t< lyiyioj^^DK^ n PD (-i^^ipn^v ly^^^Djy^yir-'niv) "ns^ 
PQ iyj:ipm"iy^:"iN ytj^n^^oj^j. n n^ix ly^jn^m^D t^^o ^ib 
,DiyD^:jyT^^» n dj^ii d^-*^ nyi pfc< ; "ryryj np-iv nv: nvi 
IV Dy^vi^j^Tyi 11^ lyony: Diyrst^'-^y^isin px D-iyvymcnK^ 
Dy"i 15<D :ijny^p"iy yt^^ii^^^D s .^y-ijfc§n-^n2 pa iyLDD:u 
PD ya^^.D nyijy:yi£^ix ^nvr2 "lyi pD lyr-'iitj^n^a lyrTi^i 
'Vi2H V'Dv:"?^ "lyi PK lyrsyj pbd ^^n lyo p^p nyD^y:t^'D 
V':''?v\ px P^D^^i^s lyDJ^^tj^y^Dnx DJ^n Di^)) ,njpn lyjyDij 
I5§ lyD^yii iy:iya n:pn ^ — Dy^oipon iJ^-'jr-i^^^D pd 
Dt^n nyirnDn n pd i55§:y^yi 1yt^'^DD^t31^:rD ny*^"t5D^nitDjy 
,-iyoDy^DJS!Q PK nyiyaj^P lyi nnx Di^Doyoj^is ?'-)^\:ii^ 
"j^^i< I^ •'ii nnyn oysy \'^t nti^y; lyni^ D^n oy .1842 pi< 
-yriyiD n lyt^^^nyast^ dj^h d^ii ,njpn n lyto^nsi? nyD^D 
-S!D^:is nyK^>t:D^tDi«:^D lyn id^d tDt^'-'^i^Q pn iv lyiOD^ti^^yr 
PD Di^nD ytDin^j^n^ n D^yl^t^'y3 do dj^h mpn n .y>v 
3Ji:iyii^n nyn px ^^^loji^ lytD^yrDi^nD s lynnyj pfc< issi— 32 
nymnriy n pD ly^ni^D n ."Dpy^i^nD Dni>*Dy"i,, nvi i^sD 
"iyD^^t::iyDy nyn pi^ inyry^Jit^ pn^^ti^ in lyni^n lyn^^pn^no 
ps* n^^iiy; iyriiy;pn^v r^i< topy^i^iD lyn nys ,yv^ioDj«!:y-T 



DT''j^'':r-T'nt:i jis yt2D''try:i 222 

n mn^n .iyiy;iy:iDi?j mn i-'in-im^^ n nyn n« -1831 

-Di« \>i^D^ iyiiy:i t^k dk^p^vd^d nyn nyrj^yii d^d ,y^Dy^ 
^lyf^ii ly^otj^iyn nyj^^i:^^^ n iid ty^J^P^t^J^^'isi n .lyins^:^ 
n iv yo^p-ii^^jr nyn na Diy^^D^yru i?^Dfe§ lyni^^n >n Tfe§ 
18 ,^^: pDi^n^ nyni^ lyray;! i^q .Dy^V8^^:}^D;J§-"D-lfc^Dy1„ 
-y;''^n lynj^n ly^i^i 1842 lu i83i na lyDDj^^^yryri^D n 
-Di§T i^^Q8 !y^5<!T nyiJ^ ,iy*iJ^Q yt^-^^D^Di^tj^D n i^^ ^ivoii^ 
jiD lyoy^i^is n .nonnp yt^'^DD^Dn^tj^D n n^D i^y; ly^ 
pK Dii^Qrj pD ly^ynyi n ^DJiJ^trn n« oo^^^ni ^od^^iq 
,D8^p-iyD^^m8 pa y^D^SD^D n D:m«3 ly^n lynt^n 4839 
-i^nD n nyni^ .DiyrBtJ'-^ynissn nyij^^rs^; n m^ lyrjyii do 
LD^D ly^^Dti' 1^f ^n iyT^'ny:iDni8 too ;!:i;i^o p-'p lyn^^n DJi^or 
-li^ji^p'i? Duiys ton^ntj^ /'^{<!d3^^p„ .dv^^ovb d^d lyii^ D^y:i 
,D^^prtD^oD^^^:i ytJ^nyDyini^Q ^ts tyiiy:i do p«,, 4846 p^ 
lynj^n yosDnn dm-i:i px \v^^^ v^^'v^'sm^ n Di^n n ^-n 
DO "ly PN ; "iv:vt2 yrtJ^n n pa m^''^ n ^v D:i^>vyjD''n8 
n nsD n^^iy^ IJ^Dy:i t^t^ dj^ii ,Dyi ps Ds^yn i§ iyii„ : it^ 
■T5§^: pQ Diy:^BK^-^yii8n n lyii^ lyDDyti^Dni^n ps lyD^^ms 

nytj^^DD'>Dnfe?t^^D lyi^ nyc^^DDoyii^^ ,DTnyj){$^vi^j^iiyi lyn 
Dyn I8Q 3Jin^vj}^ pn n''^^«3 t^« lyD^sny:! lj^^dp^q dj^h 
■P8 yti^^Di^jj^py D'jyiiJ^i Diyn^^i .Di^^p-iyD-'^ni^ ps p:8iy:i 
-D''5^iQ Dyn tyrD-inxn p« D^si^iss lyastj^s^ ty:iyi") lyoj^^D 
-i^p ny^o nyi pt^ nynn^ nni^^ yn^ym p« lyj-in ny^^D 
pt^iiyj iy:!:8Qy:iJJ$ 1844 t^« t^x Dt^ii ,2:oyiife?i lyirD^iysi^ 
■y: Dyo„ {<: pt? do^dxd n ."nyjJ^''3 ly^^n^Di^ti,, n ti& 
nyii DD^nnyi D^j^ry: mri nyn^yii /'oyDO-'D ry^^^Ds^ti^^yT 
to^^v 'iv^V'> PQ tyo Di^n rO^rnjyDtJ^i^oj^^s iyj>^oy:i^8 lin 
-^yvnyp^P n pa wn^^'i n t^t? ly^n Dci^nya lyDo v)^ \i$ 
v^^vt^r^v:^ '•'1 pa lyn-'n n p« lyi^^K ,n^Dt$iysi^j<tp y:yjt^Ty:i 
•nyDDns D^-iv lyn iyD:)iK r^x opdi^^j^d -lyDDOi^om^nD 



223 j;Ti5''"»ys ynyitJ'^i^^i'V"^ ^t 

'i^B iyr"i:yDtj^^iD «t iid '?^v\'i< ly^^in D'oyiii^^ ns iyp:iTy; 
rn5<3 Dyi ifc^j t;^^jy:iit^ iy:nyn^j s iv y^os^iPi^Dyn '^V'^'0''? 
yi^^MMVJKiD "lyi pD ^y^BLi'^u "lyi .uk^ lypp^ot;^ yj^-i^p pd 
iyTfc^^3ynyis::5<2 iyDi;?n yD^to pimk Di^n ,i84b pD y^:;i^i^nyi 
■ji#^ ID 8 PK ; D«:?D Dy^o {< i^k lypJiD y^Jy3-l8t:L^•£{^ n 
nyii^ nnyo oyi pk i^oy: niJ^n «: in lyai^n Di^no lyji^i 
D^i: ,1848 5'nsfe§ lyDio pa isnfe§3 ly^^^snoatyo iyr:yr. 
li^Dir^yn "ni;? pn nyi ly^^yn iy:yi ,y^Dyvi^i3 n ruyD^D 
-y-i n nyai^ .Dj^^p^yiD^o nyji^uj^^ Dyn DDS"iayjDnj"iv Dijn 
in ly^^j 5< iyDp«Tiy: t^k oy .lynni? pn nn^Dyroji^^vi^i^'ii 
lyo^s iyi p2 yoD^iy d^i pd lya^^n yD^yn nyD^^ans pd 
PK |yriTy:j>^fc§ iyni;?n yD^yii px ,cDDixny; d^j ^jipmnyoJiK 
-iy;i^n n ps y^ai^ti^^^D yc'^D^^i^s pt< vii^'m^i^pv n m 
lyiy^y:! lyj^n Di^u pt^ i^ns;pn ,D{§nDjyn .DiyDii>*2yi vy'? 
P2 D^^PJ^DyD n lynj^ ; Siijv iy:^^^p 8 ps v)'?2 n^^iiy: 
PK D«ni^i3 iiij^ ni /-)yt:^nBti^-ife$2-j:n^u yiy^i5i^3 y^^yrs: 
jyij'M^v "Dastj^jyo^i'i y3^^viJ» D^nst^^i^s D^n ,tD^^: D^nst^'o 
'V"? n px "lyDiD^toDJ^K 'Diyp^J5<3yD,, n pa -iyi^^:^^D y^{< 
■••ns,, PD tyyi^K yD-i^iynu n ."vw^j^v^ '::vb„ oyi pa oiyr 
-^y^i /'nynPJ^P iyi:p:yi*ki^8noiN» p« ";:i»Dny:iyo:i« "iy 
■i^n ,iiJ;i:iiy3 iyDii;?iiy:iiyiJi<JS!D t^^nn isix st^s ^n« lyj^n yD 
iyD^^:nyiiynyDMK iyi iin dmde^ iyDMi:i s: lyji^ipy^ lyn 
■••^Dy^^S! Dyi PK ":y^^ tjijt^ iii^p-^t::^?,, nyi pss 8i:8;83iji3 
-:i?in PK ij^jji^p'i;? Dinys ."^yi:s!n-^n3„ ps tDnc'tD"ii;j2 oyj 
lyuyDp^ii Dyi ly^y:! \:iQt2VPv:i DDno^x lyni^n ly^nn'i^ v^ivo 
3:1^^0 iyi p3 Diyin^D n D^i? o^na px lyini^p p2 Di^a:"'^^? 
li^'-jv-n^nD n px td tyrsy: nrsi pt< .D^^p-iytD^^nis ps 
Dt^n i:8otj>iyini ly^^-'aiyjy i» t5< , 1847—48 p2 iy^i^pi^Di^i3 
n tyv^tDK^ IV 3Ji3yii8n lyiy^ ty:iyp pyii DDi<oy: iynnny:ijj^ 
ciHn "■•Dy^^Di^D 'Diyp>>» pK^nrx-D^tDD. n .iy^{<yi*K yt:^8 
lyni^n ^n Di^ii issiyi ^lyj^-'iw yin^x ps yrj>^K Dinjy3DiD 
.p:s!3"i:8^ D'li^j^i^p't^ Dinys pN lyi^i^a yiy>n tDi-Ji^syn 
lyni^n "^oy^^Di^D 'D3i?D^^njii^DD» nyn pa lyrniv ^niv lyii 



'V'? 8 D^8 ,Dyn ly^yp Di^iooyDi^iB pist^tJ^ y:inyn^« n \V2 
n T8 /T^K :inn^i'ipiyD nx .y^v^^ipysD y^j'^D-'^j^Q v^''?iv:i 
''?v yrDDnii^Q n ns do lyDipy: lyj^n lytooyD^nQ yrri^i 
ID 8 Dny^y:inynn8 i^^n DTsniDjy Dyoyii nyn^^JD^o yiytD 
D^nyj :o"'3 p^n p-'p ^^i^dj^-'P lyn^^n d^^ii v^v pq n^j ,m^Bo 
"Diyi"'Di{$D^i;?Ti lyn^^ti^pii;^',, n ivn .lyn^i^j lyo^s oyi px 
,yDiyQ 8 lycnyj ^i;?T lyn ts 4y:i^?tj>y:inj^Q 1848 pj< lynj^n 
Dy ty:^n ,iytD''Ui8 \v'?h^ yri?^DtD^>nis yiyn lyn^yii q^ix 
nyn-'K njy;! mx iO"':i lyD "••n nyn^^jD^D yiy::)^^^ n lyny: 
ly^yp D^iytD^j^y: m toonDix lyii^ n'niJt^'py lyn^^n yD^yn 
•lyn 18Q p-iin s o^d tDT>^^y:iD^ij? in mn lyD^yii ,t8^s Dyn 

.tDQ8tJ>^yTy:i 
"i^i^iiyi,, nyi pd di^cj^ oyn ^nJi!? i:^ytotj> r^« dj^t dj^ 
•iji^yii^n nytj'^iDDOJ^^jvn^nD nyi pa yn^^nyQ "nyiyji^^^: 
lyrix^vn 1^0 ty^yii t3iyiiimnj^''-^yDiyB lytDOpyj oyi i^a 
Dpix^i tyT>^i^3yDiD:^ nyn px tyyi^x y^>j n pa :!:i^p"'ntDjy n 
-••^yn ytojny^y: pa iy:oD86J'^yTy:i "ytDi^DS3^t§»5§„ yoni: n pD 

ni?3 iNii ,tyiO''^nn8D Dyn t5^» t1^? ojiv^t^^iyDJii^ nyrto^-'ny^yj 
■i^tDyo ynynyia n ^''ik y^DSDi^^sn y^yntDonrx n ^T-^^yo 

.3ynp-iyD8^p tia tyi 



225 



(1843—1860) 

1829—42 iiD ly^jijvDj^n v^D^viB H ^T invTyj lyai^n n^D 
I'D ly^yn t3V^K ; jJiti^MDjy "lynyDu to^o Djnjyyj in lyzi^n 
iy:^n in iyijy:i^i^DD{#j oy-i iid lyoD^ji^ovi^nD n ^-n inyr 
"sn ^y^D viv^ iyD^n:inyi p« i^nj^i;?2-iy lyiiy: D:yDD>^D 
ly^opy^i^is y^8 o^n s ij? njy:y^pyi^5§ AVPVi v^vo^ivwi^ 
D''?:voi^'?^^:v tD^D m >M lyony: ,y^vi^i;?"nyn '•\v'?^''ii^o na 
-miytDJifc^ y^yntoDHJ^i^ n{< yD^^^^yry; yoojiy n lysoypsin 
-i^D ?in« >n ly^n d^tjjj?^ nx Avi''^ ^n y^^yii iid -ly::!? 
-:v^^v \'^i^)'\v:ii lyj^n y^^yi") ,Dy^!^sT^j8:ni;? pv))"^ wriH'^ dvi 
ly^ynoDnrK nyjiyii^Q 8 n-2 ^ny; nyi P5< ly^^^o yuy^ 
iv i^^nyTDSMn i^ i^d Iyn^nt^' :^j^2iy lyrtiijT ayi .DSStiSK' 
n iv pi? ^lyo^D n "iyt::i« :ijn^n ns jJiD^nst^ij^D nyn 
■yjj}^ 1842 i^K li^j \v2^n V2'?v^^ AV\:iyt2H v^'t:>?^'^B-ir]VD 
HJ^D i-io .D^yn y^^-iDD^ji^^jr-T^nD n iyDi^2r^xfe?3 lynnn 
.iy::nynjy yt^^^Di^Ji^py n PQ jjipi^n n lypipiynnx d^: "lysj;? 
t:jy3^^^*yjDn« in mn 1848 pk 1825 tytj^niv yij^nys n 
■nnp v'?v')i'^vmP v^n'i^ pd tD^^psn^tj' pi< o^^ptosi;? nyi ld^o 
■nyo "i5<2 nynj^p pd ^jiD^nnonx n t^n \i^ isso ps .lyo 
nyD^yii pfc< "lyn^^K -iyri^yD*^i$n px nyoyn: ]V))v: ]^ni^' nyi 
■ysTi^ nyin^n p"»P D^j T^x Dy * yn^^inys lyrmynnQ t^x oy 



n»;T ]1B ,ntrfiK ,DnK3DnN i^t ts^n) 1874 iik 1850 lytrnis * 
pip lyo^py^'i^s "'3 ^^** (;y''ip'"iy^'^'2 ny:«pnyoK uyi ps tt"S 



Dr'':;y'>:r-T'ntD jis j;tD3''tyya 226 

-:i§j^D 8 lyoipsi DJj;?^jr-n^nD n ly^^yii lyojiN .y^^st^jsj 
8 pi^ yDD8«n yDS"ii^:^8n ns nstotj' lyD^jyj » /Ddsip y^y^:^ 
D^: nynnD Di;!in lyo y^^yii hd .DDstJ'iyi^^iitD^D ynjyD^j'sn 

.DDixnyj 
,nT^ji$^Jvn^nD rnyn^j^ Dt^on^ti'D pd D::»DiynMN n 
-J1K .1837-42 na lytD^-iv yoDy^tj^ n ^^ij? lyD^j^tnyj nn toi^n 
■-182 Dyi n^? ly^jnyoym^D y^yj{i> n ns di^dj^^s Dyn nyD 
n T^i< ,tD:i^j^£)y:Di^j tojj^n dj^i^ "ijjsD^^^Nn iyrDy»D''JtD^yn 
-anx yrt:jyp ^ n« ; lynjij^iiji^isa y^vi§D^;i8 y^^^^DD^^n^tJ'D 
n tD^D ,1843 Dns ,iyDipy:in{$D t^x DT^j}$>ji''-i>nt2 px j:ny^ 
-^a,, -lyirDps m px "lii^^JV 'D-iysyD» yDyi:njy;i •'^yD-Pinx 

"••OS^^i^D^ lyn tD^D 1844 pK pN /'y^V8"'Vi$DJ<! 'Diyj^StJ^'^yil 

-y:i nyvytt^antr y^y^:^jM^i<ii3 p« yrtDiJ^Dtj^Dann n ps :ijn 
n ."•'oy^'-DJi^D ^8p^S8i:ij^3^D ^sjt^tj^yj,, lyi t>j< jyiDD^tj^^yt 
"Sini^yn) '"•Dy^^DJ^D 'D'^vP''D ov'ph dj^^s "lyto^-'jr,, y:i>D:)yD 
-fc^D ^^i:yiD 'D-iyp^-iD Dy^:i tor^s,, n d^s 1849 pi< jom^j 
PD TIN* tDi^tD^n ("n:8^i^"'5< uy p^tonn tD^n:i iii^ ^^]}^^o 
•lytDS^y^yn pi^iiyj iyD^ny:isj^ lyj^n oy .ini^^ jya^ytDyT 
Dy^v8P:)5§^ii^ y^^Ji^^v^j m ; lyD^D yiyi:^? pd iy:iJi^oj^n«Q 
"8i » .n^i^y^i toyirnjy:) ryj^n Diyt^DitJ^ px Diyn>>:ti^ pa 
« Dyijn^y: 1845 pt< t^j^n Diynii$5 iid nynysji^p y^sJi^^:^ 
•182 wi px lyni^p y^^pj^^ y^8 Pd ti^-^jr yii^ts^nynyD 



n»T ^KT D«Ti ,inDf3-anKabpy nymx n^ tsiyn d:;'t p« 'rxepm!? 
,1887 ,1829 ,1826 mnx' n pK i^^xepm^? y^D:^): n T5f T'binr 
%*^pi;* 1» lyny:; i^ nr^:iK eo nt i^t u^onjr: td .1848 iik 1842 
-K!2 D«Tp-!j?i3finK ly^K ij^^yo i^D ,;2i:nB»-ij^ iy;uKT lyi INS jjn 

— aytaD'D-t:'::;;! ]j?:N£imij t$ pj; -ij^-j^njN n) iyiaD»'7«toyo-<n n m 
.1873 VN t::; ^n is pKnp r:3Kn3y.i i-:mt ^ra'^pn ,iyD'np n ^2 



/'iJ8^-i^^^ i:y p^Dna o^n:i iiij ii!ii^^^N^Di;iiD8 'Diyj^^o,, n 
jyj^^t o>^v lyi IV Tu .1841 pK n^y^Ep^Mi i^K oyi:njy; 
pD ij«;o:^'w » pfc< iy:i2y; nn iyni;?n yrj^y^i nyD^u-ij^jyj^D n 
cyi inn P« DyoD^D-pno Dyi nn ,DDi$*^D:)y:p -iyt^^DPi?D 
-D^^v PD lyo^Mi pyiis D^J .inii>*^ Tsmn im ly^jmsD iv :n:D 
iyDp8iiyjD^i« iy:^n dv^j< .Dy^v^T^j^:ii;?-p^nDD yr^^ni 
ps Dvmn PK iJ8^"iy3DinDii^J pi< D:j^^:v-pn^vb!n yp-isDLj^ 
nyo^niv lyi PD i^^c'piJ;?^ PK "i^''K^s;pjfe<^ i^x px ,D^n p^K 
Tin ni^i^y;i lyas'^y: t^k Dr5<c^-iyB"iyp v: n px ; o^n 
/Ttj'n pDi^D pD D28::'ny"in^D ny"i lyDJix .::nny-iy2 ly^n 
-i<Bi^i2 y^^^jnyiiyjiyoMK is to^yp^iDjy y^vfe^^v^^Ds n dj^h 
nyrjyii too t:)^^^ p^n px njyD^iiinji^ /to^^prtoyD y'^^DDn:fc§:i 
lyni^n v:i'?V'\'\ .lyoonj^iij^Bii^-is yo^ni^vsin rvcia-pN-'m ni 
-1^2 lyD^jy^yi n .hdi^d lyn pN nn:ijy^n^ip viv' oiDnyin 
TT D^D lyoyiDnsB iyDi:y:i io ni^:i lyni^n 1844 ps ly^ji^osr 
PD ^ni^v n px ; yossDni oma ps iyt:pnDDn-iy:^D y^s 
DjytoDrjyii DD^nnyi mn avd ^w '^^^'^^v\''?:^'d lyn 

.100,000 V2 

ny^^^DDoi^or-n^nD nyrr^^n lyi pa ^nD:^' lyroD^ii » 
IV '^:^tDt^ny^^'n "lyrpyjtoi^n » jyi^y:! t^n iJiny^Dnx-nynni 
-ifc?D v'?v:i^"^i<D:vo nnyn n D:in .:i:ipnTiy*jjii< nyD^^vyty;! 
Dy-i D^o Diyny^Dnx lyni^n lynn^Q t^^om^nD lis ly^jii^i^D 
-"•^K^iss px r^« ii^3 T^x ,n"iyntj^ yD^^vyTy:i^iK n lyny^Dnx 
-",^2 yD^^nynsnxDiN ly; lyD^pyjnj^s n^i^D lyn P2 ly^^^D yjyi 
1yt^nyD2n lyn inn ,nyi^^:D^D y^^^jnyny: n pa ::i:^{^q 
nyjyn px iytDD''"'D iv y:iijn ryryj nyn P2 :iJiij'tD^>tDDni< 
ni^iiy:i tonyoti'y:! iyt:^'»m{<:)yj^D n iy:i^n tDsnniyn^x 
lyj^n ^n yD^yii tis d^>v lyi px /lyj^onyto yjjs^ n iin 
,t:2n^ny; ^n oi^n ly^ lyii ,iyto^^ni» iv iyny:i ly^jixnvy:) 
rnjy^n .jJiriDsyK^^n t:''D toiy^niss tyiiy:) do tyrn ^n lynt? 
rnjyst^n do px ^ly^n^m VT'?'iv^vi n r^t^ Djyii{<nfc?D do 
^n lyrn ^pyDyipyo iJ^om^nD ds^p Dyjynns:2iy i^^p n?^: 



Df3i^''ii*'-T'niD ps ytDD''t^y: 228 

lyt^'^Dpfcina rjfc;;i 5S nM« D^^piyi^^ nyi d^d D^yjJisny; m D.^n 
ni< nyj^iysi !?$ *,DDiyni^i 3 .11 D^yD^y:iJj^ lyn^^n ^n .i£)i« 
D^D DTT-'DSQD^D pib^D^ DJ^H "lyrj^yii ,D«pj^in« lyt^unyjy 
y^spj^^ n p5< iyDyi*i<n£) y^s ^n nss pn^D lir /lyD^^ns n 
Dm:! 112 y^vs^vj^Ds 'Diyj^-iD,, n D{^*n 1844 pj^ .lytoDny;; 
-■•^vyjiDnj^ tyrtfcfn oyn D:i^i$Qy:iDJ<;j "n^^^i^x n« y^Ji^tonn 
':h nvi to^D Dy^v«T^:«jii^ v'?^?i^^ n pa "pvb^^^^ lyojyD 
-y:iD«i lyD^^^yty^ tynjytoti^ iv^^i d"?^ t'DD"iyn«i ly^yoc^ 
-ipj;?is-^j^iyjy:„ iy-i .ini^^ « £i,ooo pa d'p^t^v: ^ d^q nya 
Di!?n ,iyQny:i Dn^5< Di^n lyD ni /'iyD"'>ni55:)yrD n pa n^^n 
-n-'-'JoisQ lyn pj? tj^^proyjo y^^^-i^oiyoix I^ lyimyjoni^ 
-18 lyn pi^iiyj iy3^:i px vm iy pfc< ^ly^jy^p v^^^t pa jj^:i 



.ryn ]TS pu nytsDjj'x ij^t ,Dt2ij;nNi :?jit3i«nQ D«i'?m * 
4806 pN pxny;; pNn:;:i ti« ,TixsDi2^yti'ti' ]is ,DtDi:;nNn dnonti'^d 
1*? lynyj TIN -I- .nyisDjtttttsjxtt pn !2KpNin« in pNnjr: va pN 
*i-NiJ ,in:jnp'n Duiys psj Tjn-is x px t2D>t:iNtjia i:;tr't2DN'nt::;r 
ns .ryi'-^yi iy3^'7syTy;j d^n lainyjj taxn ny pi^nn^iN'? oynyn 
y3''?!?yTyj y'rN cyoa ]ik ]yoNi pu {Di^tt^ny nyta^n pN 1843 
"inyD t2Kn 1848 pN inniyoxTi!? -ij;t .DiN'JT' Tnis n ps Dipoy 
tans i)?j;jN^ K INS lynN ,yi5JNai2yi pn i:;nytyyj; iy;jnyiT np^ 
px ."ly^'T'iiDnKS D^N ly'^ytDtJ'JN tasN pNj j»^n inj dh'n lyD tDJ?y':5 
PN ^^ipiN"? ,';y'77N ps jaun^'tanNS n iDiiT':N;;nN -ly laxn 1867 
-y;; lyj^n yr^yn /'lyi'mND lytaoytJ^riiNa,, ytrn^N n /lynn'ij 
"lyT px yay;:N£y.": nyjis ^yiTytiNiDmN ins pNny;; ^y^ixnyj? 
DBiynxi "I'T taxn pnx' yiytaysB^ ]in .taO'iJ^^NQ « ]is -ajniNony 
,TiK'7 I'snN Lj^yTNn T'T laxn pN lyiy"? lyiv^pN ]is lyjinijyjjpnri 
•iNn ,tt"',Nr,D:K?:pn ])!2):'7 /'bi)'i^i}:ii^p'i} ps tasNtt^nNn^NJ nyn pN 
]y!3"iN"i tiN -^j; .Dy^:N'i'Np D'lNijNp'n ps y^i^N ^yiisy;; lu tann oy 
Dyn lyjyr. y-nt'^ni n .1871 ,iynoyiDQyD iyt37 nyn lynixutry^ 
n vis (1871 ,iN~iN^) /'1871 ps tapyNnsTytyj? iN^iVTmia,, 
,"iyi« taiiiB* Dy .tyi^syj lyiNn n^n dnti yi^u tasntr y;'i'i''N 
Dy!itjnB-p':'tt'T:'K oyn ps taDnxn n tan^tapNiyn inx laxn ly tn 

.]yDyiiNn5-|>yTy;? )}'))ii:ii< pN 1847 px 



-D~isn s Dfcsnyj m ifc;D 7i^D iyot>'"iy div lyaj^jn us? iyv:{<; 
■DMi< ID K lynyj p« ly djh ,-iyj?y'n /DiysDpyTytyj iy:^pyj 
iD^j iy;ynoDyijiD in dh^d .D^nr^pya n ns n ni -lyroD^i 
38CD6^'Du lyiy^ o^D TT lyvusn p« i^r i^M"p isD o>yDiyyj£{;j 

•ryryj na 
Dy^: ^:'^^,r lyi iv lyan^j'yj DJijin ny di;?ti ,piyna s px 
» V'"?^ DDiy3«!i 0^: ,1^51 pN "•'Dy^^Di^D ^>ijyiD 'Diyp^-ia 
DJi^^Jv n yD>yii lyjyj /lyo^^Piyiiti^ n pa 1:?^ lyDs^nayp 
,ryTyj nyi ^'\r]v'?[>rii ly mi ayiDs;?: -lysDyp ))i o^nv: \V2^n 
vi< Dv "ly^i^,, : Dyi:yj^i^D "ly ojt^r .dh^k onyDi^isiD ly mt 
iyij'ny::y: ly^^s pd yjy^ ^u r^yis iv lyiitj' ny^MyjoiN 
5«T i"'t< .DPJiBiJ^DK^ lyrrsi Dyi lyonyjjs ly^yit ^n dj^^p 
DJny^y:i ai^n i^x dj^ti ,dps!d d^s ij^j /^j'^ddspisd t:^: dj^i 
j^n yp8D tyj^n oy jJinnstDiy px :i:"io:)fc§n«i8n ly::^^ 8 P2 
Pfc< :i:y:) i^^iny \V2''\ V2'?V)) .^motJ^-iyDDn Tanx lytj'jyo 
-DiK PK lyvjyijyo y-iy^n y^s nynj^ -dd^^q "ly^n ij;?d ly^ni 
D^j "iy::y3 yny^^i? dmx pyn ^n •i^-'S iy:iy: iy:^n lyiJiiiDtj^ 
-81 ^nvD ^n iy:^n lynnyi — iy3^jy:n8D d^d ij^j ,02?;? n^: 
Di^Ti Dyi D^D -iyT^^« i^^8 iy:yj t^k dji^m i^ Dyi d^d DJi<p 
t:iyM Di^i lyii^ — iv tt ^n \'^vr] y^ iv -i^^s "iss fj^ 
: iyo:i^^py3:i^ div D:ii^T lyo Dii^n dd^'':i Dyi px |{>*t:yj pr^ 
nn^K Di^-n ijny^pny viv lyiSD iv DrtDiyiista D^n -in^x,, 
-1VDMK i^^8 nMHD T^i< \:iyiv:i o^i px ^ron: ifcits DJ^Dy:i 
nyn pk .11 .ts .n "\2:if:^ nn^K Di^ii ,Dpjynyj lyii^ ; pyn 
nj^na pc ^yi^-'otj' lyrvnstn Dyi nn^x t^p-iyo^a ^sa lyD^j'iy 
^iijotDDi;? D:in ,PTin lyj^Di^BK^ 8 — lytD^ni^f oyi px ; oDsi:?^ 
tDDip "iviyi .nvi pK D^^pi^^iy^^ ^yJypi^1t^'yv i^o » id^d 
nyn ,t3«SD "iy"ijyrD^yi'nyn''N ly^^x pd T^ntoDiKiii^n d«i 
-jny 18 DM"i8 i^^i^tD8: tDsn Di^n p8 ,torj>^8i8D to^n in>N 
P8 .T^ns lyny^ dix i^^8 iy:iy3 yt ry^ytotj^ iv tj^jixii jyi^^ 
nni Diij^l >IV3:j:y3ynDn8 yiynj 8 ly tonyijin I818Q lyj^n oy; 



QT'':i8'':r-T'ntD lis v^^''^y^ 230 

-jin^i^si yK^^D'«f'«3 ,iyt5>''jy:iy:i8n — l£"i« lyn^ytoyi n^x w? 
m T« .lyo^Mi MT8 ii« n)^)v sinK iy:iJijyDi;fin ,nonti' /iy:i 
-81 MT8 pyi^ ^mDC^-iyDin i'd-'Ik ly^^n d^i^ii y^s is .du 
nytDJi« nyiJj nsu lyn^yroyn ^t-i^ to^j i^ix ii« .ddi^q^^s 
JiMn^-Jisn "w^v^'i^ 8 nym d^t t^« lyij^Dt^D^x yooyn n 
T>K DV i«ii /^8D 8 r« nyo^'-m^ i8 i^a DDny:i p« lyaoyp iv 
Ij^: "i^D T^N Dv -Dn^K iy:yp ^ya^^ii:^ t^x dv nyi^yii i^i i^j 
?«:t lyD^yii nyoDn s iy:yjy;!8n iv lyDipyjonx d^j ^^i^oj^^p 
lyrtoayK'sn iv d-ij D^nn-'^yn ly^^^^nx iisosj;? 18 T8 ,\v?2V^ 
-yjDiK 18 T^8 "nn:^ i8 t:)it3 d«ii mo'ninn,, t^5< oy lyi^yn 
Dy m 'D"inypi8S ^8S lyn pn lyn^^t ^j^t ; dp8 "lyi'-^vyt 
-J18 no yi^yii ,y^v8i^aDj{<ip yi^^pynt?^ 8 psiyi "i^8i Diyii 
.11 .T8 .8 .ryty:i ns D:8n "iypi8Dtj^ iyi na nyii DpmnyD 
t^8 li^or 'Diynyi:ijy^nMp n nn^^Di8D 2i^r\ t-x nyn — 
nyDJi8 ly^ynninrx lyny^ iy:iy:i DaDypy:i i^» lyni^n ,pD!i 
iyiiy:i lym lyj^n vd d81i iy^8s P8 i^^Q8 /DP8-Djjipm 

^V'^'DP 8 P8 T8 .iyiiy:i T^8 tD8D^1Tyi lyn P8 ; n"'^18Q ii; 

oni^ii .iyQDyp8n iv :iJipmiyDJi8 p^p iyiiy:i d"": t^8 d>^!^ 
PD j3ipmiyDJi8 Dii^D nyn t8 ,iypiyD8n iv Diyii t^8 oy 
18 ^11 inyD D-iJ ty»y^8 i«j r^8 d«ii — wt"^^ vd tyi^yn 
tyiJiKiiK^i8Q Diyii — nnj:i pa nii^s yiy:i>^2 p8 yiy^yn^''j< 
iy;ypDJ8 tyoi^^K^Djy P8 tDoy^ m D^yc^ tyD ^ii i^j nT8 
-IV tDnn^ay:i Dyvj^^ia lyrrj^n Dyn i^d lyto^i^ii psv i^8 .oyn 
P8 ,DDny:i \^v:ivr] Dyn t^8 I8T /DDnyrDpi>v8n p8 tDtj'iy 
*."Diny; D'j^rjyp. lytDDiyn t>8 itj^G8 Dyiii^j 



n pK .1851 ,ijrn«BpN /'ptyjyD 'Diypn^ dv*?! ^:^bs„ * 
V2''i'Jnjnij?jnj;Dn« id « ]:;ttipy;-iNfi iyi"T 1847 — 48 ]"inN» 

pK p«iiyj id;x'?pj;:3« ,1848 p« ,Dn:;"i:;n»i''t2B> lyjNiiK'? 21 lyj 
lyoyns IS B"iyn:?j5fln« "ly^K'rpaN npy^Dianntj ij;t tawn ,pNny;i 



y^yD"DjyDfi?^-iSB lyi pn d^jii ^PDiyi inyr -ic'dn lyo i«p 
ni?D ^v,- Dpy^i^is^'yry: 5? lyis^my: iy:«t-i:oy:j^n«! t^k 16U pq 
lyiTM'iV D^DiDDD Iy^^^t^'D:y iv ivdd'i n iid dds^: n piyoyij 
■)y3yji^!^c'yni^D nyn ."rnDK^o-^^yn m '^\]}:v''^ ^D^nn-'^ya 
D3i<D n -lytDDn-Djynns n iy3y:y:i it^: d^j Di^n rv^vi 
^ pi^iK -lyD^uiK W^v p^DDy-iy: iv ly^nyDsn lyayjivD^is 
s pD iJinn^DDn« yD3y^t^' yiy\, ij^j ,n^nn-^yn pn pD y^s^p 
tD^D pyii DDiijiotJ'iitn D:i;?pyj Di^n "lyD^^nifc? is; nyii^ -lyjyn 
jjnj T^« Dy nyo^n lyrvj^^x ife§ i)^ ^'2:2V^v: w^in ^^-nir 



pK iy:Kt2B'y; iyJ"T nys'i'btyyntann -lyi^yisyiy n .y:«^"5 >t 
-12 'D pyiiK 'nT ]iK nm inxtrri .nn«Eyj ipyD^nj i*;^£ h 
a'r^ita-nKiKE px cstrD'y:) ly^'^r ,y>i?«T':K:-iN lynr ]itj lyi^^j 
■ytJ'" lyT 115 y^^'^P "^y*^ *T^^ ,:s:iP'B'"ik2 inN' iny:^ t;? n«ny;i 

"K- "iy2KE2"« IJJT ^nX /']Ktr'^N'DKDK 'Dlym!yi:py£12KD 17y'£J 

v:::;K'7py:!:x n t« ,'{yEm«nDnK iyi:jKt2DyiK im!» pE ;:un^iBf 
V3i'?py"nr n CK ."lyjitrNJi iyt:2^:-iKE is t::fyny;!£nK in iyn«n 
-KiB .;iuyiEn« ytsoyus n iyEny;DmK axn t2''p;;'t22yiy;oi« 
nj;'?K:R'SK:„ nyi ps p^ny; iyB'i'Kny;5K iy:''T lyjii'i'CKTiKE-cDytD 
T'K cpK-D:2i;n'7itr«3 "lyn ."DTnii jrc^i^MKiKE p^ »))iH^^HDH 
ibH2 -lyiN t2«n U'O ,p«ny:i iyTmy:ipms n:nj ]ytr>i2yt2 k bimk 
ly^n^syj y'?KpK'? n .ytt;K'7py:jK n ]y:yp y;«'7p yn: k e'n;;;;?!^ 
-y:j T^K yjK^p n m Dynrx: tk ,piKi3tr nrtj ]yny:j lynK lyj'u 
]ii<nyj tt'nEKn ^'T iy:^u ,ia^'s "in«' k syp yiynr ipiN ly^sjxn 
.(1849 ,'>b^'> iyt2l2 Dyn) ta'ip3''7t2"i«nt2:«"iKE "iy:y;"K lyn sjnx 
pfi i^iKi'tD H/, T« ,tany'7piy taxn cc^KOii-Tntt lyi^yEytr k 
Dyn lyBiKnniK c^^n "oni: nrx iyny:i t^n nyny^Dts^'nix n 
]yn«n npo'innw n tk„ ,y»i?Kit2D'rm« iy;5iei« lyi pE ^i^ciik 
]yny;y:i Kt«n ^yn; vnixtrTT lyo .;2n>;yn "lyn ike e^x^pxn tt 
-IK pB ly'i'KB :ii!J3KTi!i ... .^^iDmyciiTN IK lyrKO ii? bn»zH2 k 
lyi'u ]nKny;i o'bi^iD-nKnKE lytsDn n pB lyi'u dkii -lyci 
ys'i'yn iifi ,ttyi2'0Kp D;j:i3nnyt2iiK ]k ike ]iKnyj i22K-i2y;iKB 
-tt'i^B,, 'Dnyiynoii'iDty) "pKnyj lyTmyjpms lyi^n inyr^yn'T 

.(1848 ,23 nynoynK: /'iK'jipi^D 1*71211: 



; yisnD lyii^^PD^j^ lyrtJ^T lyn iy3y:iy:i lyD^j^ii lytDDn-Djyi 
nyi Pi''*iK lyt^niKWJi^ D^nyansa d^j ypsto Di^n DL:-iynfc?i i^x 

-j« i^y^syK' PK -iyny-i:ijy^nMp n pa :i:i^D8tiiSD-iyDs:iy^y"i 
nya^yii .opy^jjiB oyn iy:y:i y^:;8D^:i8 yDDsnny^ is lynnny: 
ijiry^ii^Q "lytD'^i^ nyn inn Dtj^o^^:iy:iDnn Di5§ny:i pic^ in D»n 
■•T .nynjit^a \vw2^b n :injyo^toti^ d^j ^oycD^oi^p Dyi px 
"lyjy "ly^y^vysD d^d iyDijy:sMi< "i»;t n o^i^n \i^'':v 'Diysyo 
lyjy; Dy^^''Dy3 ^nt^ lyDsntj^nyDJix o^yDStya Di^n px y^;i 
nyD^^-i:^nD 8 .iynjy:iy;i v^'i:iV'?2V^'^D n p^ Dpy^i^ns Dyn 
-i;a Di^n .aDJ^pjn nD:ir^D d^dj^d n^^^D^D-^jyo^^isQ 
T» ,D"in^Dy:iDnK mn m Dyi:i^iB jy^myD^^'n pn Dnyt:c^ 
^^"•inyi .mD"Dr-iyDD» Dyn i«ij m iy:iy^3« Dn^t< ^«t \vd 
,Dy^v^DyQ D'lD nsi"»y:i dv^^^dissj t:jyDfe§^i«3 lyi t^k 
DnyiJin -"MIV V2 ^'?nv)iv:i yr lyi^n ,D:ii^T lyo ^n ,yD^yi^ 
"lyn lyii .nyD^^ms ii$"'^>D ^mv tDi^DjyTyisyn lya^i^n px 
-nsn y^'fcf! iy:^n ,ni^iiy:i DD8nny:ini^D ^fc^D^Di;^: t^t? Dpy^j^-iQ 
jyDi?itDy:iDMn8 lyiVD^inyDJi^P "iJ8^::y :i:v„ n pi< ly^j^P 
*^VD PD DDyDJ^iQ lyn tya^J<!ny:i d^j o^i^n oy .Dn^x iy:iy:; 
lyrDoys^n iv lyon^ li^: r^t^ :ijn^:iyn n ts: ,Dynyi3 oD^^t^n 
DDsnny^Dnjiv D«;n ny px .ddshp pk p^tj^ T^i< d^ii yv^v^i Dyn 
,|yny; njytyiiji^ lyj^n oi^)) mv'?^^ yj^n y^^?; psi^ip n pN 
-jn PD :iJ'irj>^«i«D n .it^tDDi^^: .id to:yDyiy:iJ>n« imej^ 
D^D ,D^n nyn:» nyi ^Mt? n:i8ife§Q pH nrn ,"'^p^y^i ,nDJ^p 
yrj^^i? p« ,DiyjJ8» ini^tj^n "n«i^ •'ii ,n«D^inyDj{^p yD^yifc? 
-.iB^tD:)y lynj^n Diy^^^^ii .q .d ni ly^siiyn^^ yD1^y^py:ID^1^< 
lyny^DD^mK n ivd iinsD ly^n^^i oyi pa ^11:1 nyn lyn 
n iy:yp ryryj pa lyDsii y^yi^^iu*: snyD n tyciyiti^i^D iv 

->n pK a^«D"iy ny:'':)yii t5^ny:i lynt^n lytD^m^jy^D n 
.D^poy ytj^^o^^i^Q PK vy'^'^v^v^i v^v^^t pk ^11 ,Dp>nt5D v^v 
1v:i^v^^ pk ,ii?:T8^: px 1844 px nyiyDJi^p y^^jj^>v8J ny^n 



.DD^tDC'v: Di^n ,iyD^u"i8 70,ooo lyDJ^iDifess lyiiyj lyj^n oy 
yiy^n lyjy:! P^noo ^ "ij^a ,23,357 lyjy: 28,042 ]:i^D 
p« iyo^^3-i5§ 30,uuo iny ii§ n iid oynnnp n px oynvnp 
iy::8? » oin^syj lyn^in v:i'?]:^^ .u^nDi ns iJ^^iyaDinoii^: 
111^? iy:yp pi^ P« lyjJiiJnsrDD^u-i^ yiyoya isd ^d^p 
lyni^n n^D lyD^yii lyjyn .D^na-'^yn y"iyijj<: p« nyiji^iji;;;^ 
yj:^!^ PD ^DSP iyD-iyDuife$D » ij^: .Diyny: lynnD intj' 
-Din lyD^^nyiMtj' «: ld^d D:n:yy: p^noD "lyi nn toi^n D^u^nn 
Di^n v::i'?V)) ,D-iy:^^D n ps y^-^yiT^JstJii;? yo^n: n px ; ^SQ 
pN "i^DD pynoij^j,, pK rs^B Dy:ynyry;:i^ S!T8 iyDi:nfc<Q 
iyn:ni:^-ii<D 1^ T"'nijyDiD:i^ \^ Dnnn ,1845 p« 1S44 \']r]^' n 
pinj< M Diyn 1848 Dnfc$ pfc< ,::it:>^v nyi pa lyto^i^stj^ n iid 

.p^ioDMpy IV iyv:8:j'K 
3:ny^DM5< nyrti^i lyi pfc< dp:ib lyoDDyn -lyi iV2i^ 
px ,jjn:n:i n lyiiy: t^k D^^pr^yo iy*j^^DD>:fcj^jr-n^ntD pd 
■^^Kn5§s PD y^vs^Di^Ds ny^^j^^^^st:/. nyi pd '1845 pd nyDDJ* 
Dfcjii ,y^v«T^:»:ni^ is; /'o-'uij? iid n^^ oyi ife<D Di^nt: y^rj 
PD lyyi^fc^ yo^iiya nn pn t:rj^^Ki5§D pk Dny^y:Dnfc< tDsn 
-fc!!n lyiiyj i^^pmDMi< t^k y^V5<^D«D5§ n .r^tonyni^i pk jyi^ij 
yoMn: ^n^v pinx,, ,T:"ii< lySiyviyi mjpn yin^K ni ,Dyijnj 
V^p 00 lynp lyoi^^p yn^yD^^mi? n ts ,D:yDtJ^ny : lyoPSD 
,DjyD^^iiv P5< ;D^^ni^ :^d jyD^^nny \^ "15§d pi^ lyn'ic'r 
Di^n iy::i:ijyntotJ'3i<i viV't \v:''t \'-\r\i^' y:y:j«n^D n px ts 
n .i^n:^i<iDny-DO lyiiy:! ,iyDnfc$:Dnfc< rjyii tD^D ,iyDipfe?n iv 
px lyrsy: lyD li^p n:soti'iv ly^n^^n Dyn nsD ly^j^nix OQ^^n 
Dy^vpyD lyto^^nns yjyi^^t^"ii<D n pd t3>>ptD"iy-Tjny:Di^ -lyi 
PN yD^ypiyji;? p^oy^^s: 1st ^n to^nyo oy d^^ii oyn j^k pk 
rsT:y:y:i p« ."ndi:i oi^no n pd toytDni^t5^ii< y:yD"ijy:i:» 
n nynfcj in Dnn ,1883—34 pd :i:i:iyiistn iytj>^tDD^:yn« nyi iv 
-:i!? PD "Di^ntD yur:^^xisD n pd y^vs^vyiDst y3si:K^vs!j„ 
\v'?V')i ynn^K pd to^^proyo nyi d^d t::y3^^vy:iD^^fc< i^^ D^in 
.tyDD»tJ^jy:i>^K — :)jiD^Kins:D in^« pd D^^pj^oDmi^D lyn p« 



M8^ royDD^jD^ynnsQ "in^« lyi^ntj'i^^ iy:yD i^d V2'?v\'\ i^ 
DD8Dy:i D^j T^fc< iitisD p^p .in^^ iny^Qis nsQ nytoonpy 
-8T^J8:ini$ yui^DDnpy 112 rs^B nvi lyonyjisQ iv pini'iiyj 
."li^^jr Di^no -iyj>"'Dy;^8. ii§ iin ly^KS yiyn^usn px oy^^ 
■jSDtj^m^ yt^^jDyD px yD^^iy:)^K .y^spj;?:^ yrDisjyr^x n,, 
,rDMJ I8Q Dy iyDfe$D,, ,nijpn n iy;j^t /'i^q lyiy^ lis \v^ 
-^sinsQ lyD^^nyrx ly^jyoysD^^P ps lypyii^ n ny^^i^ ts 
,]ytj^jyD PQ I'^V)) oyD^KinsD lyoay^j^y: yny^n \v'?i^^ ::"itD 
Dyi ny^^iv -Dyn lyjy^i nnji§n lyj^^Dp^is » lyni^n v:i^V'\) 
PK m tytj^^D ^^ DrtD^nas^sn d^j oy Diy^i tojn; wr^i^i 
i«j ."DJ«^:r i^nto yiJi^Donpy n pd y^^f8t^:«n{^ nyi 
y^^s^vi^DS n T8 rD^J<tiiy:i rojyp lyni^n iynjn:i n nnyo 
-ys fe$ ly-i^^K Dyo^Di^p nyc^nsD^yos^n^s 8 inyo \^v)) ^t^r 
t^K /DD^^Q PK ya^janx in-'K .lypyiiv T-nto iss y^v^iyn 
m lyoyiytorx n lyv^tj^ iv,, pn oyii ,ni^"iiy:i t^nny^piy 
■"182 nn /'iyD8D yorj^^xisQ n pa pn^nxii oyi lyD^yn 
inn PN ,ty:iJi^iJ8m8D y^^^vyryj pfc< iyD^>^;iDnN ,iy^t3^D 
,yijiy^PDnN Pfc< y^8^^«D ,v^d'''?h^ ,iy^y:iyiD«iD y^8„ lya^yn 
ynjyD^m« n pD v^^'? n nyoynsa 15^ lypynvj^n dj^ii 

*."iyD8^P 
-ynya y^sji^^vsj i$ iynjn:i i^i? -pnsa ly^^j nyrtj^n nyi 
y^rj-'^xi^D,, n ti2 :i8^^nj^D s ps iyopy:iD''n8 t^k ,yv8n 
Di: 8 p« n«:"ny:i Dpmy:iD>'ii< t>k dj^ii n^yaytj^ ps "ly^siD 
ny^yipyD ny^n ps **rnDi^pjn iv ^lynn DyjynnK^y:ijtj{ 



in« l^rni'bnNU tn^n vh ,i)?D'm i^o m ta^m mtn .(1845 
iy:ifiy; lyD txp j?'^KT>i«:n« lyn ps anp^itaj^ta lyi pN ;i2n2n;j 



pK D^D~ls:t^'t: dvt Wi'o^ Dy:yD{^"i3t>'y:DM« pn d^d Iik i^: 
PK y^vpnoDDi^ iyj^nj?i^D-iy pn mn i^ik it;^: ,DjyD«;pn8B 
--lynns "lyi p2 "!?:?^a ojsmyD uy lyoD^^o,, Dyi iy:yMw 
:l5$^t^^'^J^D D'nm iy D«:n d^k dp^it oy ->)) .y^oyo lyn 
,D:«^jr n^nD nyjj^uii?^ n ps lyin^D n -isQ t:;y^y;-ii^Q 
^j^T DJ^n /oyo^Di^P 5§ n^D"i}^D 1^ Do^D*^y::^^« lyni^n v^'pv)^ 
-ji^P « lysmsD pK ij§^3 Dy-i lyjyii DDnsn 8 lyto^-'n-isonj^ 
n:^'? P2 ly^^^D y^8 pd iyD«:y^yi ii^^jv-i^no p2 v^viv^ 
-j/n no lyDipyjQMJiv p^i:«^ pk in iy:>n 1845 pa nyDDJj pk 
-i$D ny^i^nji:^^ n ij^j d^j lyDJ^iDi^a lyn^^n yD^yii ^yo^jy^ 
n^^ti'^pjs^ pa lyD^ms-^^tDDpyD pN "lyj^D n i^k ij^j ,iy3 
-jyto^D pt< i^^tj'Pii^^ pa nyD^^nife<-Djy^fcjtii pN -nonotj^ n 
^nyoDytJ'DJSo P2 "Di^nD yDr:>^i<i5<D„ n inx ni njs^ 

^v pi^iiy: tD^yt:t^y3"i^ r^i^ d^)) .tDDn^n lyr^^nnyi ny-i 
-v'pv^ i^nto pD Dyt:)^oi^P nyji^ijj;?^ Dyi pc nyiyajj^P nyi 
Dyjy PD pniD^iK lyoK^ny lyi iyiiy:i t^^opfe$2 t^k .iyt:b*:i 
i^>D8 T^N iy n^it< ,toD8ti^J8nDD8{<tDti^ nyrtoDmi^D ii2 too^^: 
-n^ntD n oinny^pjisi^r! D^n Di^^^ ,DV^:yijfc?n Di^iitoy lyiin 
-i?p lyn *."ini^> ro^m yn^yoip n pa "lyin^a y^>t:D\*i^^r.'' 



BIO lynyjjyjjSK iy:;y'nt2Dy'T:iB "in i^ taxn ,id:k"i5 n ]ib ]i,"^u 
pE D'pDy ytyn«t:2jrc«'?"iK9 n B>f3 n«3 ts'j ,d»''7C i^;nin"!piy?3 
-ntt n tt'O inx ik: ,'|yt2Di3K':v-TnB n ]i« p;t2D't3"i«tyi: n 

-DyiKtp pN *;'EKi;K'n„ n .!22:?Tny"iB "lyi P«ny^ t'k n>» iv3 
,1868 r« iyny:y:DmK tDxn imt pn Dxn ,::D«pin ps "Ki;n:KS 

y:'tt3Mi pn p;!f2«:3'K tan'nKi:^^ ]in ,tt:yo«^nKB ]»« "iyp't2''r«9 
.1845 — 48 ]^n^^ n px DT'2«':T-Tnts p"i«E c>in"t« 
n ]yjypi:;T "itrex nia i^r^xp ci^roipwi ly^uKT D:,n pk ♦ 
-K'3v-i'ntt ytaojs'niTB n pE i^^j^'k ,::'::kt .b'tt .b ps ta^K.-t 
piKiiy; T'« ,1799 pK p«nyi P«3y^ ?'« "ly -tt'^s pu ps tytaou 



-ns lis \:i:iv^ n -i«q lyaoyp iv,, y^:^8to8:ni;? iy^«ji;it^^8J 
-^;yTy:i "lyiy^ na ■•o^n^D nyn iy:iy;i in w'pvdi^ )'^„ m "to^u 
-ps!i8:3 «: 112 nyiJ$ lyDDStj^^ytyrisQ lypnmyDJiN ))i :ijuy:i 
"opyj^iB "lyjyn nx nyDD^^o,, oyi i:^ i^^jny t-ik d^^ii nyo 
lyi iiD D3^^^iyn^« p^^^:^^ lyiiyj t^k .y^Dyo lyo^y^ lyn hd 
iiD ,iyDipDni8 ii^P D^i^ii nyijyD ys^^v"": n n^^ .to"'^':?^^::^! 
-••uis n n« D^nn-'^yn n lyt^ni^ :iJinjyDti^ii?!D lyoij s 
,yrD"'''ny:yj iy:>n lyDynyt::;^^? yny^>T is ruynyn^^j^ nyD 
:injy::yin o"-: ^lyD^^ii^; nyn lyny^^ d^j li^P lyj^^x Tfe? n5< 
y:^^x T8 /lyjo^iy;! nynnyn lyo^^ni ^n .&?qi:i in i^ lyi^K^ 
-Djy IV .pn '?^] Y^v^v^^HP ^yT pa lyn^:!^^^^ D3nn n no 



-»D«DK ^NJKty:;:,, lyT ]n i^rox'btyvjjjN Hu iy taKn 1845 p« .1843 
i3Nn Dn« inN> ysi^tay px nynx /'DTinta ^y^j^ip n« iNty^iK 
-:pn'D 'Diyijnnpn,, i^tt .]VT«*i'i«s asxtriysivP y:j'TKT n ij; 
]is tD^OD T'« ,1850 p« ij;ny:jDnnN ij?nnn);jjN mn i^; ij;3^j;n /'ik"? 
ny PK ,tDnj;'i'y:5 taxn n^ mi juk"? nrw pxn^r;? ta'b'fl^^jiDnK p^^k dh^k 
-Tina ^j^jyTT ]j;'bp'Kn« yta3Kitap3in-tDU ID ij apm^;;; i:?tai«T taxn 
dj;t IK ijrDN'i'iyi;jj« ;ii5i«T Tu ia«n 1858 pK .Dn^j^; t«'j'i» 
nys'^^rn /'D'uyiiDKD Tnta ij;3U"i:;kijik i!? tsya^ONp,, lyonnNi 

y^nnj^KiysB' n pK idjii^iibki issn t^t idnh p« ,ta3n«n oyn -inu 
n va jiiiSKC j;tyn«i:?B'^ ytaoj'Kiam pu .]yDyn;ij«p ya^^in^M 
;Dp'ntaD nj^; D3«iip Tna„ ]j?o«: oyi nyajiN jjji'bnaNnsK 
ny DNn ,(.T 50 ,1860 ^iKiJN'b) ,"iNB>JV'2i'« n^y is«D«'7^s Tym 
-JN ia«n iK'Ji' pn D«n Tins djtt iv^m;;; is IjrnntyyjijH u«n 

ci'7Knj?:5 taij tD«n ij?-3y'?"i«s p'p ya'i'jri'i ,j:T'7njNnQK ;?;uNn n 
ps niNsin n einx inxiiy:? taprnj^j t'« y^'b^ri'i px ,'[y»n^iflnK 
-n^iQ ps ;iijjn''tai«D vtaDjn n itrsx an^'*?! ,BB«tr'b:;Tj?;i P'T 
-"m« t« ps p«ny;i ]ys«tt»^:j t^k d:? i:;n t'n dkii ,DT'aN':v 
]j;tQ23 Dyn ,B''p;'ta:;u pn t^s ly^'O P« lyanijtDB'p vh ly .nya 

,1873 ,iynoysn 



m lynyiDo^^ms dvt o^d tj^^jyiiytD'^isD you s ly^p^ii 
-yp iTiDDMpy yDipyii ^ly^^^DiiKiii^D V2V' iyrL:^Me:3 oyn -[in 
-••^njyiyi^yj v:>^ ''2 lyr^^iiDms nn /iy:jir:^^i<i8D-is!2 \vi 
T^« Dy^^»T^J5<ii»"iyD^uns na pynv nyrv:^^K ^yi ts ,iyD 
-■•n PD lys^pi^i; n d>8 ,yj8^ nyj^^^; s px in ly^yDc^ iv 
T8 1M pyDmsD IV ; oy lyDMP Dj^n y:y^ o^d ,d^u-i8 iy 
-J8 lynytj' ix do idik pxn lyai^ ,iyrnytr do ^n ^i^t lyo 
n D«i T8 /D^j^iiy;! inyi in D^»n DyD^DJijp oyi D:n .vivi 
Din^Dy:D"in !?j^t y^vsTosjii;? y^DD^i i^x vd^^'))^: vyt^i 
lyD T8 nyni^ ny d^h^d /Idik ly^^^^yo DDjyn oyi r^ik Diyii 
m:pn n pa j:iD^^ni8DM« lyi d>d :i^DDn-i«D -inyr pn pd 
Di^DDMpy jynj^n yD^yii ,iy^a^x n ts hd ,Dy^vs!^ijy-i pk 
-i^D3i^p,, "lyn PD ;i3iDDo-i82 -lyi iv Din^Dy; ^no^ tynii^n iik 
.piy^i lyD^DyjD^K rDDnij^c w'?^^ 4833 pD "ii^or lyD^n^^ 
D^\"?Dt5TPiyDDMX n lyn^v iv tdmj "is2 D^^ay: DyD^oi^p nyn 
^Dinosijii^DiN :^DyoDOD^ym5<2 ]v^'<'f v::'?V)^ .ly^siD n pa 
■pi^* yjyi^^tj'iSD 182 lyD^-inns nyD-^ui^ n y^^yn px p5< 
ty:inp yj^yii yrjy> n t» ,vi< oy td^j pij^d*^ mi ,DyD8"i 
w mnD yiy^n v'?^ iy:jy-iDti':« ly^^tt pi^ iyDD:)yn oyi 
-sa yri'-)K^r ^ -lyD^^mssnynnn v^vt nsa inx lyjnp 
nsQ yn:"i^DDMpy v'?^ t{< pk ; D^^ms ny^n isie :jijn^ 
■Dix v^V't ly^Dimy dodik y^s; ^nx ly^i^r lyDssi^^^yTyj 
pn iy^j;?T ^n hd ^'•n |i^ m lyo^^t^ivji^ lymn yDinoi§:ii^ 
-J1K iy:iyp n^nD yDrj^^xi^Q d^d lysoyp iv lyoya n^nn 
1SD -lyny^ px rs ,ivnyi nn^a Dyii Di^n p>< ;3JipmiyD 
lyv't^fc^n '?H^ oi^)) ^DQ^c'^yry: yD"i^^i:y"i"Di:) ^ p^Donpy '?^\ 
ivi D^i^^i ,5110 Div ,pK ...iyDy-iyD:^K yD^^D28tr:^^oyj v^V''>\ 
nD 18 .ryiycji^p lyrtj^i lyn Dinjyoi^pyi Dony DyD^ci^P 
PK DD8iD8n rnn iy:i^p ly^i^r |yDP:i5 yrcD^i yrti^i n 
p^p \vp:v^ p« iy::yinj''n8 do jyo ^i^r ,nyii d^^dipdh 
■psn^D lyc^^D^^t^B 8 PD 38^tj^ii^D p^"? w D^^-po^Tpnyosnx 
•^n ^>^ii ; pJ^i^y^ Diit^onyn pitj^ tyj^n d^^ii n lyD^K ,nyD 



-»n:inyn td \V2h? iai« sts ^mn ii^j ts ,D:i'>^xnyn^« lyj^n 
,ivpjyiy;i ti« lyaisT n^o -ly^y^v yDt^'JMiy;; v^vu)i^ \vd 
yo T8 /pyiJ^D yor^^^Dsn y>8 hd lyoyiyor^ yooyn n 15$ 
nx nynJiT83 y;i8nD iviv' iy:iny^ny px lytoj^iDsa ly^ii^T 
MI8 p^D^^j^Q n« n^rjyn^a wo^m ^nsi lyo ts nnyo i^i^j 
-sn DV ly^yii lyufe^ot^^oii^ n mi ,DnyiJiTyjBJ<i pt^ D^^^Dyjsj^ 

*."iyrD:3y-i 
-••n 0^1 t» ,iyT"'Mi nynysJJ^P ^vi na ly^^^p^^tDi^na n 
-y;ia5^ Tt toj^n ,ny-in^Q i^^^jvi^nt: n i^d dj^i^iq nyi lyo 
nyi ."iyi^^:!O^D y^iJ^D^^iD n ns :jiD^fe$n nyn px D^yrs*^ 
jypiyD lyD i^p nr^jyiii^ ayi pD Di^Dj"'>fe5 Dyjyn^^ny^ny^j^ 
-"•tDSiysi^j^P iy:!y'n vvTi^ lyi ps :jny^£)M5< lyoQ}^ nyn px 
-y: y^yiitD^ipn;s! iynjn:i iv t^ji^ii nyn px ,y^vpn{^is lyi^ 
ns :iJi^n^P"i^2 nyD^^^^yryj u§ i«d is^a oyn p« pt^ oyij^^D 
n PK ^''W^^ iyivDyi:5§ iyi pa lyn^ .D^^roD^-'n-is lyi 
-y:i DO iistj^ p^P DyoD t^k ,1830— 34 pa |y^y>v yTy^v^nofe§ 
yyi^i? n m '!iJ^iiy:i lytD^DyjiD^i^ lyj^n Dp^n^D .\vt'?2 
lyvJ^jrK r^t^ D^^ns lyi pa :!Ji^yDJi'aj^ lyj^^oyj^^ I^ pa 
-jjna nyiVD^nyaji^i^p pd lytopy^i^iQ n .\'\iii))v:i |yny:!y:iQ''i« 
D':yn«! m iytDp{§nfe?D ny-ijs nfe$:i ^ D^ny:i ryn^^n v')i\:iM 
iv'?^^H''i^:i lyi pa iyt:D"'ji<ior-n^nD n .lyjy^Q yrynjfe§i:i 
iy:yi^ D8ny:i d>j n:itrn p^*? riDjyp lyn^n 1845 t"-^^ nyny£):«ip 
iny^nynn^ ty^^^r ty^D^n-DJj^^vpnj^iQ yj^'>oy:i^i5 n r» ,Dyi 
-«1Q yirto;s:")y3i^j<!P ; D:i{$''jv"T'nD n iv lytDD^^^to^s^p n tis 
nyn 1^ Pi^-in « d^» tDDi^n^^i i^aj^^s >n iyn{$n y^vpn 
""IV tD^n s»K^ ti^'iji"' iyi ^>Mi ,D^''p:i^Dyto iyt^"'DD>ji^"'ji"'n>nD 
-p-'ntDD yirtDpni^iQ-too n lyn-'^^ ^yto^D nyr^^n 5§ to^ytot^^y; 
-QMK IG1K fc?T» ^Mx Dj^n nyiya:J<ip n Di^n nns .D^ni^vy:i 






l^i« n Di^n /1834 pD DyMjyDVis n px lyij^oyo n iyny;y: 
n^nD ns yit^Dyo iy^^: lyi iv to^-ip^no in^x Diypp-iy 
n« :iJi?o'o"ifej£: iiD p^DPSD n — /D^^'pj^DyD nyi^'^oD^ji^^jr 
"i^no 111^ D-n«i;?n >»;pj:j>,, PD :jnyi«:D "lyi pk .jjid^^?;d^ik 
■y: rt::yp T'« yD?yii yifesiD s .(lyoyD^Dijip-ifc^D y^^sp^^^j 
PD 3nnj^ Dyi "i^D lynyt ,Diyayii:yi^n n pD pj^i^y: D:-i{#n 
iyj:i^ij«ni^2 yrD^njyjyj yDJ^DjyD^icfejn pD nyjo^D Dyjy^ 
\i^))Vi T^K Di^ii ,i:^^m8 m ^S!D*Sfc<p PD "iynytot^'11^2 lytj^Miv 
Drji^^jvi^nD lyij'^^jjy nv\ pd moti^ lyi^'^DDnyDp^-ii^D 5$ 
.Diyi:innnj$^ nyi ps toD^yn lyovy? ly-i pt< 
■y: li^J T^K 183-4 PD ^fe$DDin Dyi p2 w'Oi^^' "lyi lyni^ 
.D:i$^jr-Di^nt: y:^^oy:^i§ pd -iy:y>Q n lya^x iy:jsn 
■"ly lyn fini< lyoi^iDi^'D lyiiy; lyj^n iy3fe$D y^8 oyoD djh 
,Dy^^«T^:«:n{$ y-iyoy-i; vdo^'d n lynii^n /ny"iy2:i^p -lyct^' 
ny^"": "lyi i«: in lyo^^tj'ivj^i d^j ,iyD«:^:^S!a jJiDDsino^a si ii^j 
tj'nj^^ "lyDDytTDJSD lyi ts >'?^d'? >\vr^v: n^a .DDs^iysnyp 
Di^t:DytDJ^is i^^n Di^n ^oy^^Di^*D 'D"iyiyMDj^^D*wj^ lyi pd 
jyi^tj'Djy Di^n PN ,Ds:y^yT in^x pd jJin^tDt^'iv lyi iy:yp 
niK Di^n D"'Mjy;j^:n5i!D nyi ps j:nns;Diy n t5<„ ,:3"iy^piy 
."d:{>*^:v yj^-'oyj^s iijyj LDyiny: pic^ ]V2i^n i^n Tfc§ ,DJiy^y:i 
Dyi pD ni^iiy:i Dv^oK^iyDJix t^k dpjidi:^^'^ lyrtj*! lyi 
iy3y;iyn^t< D^^n ,Dp-iyD5<3 m^^ ^v::'?V)'\ /Dyo^ai^p ly^entojyv 
lyjin Dy» T5< ,iy'i^^:iD^D n jid ::io''Dt^'SJ^ is iv yj^is n 
lyrn yD^yii nj8^::y px lytoDstJ^^yryrii^D vw^nv^ i»!1«!d 
ayo DytDD^D-DD^ui^ ny^n D;n n^o '11 D")n^:s!:"ii^ t3i:i nT» 
n PD iv:''? PD D^j lyiyn n^o pK ; lyn^^^iysD 'pvo'2^ pn 
ny-i li^ lyo^^t^ji^t ly^y^i in ly^i^t ^n t» ,\vvi^^^'?v^v: yrri^-i 
nsT ytDi: i< V't jyo oy ... .::ijyiife§3 iy^fc§ji^^vet3 lyrri^T 
D^j lyni^n px oy^vpyo px D^^^^yv lyj^n yD^yii ,]v:i^^ ij^d 
11^ in lyD^^K^wii^ .in lytj^mv Dy^v^T^j»:iii^ y^^ji^^v^?: p\"? 
Dy ; n^^iSiD IV DK^^n«3 ni ^^d iyn»n ^n — ,DD«ti^^yTy3 t$T8 
,a:itDD8iDsin yoDJiy is DjymsD o^)) y;fe?iD i< lyai? vh 



."y^:f8^xi?Ds v\^^'Dv:i yrii^i n iyn"'"'« "lyosTPTii id s lyii 
-HMp n lyDijyj toj^^tj' oy ^ii lyn^^n tapjiBiJSDtJ' iy:3^^3ny is 
181 ^^2 mn DV v^^^viVQ y^SJ^^vsJ oyDyii ,nynyn::y^ 
nyon-'DiJ^r-'^j nyi no jj'i^DS!nfe$D-iytos:iy^yi « .Di^Donpy 
nyo-'n; 8 D''D mn "ij^s^^^s^^dj^ds ^8P^2«i:ii;?2^t2 ^sjfc^t^yj/, 
-■•^K^spJS!^ n .lyDM-n pD lyn-i^/i iv lyo^^^tj^ij^a ^ytonJifi^SD 
■y:si? lyi iv tosjy^yn s Dp^tj^yj lynj^n Diyrst^^-^yi^sn lyn 
yijyt^n is ,iy:ii^^tJ^y:ii^Q i^^QS lyn^^n n« nyiysJ^^P iyD:iy^ 
PQ m^yo n py^Piy "»^ PVii DP^sj^y^onns ly^j^t p^^dj^d-'js 
d^:j ^sjdj^^p lyni^n p^^s ""n nyn^^ ,y^vi§T^Js:nj^ ly^o lyn 

*nn^i^ li^ iyD''^tj^ivjj^ in iyDi<i^tj^5§:i 
Dyi piMK pi^^iy^ D^y^yjQfc^ t-'x y^^yii ^nyiys^i^P n 
-yn pQ lyjstoK'sin i">^DyTDQnn lynnyi t^^^ /184:5 ,"'^v iyD28 
18 -lyrDSQ yD-in^38jni? rjyii lyij^ v^v:v'?i> n iia lytosjy^ 
■njsnisD n px iyDi:y:i ^^^djs lynj^n lyto^jy^yi rvDis i"iy 
T^K oy .^iVD Dpyt Ml inyD lyrivyj in lynj^sn yn^yn ^lyjji^ 
-iit^:vn^nD n Iy^>^t:1^?^y■IJ8J8Q pj^iiy:; lyoj^^tj^sn T^ijy 
'Mi!^ iyn:n:i i^f pi< ,yirD8iy5J^i<tp n ps ly^y^v ytj^^DD^j 
n yj^^K lyvDtJ^ Tt ly^^^r y^^yii ,Dy"'V8^:^j^D8 yiyiJirsa 
lyDSQ ytorj^^j^isD n pa y^v8^vi<iD8 y^8:ii^^8x, n .yiyijs 
n tD^D ly^ijsn iv iyDijy:i m fin« dj^h "nt^nyto-'^nis i^g 
lyDSBiVQM^ pK iyD''''ni8 Tix DiyDD>''D Iyt^'M1v d^did^d 
n .DJi!j»oi$p ii«i nj^n nyi i^k iyDyiyD:''t<-iyD''^nn8 n fin^ 
tyrtDsyti'sn iv yv8''V«tDny!:8Q ytDrj^^xmsQ y^xjj^^vs^,, 
^«iT lyo nD ,n^y:i ly^Dsr iv lyDijyn^tD in tDJ<tn /'lyto^-'nis 
iyn:yDtJ^oix lyto^ix nyD"»m8 yn^yp^ntDD tyrDsytj^si tyj«P 



.:iKia:iT i^rts'ms ipy' p^rn Tyt2^«n:?;i?3K ]:;:r'^B y^^yn /'Dn:;n 
-yn ij?i3l4 pK ,iDDiJn« lytaS ,'•'711 r;t220 lis iv^NpxtsNiQ n njrt 

.1845 ,-i:rnttj;!f 



241 "ryiyiD ny^^: nyi p« t:D^^: n^'^^j njn ""^ 

iyD:^5<ny;2{^* r^^ d«:ii ,ryiy2:»p lyo^^nv lyn ^nx .y^v 
-■•M Dy -lyDf'yiT fiMi< ,is-ig ,>:r pn ,-)ytDDy:^'DJfc?o i^k nnw: 
"sn o-iy^i Dy m ,v:i'?V)) avd^^v'pvi i26 lynyj ijyTyii:^^ \v: 
DD^::u'^3 T*K nyi^^rj^D 40,ooo lyDi^itonj^D wii^n ,Dyt:sMn 
-t^Ds -i^no,, -lyi IV iy^n«!v ly^jjjT lyn^^jto^o n t» ,niiTiy:i 
yD^^DjyDyii yiy^n ns ojia lyny ns D^:yB ^••nv "y^vs^v 
-p>nDD T5$ MiJ^ny: lyDi^^'^'Sin t^k oy nx ; lyDDjymsQ 
n— ,ii5iT s; :i:^^^^ inyvnys V2 v^: na iy^n«v lyo ^i^r yv^ot^ 
lySii^v tD^j^:y: D«n \vd dh)^ .n^ lyi jyiiy: t^k yoiD yovy^ 
.yv^^^vj^Dj? iy-i nc lysyii' n pn to^uij^y: lynj^n Di^n n 
^'^"'11 ,n{$"ny; Dv^D'^j^y:) d^j p^noo p>p t^k t:>>v lyn iv r^a 
,DntJ^ yiD^^^^iyn^K n lyn^^Disa D^j^ny: Di:?n y^vs:T^jj<:"iJ5 n 
-i:^-i:„ n Dyo^^jn^D ,w^viv:> ojjn lyo ni ^yni^n v:i'?V'\) 
-^jfe§:-ii$ yo^ni^vsin ^niijv s ."\i^'2V iyD^n^^j^D:«p ^{^j^t^^y: 
T^K ys^yii ,y^vs^vi^D8 n .piijiiy: D^yD^i^y^ji^ lyj^n p^d^t 
PK -lyto^^m^-fionDK^ Pi< -Djy^Jisii Pa lyj^^totJ^sa lyns: T^n 
-y;D^"ix in dj^h ,DT'nD tD^^mj^-^ssDyQ iy-iJs^jyt:^D n pq 
PD yirtD^pyrpy n .iy:jiDDn v: yjyi^^^nss pk iD^nsK' 
■ijy DiyDjysi^P ivo^nys^ iii^ ""Dy^^DyiD ^^ijyia,, nyi 
-D^T ^T5§ ts^y^BtJ^y:! D^n Di^)\ y^vs^vsDs n — /'Diyj^s^j'n 
iyTJ$^y:iDM"i5i! Dnn — ,i830 pd :ji:iyii8n nyi pk y^sn vyo 
]V0''?^'2i^ P2 lyoDJi; IV ,"iyn^^:t:^o v^n^i^ iv t:DyD^:fe$D » 
-D^o lyroyD ^ n«ny:i t^k "lytDyipyo ^{<iyjy: lyn px ,in 
^T .y^v^^vi^D5< iy^»j{^^V5<J lyi P2 yiroipyrpy nyn pd i^^a 
-i^D 'DnyryiniKp ^s:ijtryj„ lyn ps y^vpyo lyDoytrtoj^o 
-ya piK ny"!^^:it}^D ynn^x y^s tDiyni^Dy^D^x iD«n /"'oy^^D 
-^^tj':^ in ly^bn ^n ,DiyD^o-i^t5> pk -'?v'\v:2^ P2 iytDE28K^^yr 
•J12 iyt:^^2i^jyj^o n ,i"'^tj'iii^D^DD pd DiysytD n avo 
-•>:tj^ PD y^vs^vi^DS y^^jij-ivfe?:" y^yii^nyr^"-: n ,iJ8^to«:r 
pt5 ly^^o^yoyp n pd lyrniv iyj»iJ«^ n inx n^ /'Diyi 
y^vs^vijDs n .iyD»^ti^y:i:iJ^ in iyn«n iyt:Dstj^^yry:i lyiyno 

t:ijn PK 1J8^ PK DD8D 8 6^8 IlSliyi DJypiyJS K^^DPSB VH 



r]t"'iy''3r-Tnt) ps yu)3*>t5^y:i 242 

tiD iy:ij'ijyDy-iD^ii< y;i^p n D^y^n^ n^i« iyn« .""dd^^d,, 
-8:d n iiD tyn^^^ iyn^iny:ij« tyn^^rx n Dsn nyi:n:i yin^x 
-D^yijsn nyi .D:sur yr^oyii^s na iy^i^« yt^'-'DonytDPsn 
in D^D t:»n 4845 t^K iynnny:iJ« in D»n lyD^yii ,Dnnp 
,in^ na jjny:y^pnfc$D n nni^^ ^ni^ yoDpyj n r« DDsniy:i 
pj^ ty:iJiD^^^Dn« nx DP^noD na \'^h)']V^ o^^^^feiti t^k oh^) 
ns lyDyD'-DJ^p y^isp^^^ n .ynDDn:^« ns lyrniv y^s toyoD 
iyj^toti'81 Da{§ lyj^n yD^yi^i ^yvis^^^Ds iy^«:«^vsJ iyi 
-••n D:ii$Tyji^ tyn«:n ,Di>nD yoinn^n n ns ytoD^^n n na 
^n n« 'Vo^? ny^^j^^vs: iyi na yv^to^^ n iyi^^:D^o vw 
\i},i:H'? PK yivDipytpy n lyii ,Dn^^^i§n DSi^ay; in iyn«n 
iyriyny;jj$ lyiy^ .iy:jn^^ti'D:iy yiyn lyrmy^pniv D«in 
,iyj8DK>isaD^D nyii lyoyiytoj^^ v:'^'<^ ts ,D^n^ay: D^^n isa 
iyDiy:ijy^isa « .tDj^Dy^D^ji^s ]^v)) oyiirip vy^f iyi«i 
T^x Dm '1846 pK lyDsa-ni lytDDyj^D^^D n na p^'^'^t:iO 
ly'DiK^D 8 lyny:! t^n j:^D>''nDi:i in« ni!5Tiy:i lyanyaoms 
-i^Ds iy^8Ji<t"'V8J iyi na toytD-'D^p ly^sp^i^ iyi .^saDin 
,Dyi iin iyoipy:i vi< ^saDin iyi ts ,tDiy^piy ^i^n yv^?^^ 
WD Dm ,yv^tDtj^ v'?v^'^:i^y^ n ly^j^ipyj d''J lyn^in •'n d«i"i 
-Dasti'iyQiyp ly^^itojyv iyi na iyo»j px D:>$Ty:iiv ^n tD«in 
^i^^t^'spj^^ PK nsito^^^n na Diynynriyr^^s nx '\v'?n^)P n 
D«n Dm /D^nr^^yn yiy^n tyjyj ^id^p i§ Din^Dyjj^ lynijn 
/D^yii iyt^^"'DD^3«!^:vT'nD iyi tia •'tDsao^D n tysnyjoms 
ly^^^jny is .^sanin s: tD^D D:injyy:i in mn lyD^yn 
,Djyp px iii^a^yip tia DiypinniDi^P n na no^p lyoDJiy 
ytj^njy^iiD^it^ n .:i^i<i£iy nyoyn p^p tDi§ny:i to^j inx toj^n 
iy:ii^ipy:i d''J lyni^n ••n ts ,to:ii^^p«n in tyn«n iyD"'''ni^jyj^D 
na iyD>>ii^jyro n n« .y^v^^^t^o^ iyi na yv^Dtj^ jijy;; 
isa i-inonx is isa Dt^iJsn to^oiyi in tyn«in i-'-'t^spJs^ 

•in tyo^^^j^i D*": tyriiyt:>ni iy>n 
nt5 Dp^ntDD tDrt:"iDt2jy D«n yvs^^^^Ds D'no^ipjn D:in 
'iyp-D:!Ji^D^Di8a s na y^»i -"i D^ysK^y:! i^^DyrtDsnn dj^h 



/'tDjyaipi^i,, -lyi nn^N* iv tos^'y^'iyjjy: ny^n lyrniyjOM-is 
,1833—34 pK v'?^") yDjym«!i3 {<T^ o^y>25^yj Dfcjn nyD^yii 
.di«:d iyonyi:y"i5>D Di^n^.oy IJ^ px ,iyTMi5<n lyini in D«n 
D^j n^iK ^ntny^y:'.: ny^n lyrniyjoMi^ w^i^n D^nr^^yn n 
"iy3« \V2i}.n ^'T ; ly^i^p-i^no y^^Pi^^ n iv ,:J^D^'Jt^'lv ny^n 
-■•jv y^isji^^vi^j n D^\":5:yDU"i5<2 "lyi^ynyi d^d tODj$in«2 
y^s ns Djj>*^:r y:^^oy:^5§ iv^i^ ^Di^no yDo^DJj'{<n na djjj 
l«i in lynnyj ^n rj? ^yotJ^Ji^ iy:r^v"i^3 8 :in:yD{§D .Di^nD 
ns! v^v'i ns lyopsiisiD nyi na t:^^p:^j:yn5J^oi« lyi n^a 
jyD^yii ^ 112 r:v'^o']?v n t5§ ,o'n:v\:i'v:i ^n lyni^n nyo^^a 
iytDyioii<2 D^j ^j^T ny dij ni ,DyD^o«!P ry^stito^yv t^n d^j 
D^riiv nx ^ns iy^ij{<n na iyn« ^n ny tonyto*^ nytD^^ani< n 
-Dnt^iiD:5<n^Doifc< IS 112 ly^nyssn yti^^DP5$s n nms ^n tinx 
n lyni^n lyijyDc^Dix yD^yru? lyojij^ .D2fe$ti'-)ysiyp '•wy'p 
nn^Divj^^j? y^v5<'VJ^Ds ny^sji^^vst: lyn hd lyjJin^osn 
•l^n^^j^Diy pn tD^^^^py: tytD^yr i«ij iy:ji:j^^^jDnx y^^^ij^ns 
-ivjymDiv n^n^n njy^n d^j ryiVDipyrpy lyjijijij^ n 
-j^ns l^^:yD-i^D iy:>n dj^iii ,iy:ijnyi{^2-n^^n n ry^ytDt:^ 
y:ijyitotJ' s lyny^yjDMis toj^tn njs^ pd ly^^-'D y^fe§ pd lyoipy: 
^^D ^D ^iD ^V2i$ ; Dp^ntoD yoinnj^D^ix-Li^j ty:yp iJijii^n 
^yv^DC' lyD^snpmv nyij^ lyny: iv ty::i«iivy: lyiiy^ n t^k 
■jn .iynjyD*^Dii< y^^^P^^t^ n d^o DJspsn njyj njy^n d^j 
p« iyD^^"i:nv d^o :yny:iyjs« i^^^yrtDS^n i-t tDJs*n 2rD«p 
nyi PQ :jiv"i^pnsD ^v:i''?'iv^vi lyi ns2 oy^v^^ys lynyjj^ns 
-Diyii tD35§-i3y:i iy D«in :iJiDDn lyi pt^ px ; t:>^VDtD^>3"ist 
-18B ts^^vDD^^ms) "yyDo^DD^ip D^'-o Dni^ti>» iyi ?i^^n y^is 
-^yn ,DnyrB5i'-^yiisn lyn^^ti^stpjs^ n pd (t:ytD^»i^p ::ivtp 
.1847 pQ "ryry:! iy-i:ioti^ inyv» Dy-i tDpnniy:iD^i« t:j^n yD 
lyiiy^ tj^^DptiiD \'\r[H' v:v'> px t>n yivtoipyrpy y^sntojyv n 
-yiiS3 nyv:s3 lyn nsts t:)ytD^tt«ip ^yti^nst:jyofe?^ns5 yt nny»D 
1^2 li§^B nyn .DJt<i^jv"i>ntD pq y^vsiyiyc s lyn^^x oji: 
^y^Q ''ITS tDiijn jyo lyD^yii pd nysy^rpnyn yirL:siy£^*i^P 



Dfi^^'^T'-TntD lis ytDD^tyy:; 244 

n r« 18T yru^Q^M is d^s tyfiiy:iDMi8 nn D»n .Disiny 
nyD^n:i^»0iy is .Di^nD-Dsnn n no lysosP yonyiijy^nsD 
ny"iyDJ«P n n^^ ; n»"iiy:i D:yDyy:i t^n Tt^' no astj^piyii 
^"'DQytJ'sn tyiiyj lyj^n ^'Dnnon ts ,iyjiay:i Dsn i847 no 
-^v^^M^ n ts n5< nyD^uns :i^vjsiiv n« ""m ni« onyiJin 
D«ii /lyDSQ yD^yts r« inyjj« DJ«py:i "isj lyn^n iy:iJiDny: 
PN -IQIK ny:''^^P s n^s d^uisdjsh inn Din^ayjjs^ nyn 
-s^^«Ds yn^"'n jyv^yDtj'isQ i:^ nsny:) lyos^tj^sn t^n 1848 
no ^SD^ssp 8 ly^Dst lyonyj in ^«r ly^ ni? nyj^^K r« oyi^ 
.nsDtJ'DJ^D iyDMn:i s ^m« D^ons n lyin'-aivj^ hd ,£5o,ooo 
,to^ui8 nyi w w^nv^ DJj$py:i in tDsn tyn lyn^-'X lyns 
nnypiyn^K yDss^ni^ s tyD^py;n«2 y^vs^^^iDs nyi px t^x 
,iyDipy:i do nn i^? pni^ ^nvo vw vi^ n lyD^yn 112 ,^u 
•n^'-npjsip ny^^i^ ,iy:iJit<iny3 iy^iy:i 1848 px t^« nD»pjn 
m ;y^i;sT>J8n» nyn pi< D^^ms v:ii''\:iV^ v^ lyny^ivanx 
"ly^i n w p"»nDD s D«n ins'' iynjy:i^»D nvi na ^^d d^^ 
y^sji^^vs: n Day^ti^y:ij''n8 i^tDsnymyii^j^ii p&? lyto^ms 
nyi D^D PK "lynyaDD^-'nis n to-'o tiDSP s t>x y^^s^vi^Ds 
-:)"'Ji8Q p« yosp nn^K DjypnDy:iDnN t:ii$r] lyD^y^i ,ryTy:i 

*.Dnyip nn^N oyD 



"DniK tanptaiyy:? lJ?^«n /1845 pn j;'!?n'skdk nj;T |k ]:;DK'7B>j;jix 
Tin .ta>m«-p't2ty "i«a lyr^ns ps lao^^ j;jj<Dyr33^^^j n ipnpis 

]ifl DHKiDnx "ii?n la'D ,1849 ]i« tsD^'b-T^ns nt« iir tao'tatrpis 

ia«n pK ypDKO n tu ps ]:;snNnj;j"ij;ta:n« ,1850 ii'\'> p« nj; 

.tt'^pDNTpnyofinH yji'ttj;:'?^ n ]y;jn!iyji!J idkh ,ij;aipyjiDnn« ps 
ty'3;jj;fij?:j p« p«nj;: tatjyT^jainK iP'n DnjrpintsD n pu ^d k 
pn i2Di>njiyn tDtjn ciOKp nyn px ;iapKitaiKp ij^'u i^Dpi "iks 
]vs Byia^oKp Dy*T ps lyni^^taiD ^m D«n ,a'onyn apJis lytaosyn 



-DiK t^« y^v«<^^*j^Dj< lyT PD yoD^c^y:! ymyDys6^' n 
nn«i^ ID 8 nyoDMpy -in^« iyD^»ny:j« oi^n n •*.D:i§pj<n 

Sit^v 8 HD ■^y^yol^'^l:?^ pk nyny^Dii;-! d^s Djynyj lynytn 
-nyoystj' n r« D^ms'DB^n in^K .oJs^jr-T^nD yiyjy^p 
-ftiisvyiy: lyv^Di^' nfe< lya^yn i^i< lyjsio&j'sa t^« \ir\i^'> yn 
yin^K nx ,Dyi:^D«tp dd^^^^d^ik hd JJiunj lyn "i5§d lyopy^ 
iyii Dyi lyDJ^ioyjonx ny^n lyasn lyjjin^Dsn yD^^i^Diyoij^ 
,(iyoyD^Di;jP yD^^oDst^'i^^Dyj) "oi-ixisja iDrijtrn,, n nsa 
1851 ni^: nyatij .n»iiyj Dnn^syjj^^K '^v^vb^ lyj^n y^^y^i 
ly^^stj' lyns di^dj^^s t^« oy lyD^yii iyn»n i:^ ?i^i« n Diyn 



-T>iis y'7Kp«*? y^'^isy n«i b'd ij;o»<ttx ,yi:iK'!iKDK ly'bKiK'iiK: ij^t 

-i<i IS y'SK"i'BDJ«p N i^N P«ny^ njsx'jpiNS IV^^T ,iycD':K':i> 

y3''7syTy; n ny'ris .]yci''n-iK la'j dh^n '>3 ijt^kt 'u iyc2 
pnp lyn lis pwny; o'byBiyyjDmK tts'iyis iy:"T D«n ,iy'?TnT 
tD'j ]yDTpj;;-iK2 Dyii«i5 "lyn t'« ,yciJ5N'?piKfi n ps iKnyn px 
;yny;y:!D'nN t'n "jncnTK lyiDsy*? lyn ]tn ,^«d ^m m "ly^'iyn 
n pB s]iis lyn ,1851 lynoynxj p« n.i -lynns d'3 P«ny- 
iy:nN pN D'trin ^m i!? n«ny^ csb'D'"ik5 lyj'u yia;s«'7p"iK5 

.tt'i^jiysy:: triin p'k is 

t:EKtrc3yTTy"iB "i^rn ps bi'Jj^tvi 'byoiNfi kkh noxp^n * 
-DM1N ,Dnyt:ini dkonhu ,"iyt3ynp:;D lyi T'« 1856 ]'n .1852 px 
□yn iKfl ,iy;3T'7iJKn-i«£ yDi'^Tnu ]is ■ij;;n''cnK5 d'tn lycN-icyjj 
-ny CKH ny ."lytD'O-iK ]i« DiycD^'D ly^yn tsyra'Dxp iy'?y»syBD„ 
,n:yTnt3 Dpyr vi eiJ'B ]T£3 t? ts'rnys !2£NiyiyT^;;:2'D n t« ,B-iy^p 
-12^0 yta'bnxsKi ^m ]i£3 enyoty«n oyo'iSKp iy'7N-it2:^»s ij?t tk pK. 
K .tt'm« "in "i«E o''S ys3Ka ny^u bk lyi'-s ya'^yn ,'iyT'7J 
-»*7:ny ]« ike p;:itynj; t'k (Dnsoin .y) iNiayipyD ly^myts^'Bts' 
lynxn lyjsii^KTDMN yj'u .lytayBtr -inN> nys tt'O i2yt2>n«p lya 
]'^p tsKH ,cn'iaDupy *]«: tsKn u D:n ,y'SN'SKD« n t« ,iyTmK3 
"lyo'mK y;<i23m n ps t'n oy lya'ryn pn i^ouyj d'j ^''t2i« 
*byiKn lyTTixtyn .id .inx' b3« "iyn« lynu ytssy*? n i«fi iy£o»P 
]'K ]y»ipy;nKS vh ;3u>'^fin« nni« t« ,j>ijyny;i'mNB BiHoiyi 

.1860 



jjiiyii 
DM^ /'tyD82 ytorj^^Ki^D ns y^v8^v«;D» y^i$j«^vsJ/. n 
iyt3''D I'D^K Dnyot^ .ly^yv v^r\'i^ m y^v^D^DD:»p nn^K 
,1830—34 ns DTn«DJi^i^ii pyj^^^fi^^iiyn oyn lyti^n^v :iyn 
■P8D mp n .1868—75 112 y^vps "lyK^nsDjyDS^iss nyi ni< 
-ya^S!« yorDyst^'isD 8 d^» lynyiiDJy nyii toiDsiDsn tj'^D 
^ D^s lyii^ .Q^D lyDiyoynniiiQ s ns "iJ^^jvon^nD yj^^o 
-^Qi^p "lyti^nsDjyQS^isQ lyjyDj^p^^QDix pn lyrD^^^^nns 
y^sji^^vsj yD^n:i n D:n nj< .D^yii m^Jvi^nD nyn ns) oyo 
ynn^x pi? lymjy: d^j ^^^dj{^ p^'^ iyn«n d^^^^ nyn pq D:»>jr 
p^DPstD yivDyi:iK-tDO tix vrovD in^j< t^« ,iy;ji^iJ»ni5$D 
Dsn .lOD^^j Dy^"": oyi pd pniDnj? m ^i^ inyo to^j lyny: 
TD .D^^DJi^p i«^:v-i>nD n px ly^^nyn tyDi:y; d:^^« toi^jn 
n^3K^D-^^yn ytD^n^vsnyoyn n pa DJisjjr n t^x '•ti tny: 
PD \vw^^ n iny:iyi iv k^ji«ii lypistotj^ s; d-iik iodp^ii 
ny^-'j nyrT«n lyn .y:i^^ iy^«^v«D pn ly^ynoonrN ny^n 
-i;:iiv n8i:i tyoniy;) » vn ,t«P tyo^i Dynjy:i n^D ^n^£y:i 
lyDsrpm n dj^^i ^^^dj» ty-ijyDp^ii nyi iv ny^i lynn^ 
nyn .:i:iijyiisn t«!^:iv"i^ntD lyn p« lyonyj tynnny:ij« iyn«n 
-j;j ny^^yTDQnti' yiyoyna n pa ty^iDnsin n tonniDtJ^ Dt^n 
.r)iy*i:ininj^'' lyto^nyvj-'O pq n"'inji<i yo^D tis lyDastj^^yt 
iH^ ,D^^pj^DyD nyi pa n»J tD^: .nyii DiyiJii^in^D Dyii 
— ,tDyD^^i!$Dii$D nyti^nsiDJyo^^i^a lyoj^P^i^Q lyi tia t^ik 
.!y:i:i^njsnn82 v^iv^^f pq — .tD>^p!3"'^Dyn mi$>\ toyoD i«p tyo 
D^8 iyny:iDD^^nns y^s ty:in''^^fe$n iv lyrisiD to^o D}$to^:i«i 
PD ly^j^TS^i iyvj«:ri? in tix "lyo^^p yirDpn^ins o^:,, 
18 n'lD tyj^sy:! ,D"'Diddd iid lyto^^n^yvj^^t? n tyDinyD:iN 
ynjypm yoynpjj^ip d^d pi^n b«i in lyn*': lyvyrtoantj^ n 
iy^y^vysD,, x iv y^^is y^^DDni yny^ iyi''K-iyn^:i tit^ ly^^s 
•tsDnsn 8 iy3:!yin:i^n^ p^ ly^nny^jix n ^«tT iy /'Dyto^oi^p 
■jn^y: /'oiynj^^npn iii<t ^toy-'Di^tD lytD^n-'^^sDJi^p r^n^i^^.. n 
yosp nn''« PD ^^^to s DviJ^n 1848 px Dt^tn 4786 px nyi 



T^K Di^ii nyn^VTy^ s: !i«iw:i tDjyayy: t^k 1^51 Dns: •ivi''?i 
-ly^D .iy::iD^^v VT'?\2:iV2V)) n« y^^^^jyt: d^d DnyiTsa ww: 
\ii^))Vi \:iviy'\:v:^ pyD«!^^au y^^^jny ife§ t^j< nyt:yaty nnyi^ 
n \:iHn 1842 pi< •DDS^^'^yty: -lyvyroDnc^ iy:i^n:«^ nyn na 

-yj yD^^iJ^ns 'DiyDs:Djyj''5^5<o ni< "lyo'^nnst rt^'SD'fios"!.. 
"::i^pn^ojy iyrD^njy:yj ii<D d^'??,. ^ ^2V^vv: "ossi^^^yt 
'■)v:iV' IV lyj^'t yD^yii nyiynoj^^o*^ n i^^ck .nytooy^i'DJ^o pk 
-••n ,yBn:i y:in^yDit: nyrjyinnya p« vn')'^ 8 lyiiyj d^^!i* 
-DDn^yr iv :jfe$^"i«D Dy^o Dyi P2 \'\i^))Vi ^:i''ii')vi \v: 
-is:d» •^yt^•■'Di^t^• nyi P2 :^miv "lyij^jTs;^: lyi jjnyDynnstsj 
,1845 pK ,r^J^t:t^' D^o DytDDn^a "-lyo^^ni^ "lyny^iD yorj>^t< 
"lytDJiK iyro^njy:iy: ista d^^p s t:y-i:n;yj„ lyn^^n ^n t^ 
"iyrDD^^:i tiN lyt^'M^D ny^^ni^D n^^D oDj^i'kJ'^yTyj ^ ...DDn 
n iy:Dn-iyojii< iv lyoi^yj in snnx D«n dj^ii /'jJi^pniDjy 
PD "ijsoti^iv -iyDiyDyn-ife!!2 iyrt:v^K lyi t^k >v„ — ,y;ft§i£: 
ny T^« ^vii^ ,Dy:^pnyD^mj§ oyn "it§G i^^vo y^iyj^tj^fe^D 
lyrti^T Dyi PS D^tD^nyi nyoDofeitTpim lyn nyn» ."?n^^"iyK; 
-y:i lyn^in d:i^^jv n di^ii dhi m)Vi vi< Av^iv'? iv Jjsm 
lyj^niv yDrj^^i<i^2 n .iy^s::*ntJ'T-i^nt: y^y^^^yso Dyijna 
■D^n« iynnny:ij» 1843 p« w^i^ri lyto^^nii? lysytD n pd 
oj^D^^v yD^^DjyDyn s /'nyj^o^rpy 'Diyoi^B,, nvi lynyj 
n PN 1^2 PD lyoyiyDJ^K n tD^D iyny:iy;s«: in oi^n y^^yn 
pc'^n-fiD^-i,, n *ynt:Dnr« ny^n P2 ryoyv^is yti'^JDytD 
oi^n "DD^ti^^ytya yD-'^ij^nc 'DiyDfe$o:)yrtj^^o m iyt:^m» 
."PTy:iyD 'Dp^jypyo,, nyi iyny:yjDnis 1847 m I84i rytJ^niv 
lyjii^iji;?^ iyi ^n t:'^yi3'yi :irji$i ^nn 1850 lynoyiiijj r^K 



,1843 ."lynoy^^n ]>K t::,n3n::?:5 /'i»;3>»KTpy 'Di^^xs,, nyn * 
-KTpj; 'DiycNB,, Dyn pN pKiiv:: ts'^yn^KiTiKB ,1848 ,''7T ]'k t'k 
P«iiy^ iy3p:y;DniN t^n d«i^ ,"tDi'pNmK 'Dt2:pjj'tty n:y ny^'o 
iy .y'sSi;itty tain i^rnv^jy^sx ii^s^'TttS'in -ju exn ]"ik ^i2"i:;n*^ r« 

.1851 ik: n^K2 tvr'tny t2n:,»n:?;£nN enin 



tD«n ny ly^^y^i pk /'n^^ipnno i^no 'onyu^upn,, oyn 
nyD^yii iy:iyp ,DT^ji$^Jv-i^no tia yn^yto fe? DD^^ojyDynsD 
n« *,iyvyTivD^'iK d«i^ D«ny:i d^p d^j^ii p^^s i^^^p'pd 
DQSK^^yty: pn t^D mn^^ Dy:y^^^t^'^n lyrt^i oyi D«n iy 
-i^iDj^x nyD^^v^j PD ^^:i"ntj^T lyD^^tD^jfc^o « px D^yiJs^nsQ 
PK nyD^n to^o no^^tj' s: tyn^^n dj^v. Do^jy y^s iy:iyi'i y^vsD 
-DM«-i^D yrii^n n tiQ yooyn n nya« ojn^^nn^D ny^n 
-»in"iyD3ix-D^j {<; lyo^ijyj dj^h dj^ii yrvj^^N n px ,iyn«3 
-••^D Dy^j o:^^D„ lyi r^fc< ,:i{<!0 lyrD^^i V2 nytoonpy yjyj 
"P«t .lytD^n 96 pD ^55:ii:i^T nyj-i^DSJ^^D » /'pry:iyo 'Diyp 
'lyn PQ ,1850 p« ,D^n:i:^Dn"'n pt< Dyn:n:iy:i .Dsonj^iQ j^iisid 
•yi3y: t:«n lyD^yii ^^/'-iDy^DJ^iD 'Diyp^^o oy^j d:^^d„ 
njyn^njj^i nsD nynii? px t^*D tyiy^ pa :i:n^"'nD>i5<„ n D:in 
n>iK . . . iyDD:!j^K oyi d^d :injyrnjy px lyDDD^y Dyn to^D 
'^iivr^ lyi^^^ PK tDii^ p^j? ^Mi< inyotj^ lyn^^^n to^j tD^ni nn^x 
iy:i»T TD„ nyry^ yj^n DJiJ^tiiyji D«in ny ."jjipmnytojix 



n\nia px ]n^-Dt2'>nnK„ iy:yn iy'7p^ia-i« n 'by^i^ysD nyr * 
j?3i'i2yj'?« n TJ? ,iN aianyj ny yD'by^i ]in ,(1851 iKnnys V2 ,1850 
ayn au ,n'7j;rtD'inn«-nyDnx ]]:bnm inn ,DT':NiJv-TinB tk i«i 

-N0iK£3j'N jTD^'i'iJii yoND « ci'^Knajy 'rxjiitt'T ly^nKT -ij?t ** 
-:;:Kp i«^:r n^nta n pa lyisDnxn y'ry^sysD ,ik5 oyn yjijn yis 
■«py P« y^yntsDHi^N ly^yn I1?'7P'u-in y^ynniryrtDU px lyDp 

DIS .J?'!?Kl3:yr31J"lK lyB^'K'ianNSOIN IK PX l«t3 P« tt^'p-S^OyD 

]iip pN «!Jttin u^i iy t'n ,p;Dim I'O m la^m nT« ,ny'n«i 
-"rynKn .na iyp2«nn«s is ip^n ma p« ,pyiDNi'i'nn nya^'btDiysy 
Dy lyayn ^^n ,7'DJikp on^nta iyoNnj3'»"i'i pe lyiayipyo ,]m 
ts^o TT iyiypi<n lyTJiN n^s ,;j\'70tjT yjn3yt2tt''i'«5 i'^ iu tj'sjy:: 



lyo^ii njyoipssD nx riyoMi nnyo iy:np d^«t ih^k n^>K 
lyn^^n IV lyofc^n 0D:"]y i^^s tds^ . . . d3{<d iy:np nn^N oyn 
lyDM T^K oy — ,^i^ni^P^5§ di^dc'js ny:^^yt:J^« onp ;nn 

■*."0D8n"iym inyo r.K 

"83 y^ynLDonrx n t3>D tD:^pft§n "inyn pyii oyi o^d 
-:fc§ -lyri^^tsDMpn lyi iy;yp y^vP5<yi fe? lyo^pyj t^k ,iy:ji::n 
y:^^DD^:y'iii^ n t^nnnyDp^is^ tDj^n yDpyn ,p^tDpj<o nyiroyn 
:njyny: iy3i<D-pm n i^d iy:^2y: i^i i^^x nx .p^DDs^naiia 
lyai^n lyvyiDDnti^ "iy:j^i:«i^ n nvi 4835 p« piij^ .DMxnfcjD 
p^i< 182 oyD^oi^P "lyi toi^n ,t:Dfe!:ti^^yTy; ny^n tDTf^sijii^yn 
Div« .DJS^jr y:^^Dy:^^ yoMiJ n lyD^njj^ lyo^jyj ::^i 
Dv^x Tu lyj^n D«i"ii ,D:5$^:r v'?^ t^yoD in iy2i>*n py^nsn 
"D^D y:^n iv DyD"'D«!p lyi oyoDnsin /'n^iiy: oyijnjya 
yoDy"iBy:D^ns! ^inx :^«:D-iy ny^n d^d lyii^^i^D,, ^'wi'^i 
3J8:nyDJi« "lyi n« lySiys "lyi . . . idd^d nyc^M^D iin D'nyuc' 
,uvi Vi< iy:iy^y: inx lyn^ tu t^k DJi^^jr-oi^^ntD y^js* iid 
]V2Hn *n yD^yii ,iy3;sT yoDy^tj' n \i^\2v::iH^ wnnn ^n di^ii 
m tDrj^^i<ii§2-D^j lyny; lyj^n ^n nyn .iys{<-nsD o^j^ry: 
D^{< "lyny^DtD^^ms vivt Dpi5<Dn:isnny:i ^n ryni^n ,T«!^to:)5<D 
"18 n) ^n ni i^:i ^n^ ny3j$ nyn^nojyast^Pti^ yrDD^Dsn 
p^^8 ^n lyj^n ,:^tDDyD iix Drj^^xn^^ ly^iy;; tyj^n (nytD^>3 
-ivDn"i8 toDuy; iJijyDyiD^N \nH tyn^jn ni< lyj^n^o \^ii))Vi 
■"ly tDJ:jn D^un^ ly^n ns nytop^i^D lyi nyi^^x nnyo iy:np 
ny^n .lynyj DJi$py:i ^n winn nyayjoD^^ms n lynij ,tDnM5' 
-j«^ n iy^«T . . . i-'^n^^D-i^soit? ryiiyj lynnyi t^5< 5'8DDnn 
'nvii^ 8 iJ8^:ijy ns niDx^o-'^yn n ryt^^-n lyvytDsntj' nyj«T 
D^n 8 li^ :njyD-i8in8s n« ; 'pvbi^''^ nyoyn pin ny: 
ly^^onn PN tD^"'pynD^3 pd iyn«in p^p lyo Di^ni t^^^n n 
lyvijsn iM nyj:!y:i ynytJix d-'d ?io8P pn i-'oj^^ ,ds81p 



.1 lyoi: /''T:K'?cK!r ]i« 



DT'':«'':jT'-T'''nt3 jis ytso'^try: 250 

*/'^DK> itK DDK ns lyQsii y^-t^nytDtJ^m^iioix n d^d i«ij 
tDD^^:i lyrr^T Dyi lya^j^ny:! iyni<in 1837-42 ns ly^iSDiDTn n 
nx i«i to^^v lyi iiD -lyD^a yiyiJ^ px lyD^nsci'-iSD in 
y-iyoy-i: n ns n^^iPT*^ n« ly^i^p^i'o^is n lyj^n lyD^-'ii 
y^royi^y; iy:iyp iy:i3ijn«i";i y^iDDpnu^-'s: d^d ^iq djj^^jp 
{ytDi?:y^yn n \vw /'"i;snLDDn2 lyj^n DP^nDD,, .iyj:i^ij^n 
■5§n«n i§ tiM« iyoipy:i3^iJiv in lyrn dh^) nyo^juyr^^^ n na 
DSJ^ m ...yiyu^ ^n lyDDiic^n ty^^Q yoniy:; P^?// ;:jvj 
■lyii VT'?^^^'^ v::'''?DV 1111 n^iiy:i lyD-'^iisD d^:did3d iy:^n 
IV t3^j inD'DiK V'P lyDn t^n oy iiynyjiDto^ui^ jo^d lyo 
112 i^ii Dyi 11X lyDP^n^D oyi n''nn-^yn iy^^« iiy^piy 
-:^>Dtr n I1D DyD^n«!p ly^j^iDjyv iyi **"yiiinp iv^ 
y^vsT^:5<n^ ly^n 112 lyi^^Jto^n n iidd dji^^ii lynyio 
in tD^n ... lyp^nDD ns P^tDp^s iy:i"'^-inyGy:i iyi iy:yp„ 
tD^ny:iDnx in d^«ii nn^« ni,v ^-in ly'njyto /'iiQiyi onx 
-D^jiiiiD i^^j§ ^ni n 18 ,DD^ni in^x d}<iii ,n^n lyi^ni s; ns 
-••niJitsQix nrs DD«Dy:i tJii? toi^in oy Dt^ii t:)pjyiyj . . . tyto 
ly^^tD T>x Dy ni nyinn n''^^ lyoyn 1^0 ... 1842 t^j^ uytD 
^ysni finx ,tyi^''»Dnfc< d^j^t in"'^ ^nytoonpy y:y:i^^K ly^-is 
iy:jyim«D i^oj^^ .Dp-intoD yTi^^^?1J v^V' .i"'^:iyo i«t:j t^x oy 
; mnin^j^nj^ lyo^Tp-iyDsnt^ lit^ tytoD^iy pn m^^^ fe§ ii<jj 
4yjyofc?p^«i5i8G tDo in 1^0 ly^yii to-'^^^ nyi t^« nn^^ m 
■5§n iyi T^x Dy on^^ii ; inj^i"' ^ 1^0 lyn^n iyTi?D i^d ly^yii 
■i« n PD uyitD^iv tytDin^j^n^-too nyi ry:iyii r^nt:)Dixii 
lyn^ntojys^^ptj' pi< i^i^d nvi Pt^n iv"d^:i d^ii ^^Dn nyD^-'n 
in Dijyii lyDyst^' in«i^ vy'?\:iV ***."rypniiyD:)i« iv >n 



.1835 ,2 ixnnys /'tDDnxn i^a'^nn^;',, ;1834 ."iNtj»no{<jj 

.1846 ,26 ivnf3^»t:5yD /'ob^);'\^ ]Mi tjn^ 
.1845 ,25 'i^rno:;!?;,^ /'ix'^ipn^D >'?tDn:i3"iNS„ *** 



tDO -inyn ^J^r toDstj^^yry; lytjii? ts» JS^ti'-iiijD Dyi lyv^tDi^ 
tovi:s!n ^i^T Di<iii ^ytD^D s D^i? ^^D ,Du>^nLDD p^p lyjypnyjfcj 
-ii!n IV m^ss D^st ''0 ri« ,y:y!^ nynix nyDyn-i5§2 w pyii 
t:)«tDt^•JK nt< /'iyjj^:isn mx lyjyj nyn Di^ii ,m^")y n lycoyp 
-D:i^^v{5i;^ny is: iy-ijn:i ^«t tyo Ti$ n«2 ny 0:0^'?^ oyi 
lyrtJ^T Dyi d^ij< oiyo^nn ^nn'? "wd^ddo^^b lyn ."iJi^jD 
^i^T "i«tj D^: T8 ,5inisi tonyntJ^5<n ny di<;ii ,t3^Dnyi J5?^tJ^-i«iE: 
^j^T "p^nDD,, tD-i«:i'\ "lyi is tin* "i«:j ,iyp^nt:D d^: nnyo \v^ 
"•m ."PTyjyD 'Diyp^^o oy^j dj-i^d,, lyi i nyii DDS!'^y:5«t 
-••'i^j n^D» .iyDnj:«i yD^^jny to^n ^id t^« i855 nx i850 lytj' 
nyi lyiiy: iy:i^n dp^^dd t^\, -i«;op^iy"i nyi on^ni^ /'ryn 
Ti<:^r^j^DDnp n lya^n 1854 px ."DJ«:^jvT'nto pd ni^on-DD 
,DytD^DJ^*p ly^ytiDjyv ly^n ns :i«^:^"i{<;d oyn nnx ,iyD^^3nt< 
-s«: i^ nn /'ipyrp^ntDD,, pd aJ^^^^^vDM^? n 02«K^yis^^ 
D£j^ T^j? lyp^noD IV tDi^tDtj'j^ .nyTi^jD^D y^s pd jjiD-itD:^ 
D2oyp5<3 ^j^T nun-^yn lytoDy^ti' ^ t^^ ,ni^i"iyj Iy;li$^t^'y:I1^*i: 
-j^^5< lyLD^^nns n nn^x pd to^^my^^Dtr lyonyjiv inn nyr, 
-tyiyi:^ D^nny; iy:np ^n i^d Dyii jyo ^ii i>:i n>{§ ,T^nirv 
"pyni^ ly^yii lyto^^iiv Dy-i ii^j lyo^-'m^^ p^« •••ii nT8» .ifc^ii 
Dyi") /Dn« ly^n lyonyjii^itD ly^ip d^j toyii iyj>>p pix ,rny:i 
-ya lypmnytDJiK Dyn 112 dd''^: nyv^i^Dt^ pk nyn'mi<: lyi 
i«p ny yD^yii ,d3^d n ty^n^Dnyn toyii ny pk nyii ly^i^nn 

*"inyT D^j 
"sn PD p^wm iyjyj^^t< lyn pd ^^^tD s tyiiya r^x oy 
IV tODso n D«ii ,p^nt:D PD yDt^ii n lyviJ^n Di^i lypjyne' 
■py^i^ \^r]i^'> v:v^ px T-tx D^nr-'^yn n iy:y:i :ynp ny^Piy 
••niv n PN .Dy^v^p:«n«i y5'^p»^ n pd ni^iiy:) iyoi:y:i 
-i$i5 y:injyD:i'^i^D lyn^n n^o yD^yii pd jytoD^t^^yry:! yon-i: 
n^D lynyr— Diy-iy^iD:)^''totj; n ^^ Dnyo^^jyT^^x n— jy^^^pi^D 



tD3i^£„ pK ."DpincD pE p?:^N5 ^jtsry^iy n„ ]:;;rii ^^'i^ * 

.1850 '^r /']iv;:i';t2 'Di^'P'^c d;*'?-J 



DT'^j^'»3V-Tnt2 ]is ytDD'-ts^y:: 252 

-d:^v nn tiQ ^«inDJ«p "lyn r^^^ijyDitDK^ in tDrDoyssn oy mi 
-':i:yT^^s n ns :ji^D«n«D iyD»:iy^yi n .yivrnpyrpy '?^^ 
')pv^?v Dw DD^D y^iD n iy3y:y:nyn^x D»n 1846 t^N onyo 
DoiDDD T^ ^tDan^iy D«;i^ ,nyDD^D lyn,, .oyD^o^p lyivD 
-D^D yiytJix na ty:iJi^o^n^D inn I'^v)^ iyD^^iy:itDi:i ly^^ir 
-y:!Dni< i^^jny^y; i^v)^ v:i'?v\). ,t:)yi^2 ivi tD3«T /'lyn^^: 
"i^Q nyii iyn» nyD^ni^ is nyii? i^ttix p^t? ny^^^^ Djyn 
oyn HD IJ? tooiP D«:ii ,tiyni tyDiyiiDjyniD"i;sQ is inn Din^a 
-^it^ .lyoDy^tj' ^ -lyDn t^x nr^D tDDip iiddd nyi ij^ii r^^s 
'n ,D^^P3^^tDnj<i*nD:fe!!n^D y:y^ do iy^n"'& in^^:!D''o yiyr 
■•n •ly^.T'D DDi^nyj iyn«n ^n d«ii ,tyD^\-i:yjy^y3 yD^yr^ 
,iy^n^Dy: ^^ton^s ,ynyn v:i'\'pp ^ .nv^) tD-in'-si^s dq«i tyjj^p 
lyo^tiv r^j§' — ?iynn '■\v2r]vi^ ^5 lyij^; ,yv5$D:yTyisy-iD^o s 
« lyni^ QStj' ^ lysy^tJ^j^n^ iyj«;p — lyijui^n yiy^ lyni^ 
l''?:vr:i ]M< t3DyiyjDi« t^k ny^y^ii ,tiDsp ^ p5< :•'M^^^ tyvj{s*:i 
. . . 'pv'i ny^n iyD"«n:-iyT iv ryD^nonx Pt< oy yD^yii inj^ 
lyniijn ,iy3Jij>^D n to^iji ns dd^? Dyi r^x tD:i^^vnyn>H rijy^n 
""•^mvDi: to3i$o y^iD n ryny.iy:nyn^fc< toDJipiv nyn isd vd 
lyi *"p^^fe§ DyD-tDJi^p ry'ivtoipyTpy Dyi iv doiddd lyo 
1843 pN 1«J to«!n ny'iyn?D:i">''tDt^ n pd toyD^D^tp ny^«ntDjy>? 
i^t^ Dp-inDD tycnivDnifc? w^nii:'? n lyD^tni^D ryn^K^Djy 
nyn pd yDi?p nyi iv to-ij in !y*i:5yii >••? tyii i^^ds nysyt^^ 
ti^ior nyrij^n lyi p^? n^n m •yv^Dtj^-p-'ntDD i«j oc^tj^^yry; 
•DO nyiJiJ: lyp^noD ry:tyii ryo^^tj^^n iv dd^o n t^« 
m ♦yivD^pytpy nyi iv n«i"ny:i tynyjyj-)yn^i< do lyp^nDo 
ti^ni^t^ lyny D^n ,DiyDo:yt^>i$ n >^n ^sd lyn ryiiy: pk dj^t 
-DjyDyir-'Mw,, Dyn inn ,ty:jnyni^Q yj^n lyjy^ii^a DPoyj 
-D''D y^» PD 3Jio''DK>s«i nyj^^Dyji^is rs iv ,"ii55ipi>v ty:3^^ 
^Hn v:i'?V)) .v'Div^H'iB ^ — nj^^ iyv:)5§:i I'lyn^^ lyn^^: 
Dyn D^^n:^:i4;^y:i « lyny^y; Di^n Pi< d>^v ytj^n^n s ryooi^s 



.1846 ,"tQ£3NB''7VTjr;j ya'^^njine ^Di^rDui^rmK nyn ]i9 



ns ^lytDyo^oi^P'irtDipyTpy yoD^^o n diiji'i ,tDp^D nyi 
t::^^D ,DP"'nL:D iy;yj \v^'^d:v \vw: ty:^n nyt^ysB^ i^i< 1S45 
yny^ iy3y:jy:2n{< lyvjst^rx to^n lyo tj? ,iy:{^T iv o^j "i»j 
yjynviy lyoya n ns nyin^D n .p^tDP5$D-i5?2 y*^^:iy:y 
T1D n^ ry: ,rftsnjn; lyti'^Dt^j^py nvi iymjy:jj^* lyn^in ry^s^D 
n« Di>'3Ji^ PD :i''jyto^ym5<D nyi i«: r:jyn2« pn DJjnstn'oix 
-y: Dj^n Dv -o^^n-i^ Dfc§^p nyi:ir^3 iyiy> pk yj5<"DDJ5: 
pi< '?VD^D "iy:i^vJ^^K nyi t» ,01^^;^ nyt^^^ji^^ st pm iv oj-'^tj' 
T^K .yjs^ ''\V'<'f nyoym^s nyii^ lytD^j^rnvD^ix dd^'d ly^n 
lytrjyn y^^» .D^m^? pd Dii,2:i^ oyi nyjy^P"ii<3 iv lynyj 
"i»D-tyo^:y^yi n t2^toyDt^'5<3 /"p^^ lyo^o^^ ::'nni?Dny ld^d 
isjp p^^-DtD^ui^ lyn T^„ 4847 pfc< DiyD^i:yT^^^ n ps :iji^»Dj<r 
."to^^mj^ «i^ix y:fe?iDD}^*j "lyi inn ny^i onyDyny; lyoDyn^s 
"sn Diyii Dp^ntDD iy:iyp ^id^p nyi ts n^D tyj-isy:! nynnyi 
,iy:ir^"iny^ Pd ^ni^!^ n iyp:ync^«n iv 3:i-iyn{<:D lyn P2 d^^^*; 
■•n p{< ,D^^v yD^^:nyi^y: n ^ii ^nvD lytD^mj^ dj^i lya^'k^'Sij 
Dny3fe$o Tt^^'r^j^tDDnp n ."ijj^*D-Dj«;^v^nr^y 15^ pd ::idx<'^^ 
tyiiy:i t^j^ nyo^^m^ pn ^y::{<D iyi„ Tb* /Diny^pny \V2Hn 
■y^toDys iy:^n Di^ii ,iys^^:n2 y^{<D:yo55;i:iD n pa iy:^^t< 
-Dy^DJ^'o px nyiyaj^P "lytot^^ny iyT:^N fi^'',x ni^iiyj D^yotj' 
■D^*j PS* tD«tnj«t PD y:i^i2 s tDV^^Q t^x Dy» ."1849 pK nytD 
-y: 8 pD D«!3Ji^ "lyi nnx t^ ^tyo^ni y^^ i^'d px ;v:^i^ 
">2 n D-iyn ,y:i»iDDi*j n nyi>^x nyoyn^ r^t? ^yp^t^nst ryo^n 
nyn>^ tD^^nii? Pt^ d«!1 •'•'D ,^yp^Di{§ lyrrhn ayn pd tD^>pr!^ 
nyrr^T "lyi pt^ *."DStD^"iTyn lyD^^-ritD^J t? ,minD iyn:5§ m 



ijrDnK ]*;vi'';ri ;'vbie nn^s t:«n ^i^-i "lytsDi'^e* n ]in 2nN„ * 
\^'>i^ n^n'r^rTii.n px px .nnx^ n £1,015 ly-jnp mt ly'j^ni ,t2''n^K 
-'i!tiyt2:nK ,trt3''n k obn nirtz-ib)!2 ps pyn ts^jiixn >u ]y^^*r 
^iSiKiis IKE ly^^KntiDnx ix: '^t u*P'B' T^^t ; ]n^ "iy« IVP'*'- 
]i« ^u ttp'tr in'« ]iK ,t2iifi ]n;'S2iE *inix cinsb' ,5Kp nye *-:*• 



n ij;j^n y:i8iQ3i#: iw tDfc$n:« iy:yii V'\r\v'? m no :iJnjyii:« 

n ,inyT n^stn ty^yii n^o ni ,ni< nysyto ,iyD^:ijyT^>fei; ,iynrn 
-JSiiDM« lyj^n *in«^ tnyv ytoopyj n n^Q ^.lytDD^j^tj^^D 
-os:iij yDm:i no « i^« iim^v^ Din^Qy:i:^^8 iynj^5-D:ijnyn 
tyii ,tD^}<iDyn t:i^'^v n«i^y:i DQ;!§t:^y:i3i$ tyj^n y^^yii ,Dy^^fei!T 
lyD DJ^ii d:^q njyt^D ni^sB n d^d t« ,iyjiQy:iDnx D^n lyn 
:^:yii inyr tyo t^p ,pyii5^ Dyn ^^q n^ist^^B^ mi^?v: to«n 
.nyo'i'inis nQ Di^snyn^t^ nvi nv^v'?i^^^^ iv i{<!DQn{< dj^ii 
••T lyiiyj ty:^n dj^si t^ ,D^yDt^y:!D"'n^ in to^tn ij^j iviyi 

,iyT«^DD^m8 lyti'^j^inD nyi nyn ^y^^DtJ^-^jnyu^i^on^ it^j 
"pyiis ^»T iy Tfe? ,to'^yi£i'y:i «> dh^x ^-'i rntj^ toi^n tyo nn« 
-D^3 ni^p rt? nnypQi« pniv n^yDtJ^ in iy D:iy^D ,tin^D 
iyi ns inK^n rsnx vv^'i yviip s DD^nyj DJ<tn iy m Dyi 

**.y''V«T'':ife?n«i 



lis B^nnK ps D^^Biyn<« d:;t tsji^ia^nKi nn^x oxn ,t3pb*s I'tsiB's 
-<'D Dy^:i ts:^'?!!,, ,iyi3i?^pyD n:?T its ynp-Djjiiir-syT^rj) ."piKO 
-i« lis Di^siyn^N Dj?n qk taswe^,, (.1854 ,t3Dunx /']''tv^V^ 'D'^yp 
nyi ps itjT K pu ^j;3':jik "in;) tsjrn ;3ipm"ij;uiiN tix ta'^i 

,yiV!aipyTpy "lyT pfi d^tn in ;1854 ,taDnnN /"inyj:;o 'Diyp 

.1857 ,"iynoyu5j;D 

.(""iy:'ONTpj; 'Di^tisnq,, d:?t nyr) 1843 onx ,t:?u2nNn txiiT-Tnu 

-in Dis ,nTN ."lyT'i'Jsta'D j;ni-in;!i«:; i:;s't3ty is lyoiD pjyuin 
-i^"iny» Dyn px lapmy:? ,iyiN;!DnN ps y'bpnKia n tD:>^s ,'7:,mbb> 
-X?:j lj?n:?:jr;iDUN t^n £4,712 t« ,DnyDi:jyT'^N n fiB tcsn^n ip 
-n;i^nj3k„ -i:;i ^^n .1874 n^ 1855 lya^nis ppns Dj;n inb fiKii 
lX?a^Nn5;;!j« n:«B-DJinyniNnDnN* nyi toxn "m^rtsiysiKp lytano 
*?Nny:y:i Dyn ns n«ny^ tDBNtfyjEw I'^T^y ti« iy lyn ,1886 to 



255 ^y-TSc -ly-'"': -ly-T ]i« ]iu^^:i ly^-'a nyi 

lyDs^n^VD^^iiv ^nvr:i "ij^j Dyi ns D>^^jy:n lyny: t^x pyiJSii 
Ti^^r^«:t:Dnp n .iyt:^^3"iN y>o i^*2 Div lyti^j^i^^iv d^j ist^Q 
:n:yD*^' jyj^n n^s Ti^^j 112 oy^vpyo yiyi35$ n ^"n nyD^-'ms 
ns ?n«v n lypjyitr^n iy:jy-iDEi^ "ly^n d^d DJ5§P5§a lyiiyj 
: fK is:;-i{^'"iJ<2 ly^n ns ::mv nyrijyt^tj' nyi .ty^r^nny^ 
D«T Dni^ii ; pm^ ifc§^::^K n o^j^n nt< n:pn n b«i-dm„ 
"lyn o^i^sny nymx ns mo nyi ,^y3^« oyi na iid^ lyn t^k 
-IV n ns :iJi3yc}^n n ni< y^v^T^jii!:i^* "lyrjix na d^sboj^p 
•irtDPS! ^iTSt tDp:i3 lyiiyj lyrn lyD^B-pm n * "nnn yrr^Bjip 
-Dt^p "nij ^oy^^Dt^D ij^ij}^^,, lyi ns rytoyt:^DJ^p v'?v''iVBD 
-pn^n Dyi ly^n p^n ri< lytD^^ny^ rijytDi^ tynj^n "Dni^onj^B 
n n'^i:iyi nt^ D^m^nyirp ly^yDtrivBJ^ ••ii :yn iyj^Doj^r 
ys^yii MyD^Bn^r^^rrt? n nx .ry::^^"iny^ "iynynyn\s„ 
rD^yn li^^Jv-T-ntD lyi pfc< iyD{^iDy:ij^n5§ o^^v ^V2V' iv ry:^n 
•yiD^Kn^sB lyn ^^ix p^top^tD yvjsta ny^n tDyijn:^^ ryn«:n 
n«tDPJ<n lyt •'11 ,n3N^D"^yn ^vt:i:'^v'?vi lyrtoDn ^y-i t^? ,3:iv 
-vyry^oit?,, lyo^^cnvD^ix t:Dyi y: Di^n ,t>t?P«!in^ "wi nyn^t 

•i^D pn pB "rytJ^jyD yD^5> 
Dn^ D«n "lyD^yii /'dd^^:; ly^^j,, lyi lyiiy: t^« di^t tojj 
Dijn ^^^inyi .to^yii ny6j^^DD^:«i^:r-'T'ntD lyi toij^nynsin 1850 



ytt^'i^'Nixe n px tajnKiij;;; iy3«n j?D'?:rn nyT'7;tt'f3 n ;t:K-i 
TPVP i:i»tD;*t:Ni5 pixaty p^nxn Dv*»ix^Kp n pK pN ^:,»i:«Nt:tr 
nyi T'N 1860 ]ix 1850 lyiynn i^rnx .n;K5 i^'JS'Txi cyn ]ysi:K2 

"IS U*2Kn Dj:'iN^Np ytyi^NmonN n pN u*r:KKr:e' v-^'2>^NnKB n 

i:p"imjr;t:'D iixn nya^^n tapxc k ,(1856 '3T ps ,n^'i;*nf32ii»^y 

,pyn 
,1857 ,i:;2i2;ttB;*D /'pry^^'O 'Diyp^D o*;bi tt:'^£„ * 



■jyjy; ynjyDPsimpD n nyi^^:itD^D uyr^D ^irs r^n >m 
DJ^^i ,ty:^iD^u yD^^DjyDyii n nx v^'^^ vrD'<'^'i 
n^^^D^o nyQ :i}^'?^^ « ^11 inyo lya^n^^n t^^^jyto^^v lyiJijn 
PD ^ny: -^'1 r« ^Ji^P^^iDjy y-uyto^nsn s DD^-iayj in d^d 
lyoD^K^^yty; yrtoij^; n« lyni^p v:'''?p n .i«^jvi>>-"iD lyi 
v:i'?V'i^ .lyt^jyD ns nj^^iyj DyD^i^inyo ^^^DjyoD^^o lyj^n 
yiyn to:ni^T^n iynt<sn n« lyD^Q yiy^n ^u D^-imfeisy; ivinn 
DpiNii Dyn tD^D -tytDJyn^ n p« pytoyipyo d^s tytD::^^a 
n nyiy^iDJ-'^DL^ n mi ,Dy^^?$§T^j^:n{^ y^fe?j«;^:^^3 y^^yr^ na 
-DMn; nyi ny^^iv t^^ ny^SD pt^^D-^qroj^T n ,DiyD^:ijyT^^8 
-jsn ^«t lyD T^ ,n«!Tiy3 tdm: p>^fe§ tytosyi^y:i n iij: id^^p 
pn iyny:iQj$ ^^it iy:D^yi"i nyn^^:itD^D n pd Dyj^-ii^ tyo^toti^ 
lyni^ .^jinn^Dnn px nynj^isoyij^p nyi n^^ to^-iv yvjfeit:i 
D^J T^^? iy rtDDnsM^ p&< rD-i^^Q ni nyo^^^n ny^^j nyi 
D^j T^« iy ny^^yii iv ,D^mi$ m in it?D lyD^iDy:; tDJ<in ,tyiiy:j 
"cyD t^n tDM^ D^3 pi< :!:n^u t^n dm^ d^j ,t:DifQy:!iv iyi"iy;i 
lypyn lytos^ti^^yty^ yrr^n n ps ly^r^ib' n .t}jy»^iyQ 
-n;s yjyin^aiyDi^^ n pq iy;j^;:yiDtj^j«t y^^'^rDyto^s n tin^? 
in lyni^n ^n y^^yii ^nt^ /lytD^-'piyiiti^ n tynipiv^^n lyD^^n 
pt< a:it:^«in;s2 ly^^p^^ lyn lis ^jnrm^D t^x tyontDtj^y^j^i 
yj^tD^njy^y^ pd ^ji^ni^vDPx n .ly^J^rs yDin^^^ito:yv 
n iy^^''Dnynb?j^Q d^i ,iy3Ji^ob*n^2 v'?^Pi^'? n ^nt< yv^DK^ 
nijnsrn n ^lyp^tJ^pyns Pi< tytj^^iyn^x nn^n tyo Di^ii lyij^^a 
-^tt«ip nsa DS^Jtj>„ iyDt^^{i'y:ij^^«) ,iyn^:iDn^< v'?^\^i^'p isa 
-niyn pd lyDJ^^a lyi p>? .:ijnn^D-in pq nniD n *,("DytD 



irtasKty'JyTy;; ynj?Dyi;{ n ii& lyayaioKp yivisipyrpy >*t * 
/'niKiJin DB«3ts'„ n iy;!:;p ^lOKp x lain^s:;;! pnNi yi^i px ]j;n«n 



yen: v^^: yi o-iy-ii^syj t5»n Di^n r^s dh,! — ny^^:: nn 
ly^i^T m ]V2''?pv:o')i< ^y^vysD nyii ly^^t y^^v^i .yoc5§«!3 
nnt^^ y:y^ pk .o^^anfes nyi d^d iy:iy:ie« n^^D^^c'Dnx in 
D^yn it$^:r-T^nD lyn px t}2i<:i'"iyin^D n ni n^D lypiyo 
■D:eti^2cix nx t}D^M^.D:y lyr^-ysiv oyi nc lyT-is; ::ny:i 
-Q5<5<a yof'n^ivtn njyoti' D^it^p y: iv ii^to^t:^:^ lyD^^toii^ii 
-D^j«i^:r-i'n'L: n pa iyn^^py:DnN ^y^^ysD \^v^) Di^^^ ,ytD 
.IyD^^pr^y2■DDDyt^'y:l vw^vr] v^vt ny^^iv lyn^n yt^'^tD 
n tDi^n jjio^fe^inj^Q pd D^^ais ly^^^jyiD nyi rins: lyn^i 
-i;:i^* y^'^j^i^v^j pn IyDDS!t^'^yTy: yrnn^: pd ^jio^nnoMx 
DDy-: pK Dy^v5<"iy"iyQ yt^i^ pa :ji^nJ5<"i"n^D n pn ,D^y^vsPJ 
Dyvi^na pyivj' oyn in d^o oD^iny^LD^D ,D:{^^:r ytorj^-'X-isa 
-"•^x n pD ly^j^^ptrL^j^ns n .oy^vitD^DDJi^p lytD-'^m^D^N pd 
■"lyiitJ^ s is:d D1511 tD^D ,iyT^^ii nyiynoj^-'tit^' n px lyD^jjyr 
in OHir\ nyjD^M'^.v nyi ij^j :j^^Db*nfc?D-iyD5s:y^y"i p^x w^^'? 
tyD''^ms \v'?i^^ yD^yii ,m:pn yn>n 5< iytD^>m{<ivDnK Dr^^r^v: 



lyn,, T« ,Tyt2n^ (1813) "i:;i'UiND'7Kn ]i5 !:£NB'?:;Tjr; "i;'iNi:i<^ 
-'>^pDn« tt^rn ij? DKn ,iyp'^ t:iQ in^n !;;nKTKn 'bxT tainuyiB 

i!j ni?'n DNi ly'^^'tiDMN ^KT TKiTiNO i^T T« ,i::;mK"iKE (1809) 

yt2?2KKi n v^nx,, ,n'>n nj^'u ^cip oy n:;TM« jj^p^nta is lyn 
^'7iE« ."t:nK!:ty ]'k ]k ttriy uaip Dxn T'i'::c'0 h ny"T« ,b''B D"'a 
'^r2i}pHb„ "lyi ps m:pn n iyi3'i:tr«:: 1837 pK 't: a^^ey nrx 
"•'2 ys^'i'tiiysyn n ps '7yt:m « tn ,"i:EKtr'7;»T::; 'D"i::rKO-|yn'B 
-'■^^c'O n IKS :2itrn£5K ei^iN pv^i ly^^^jiy^D'TX ly^xr iv;;k"ib 
"iyDyny:sDnN I'ji ]in pxiiy^ t:TN'?j:;D^TK t^n* cvn n:pn k ,iyT 
nKC-]yt:N:;j;'?yT n i:«n nnx' Dyi^r' px .1846 piS y:;K'i'5nt< lyia 
]iyDn"i pK lypinu is ^^"jKm«5 D"iirD»;:yT''K n ]ie jjinax? 

tsEKc^v^^'-^ i>T p5 m:pn n pyT:y "jtit :;ii:y'Tni<-',KE ;»j5'7'ti 
lyiyjsDMK v;^;^^ D:r'i*^*T'2^<;n^< y;i!:nK n Dxn ymo n tn ,nTK 
]"iyn t:^nK!Jv*^D'^« ''^ ^«<t iv^ri^axTiNE y"ii?''T i'2 ny^i eint* 
n IS Dy*n« n^^n pK ^'t ]:;p"ivo«2 /']'';ii^b:i "i^?2„ .n^*;:: pK 



"DQfe?t^'^yTyj yD^^ij^nD ^D^v''\:i^v'?'t:i n^ ly^^o-tyr^j'feiiD 
DD^n^^D ijy Diyp^^D rt^^^D ijy pl^^hj^x-d^dd lyDyjiMtj^n,,) 
-iyj^« na lyDy^nj^ns n or^^^yj to^n ,(""'toy^^DJ<iD ^^uyiD 
DJ^n ti« D^^'prnya iyD^^D^Djy:i>''X to-'D y^vsfjsn^t ny^^^ 
••Dy^^Di^D iyD^^D^;i^it?DiS// iyi p« DD;}§iny.'iD"'n8 ^lo-^miD 
tDDDyn iyiiy:i r^x d^ii /'^ynj^*D Dy^>j„ « /'oi^j^ti^nj^K 111$ 

.VDTm^ ij^^jvn^nD iyi i«£5 roDn^ 

"iMiPiyD lyrt^T lyn ns dpi«^i nvi inytos^i^s 1^^ din 
lynynna nyn 1^ nnypDix in t-d lytiD /t}Qfe§L^'^yTy:i nyjn 
T^n lyniijn n-'D ny^^yn ,iyj^^N-i^Q lyD^nii? iig v^::wv:i 
-j$n iyT:i« pt? D^^"?ofe$TPiyDQnH rjyii inyt lypj^itj^y; lyn^ 
IID ;ijnQtj>iii< nyi jji:yii^i lyj^^oyj^s iyi pd :!Jin^ntj^ 
TD .toD^i^i'isn D^j T^N jy^yiQ i^j"'tj^Tr{< n p« nT^j{<i''jr-i>nD 
■yn lyn toi^n D-iy"i:nnini5^ lyD^nyvD^s pd^^id d>u T8 /tyrsyj 
.ypn^DtJ' D:i«Qn^D Diy^ujy^vo pd d^^p lynjysj^iyn to^^^o 

.IVpi^niDV^ sinN tD^y; ]np ]j;n:;jDnK ta^j a^rn lyo ]j;n pyn ain'syjj 
""T ,Dyjj;sD-DJiiJTiKi2TN pK ij;i2NtaB'7Nn:! ,iy^aia ,iyjJiDyin"iyta:i« 

lyiKH 1860 sn« ."ui'ptri«iimK5f3iN ]ik tai^pj^nn ,:jiJi?m« 

-iKn"i«s ]y!?3«jiiN i'7's« u^ixn j?3:xo ]in /lypJNntsyj! «inN ipK^s 

-D;iii'bfiKnKfi ynpiK p'p innjx px IJ^^^n DiK'Ji' n t« ,iypjyT 
]yo yD'byn .lyP^V^^ n ns ii^niij-m'i'p n m ,ta«npji i2Pi lytiy^B 
5?iyiu IKS jini;?'?nN*!J ]in ,'»ns t^r^jiixn t^? ipn^iy nt ts^^^^'S 
til'!? 'ij;'! njrtsiix .t2ij?"i po k tiSnxs^jj; Dt^n in lynxn ,]yp:HitDy;i 

lxnTi2K»NpK^ n pis ,DN:mn j?i:?j!nj< pK lypi^^tt' n ps piuiKnp 

-«n ,1850 px .ivd: Dyn inyaiJ'Dnx i:;B"i«n n a^i na ,|iyf3'!f 
-"iNB IS "pT ]t?;;NTi2jjr DivpiJ?^ yomj^j TN ,DnjrDUij?T' IN n lytsan 
njr'Ti'jJtaio n Dxn "i«Biyi ,|y:3'i'7i2KTn«5 inb pj;i3is 'u i:;;jn 

.;':yiT irpjnta 



n *.iyt:2{<:i^^yTyrife?D ,y^'^:B!i^to ij^^iiJT iik ,y:yDfcJ^6^•y35» 
ns Diy^u iyiiy:i i^^jr-isms lyrn yD^yi^ ,nyMnjy^^Q 
jyj^n .lyi^^s PD ^^D Y'?Hn pd ^^d ,p"iyir^^D lyoifcjD ■•^^ly^s 
lyi ns ::nn^2J^^» nyi nyn ,n^iiy:i t2rD^nj$n i^noysioK^ 
-jiT^a n r« -lyo^^ms; yonn^^^^vysD n inn .rtj^^^D-nosi 
ryo Di^-n dj^i hd 3:nn^£:^*N* n .ij<q ly^n na ly^^-'iD yiyi 
-yv n ,tDD^M D«n /'y^D«t:i$py D'i^:y*^'T:^« Dyn» \v^)ivi D»n 
lyD^^":* yiyiriTfesn lytoriK 1^2 ^V''\2:v'?'d nvi ns ::i^^^tD 
"'OD:ym{<D "ly^n dm^ D^ni^*^y^, tD«in \vd yD^yii nyto^u^iS 
n iy^n«^ Djy^D lyo dj^ii /'pi^ |yD!^^Dt^'e{3» nyi Di^oiJOfcj 
n pa y^v«T^j«n{$ n Diyotry^ iyvj«:r&^ oj^n .onyn^jy^^o 
lyrri^n nyi -li^a ^^^tJ^Tr^^ cyi px lyp^jNDy: v^:^v'?v:i 
/Dyi mn n^i^'iyj DnyDya-ife<2 d^j ijyo^nsin t^k nJSDti^iv 
lytj^MW y^y^D dtt^:sijij^ in winr^ nyo^ni pk 1822 pa oi^n 
-■•■♦s n TM^n ,iyD2y:tj'^yTyri^2 yD^^ij-tna yn:imp:«ip in 
-£nK lyn ^nt< nin^ v^V'f DTiVi^v^^n? lyn^^n DiyD^a:yT 
,Dnyn3:y^^D n .y^v5§T^:i<ni;? iy^s!ji$^vfe?J p^x ps jJiD^i§n 
iyp^]fe$DyD yo:iy^y: v^vi2^ pk oiyrj^o-iy^yii^o 4yi^o*^ n 
Dy^V5<T^j^ji« yiyi:iT{?n D^r]v:i \V2Hr\ lyDsta v^^n n px 
px uiyi ,Tii^2i!i<in ,^toDS!pr: nyDoyt^DJ^D m«ij{$^ pk 
-D^^D,, n ty3>n "•n pa .DiyDjyv ^nyi^^ytj^Trx yiyi:8 
ly^ynnK^n,, n ; (1824 pt? Dyunjy;)) "Diyp^^o pc^nrx 
Dyi:n:iy:!) "DD^n^^^o uy Diyp^^o pE^'s;o uy pt^^nj^x-D^t^D 
-i"iJ^2 i?^i>^8 ii^t ^D^JinDj<"ia iyt:^^i<^D»D8„ n ;(1826 pn* 



pN ni2K'?a-''7y3 iy;yii t^yrs'ONp u^'by^^ysD,, D^ri i«£3 tt3«oy; j^i 
tl'''?,, P« u*;:ipnyoKi y;'t2MT n inN ; 1824 pN /'ynv:'tyKO 
.piyn y"iyn:« r-^ (1877 ,i«'Ti«^) "pnm>;'E dk'^mt nyo n« 
lyjiyn ]yB:yi2ip«n vk oy ys'i'yn ip'sy;: tsixpy:: u^: lynxn -I'o 
,pnn"i'y£ D«i^m "i^ro .1R22 m "i:,'nn5 ]j?!;eKtr^:;Ty:: pi:'tyT:'« 
,(1861 ,iKn:K7) "pikti-'7'?io ii>; obb^tz,, pu is ynyniKs i:,n px 
]1B nn>£i''« Dyn i!i "iynn-'i"tt Dyi pe ;:i;;'i:mtk2 n is-ian'nty 

.ptrKD-siD^T in 



DT''is''ii''-T'ntD lis vta^^tyj;:! 260 

PK tDyirnjy:i) "onyp^^ciy^^i^n,, n hk ; (i830 pk t^yi 
"«i^v8J 8 ?i^i« Din^J8:;n«i iy^iy:i Djj^psn m tyj^n — ,(1832 
yD^yii ,iJ8^ na iy^^"'D y^s p« lya-i^iv d^d ,n«tDK^D»D ly^sj 

PQ lytsQsti^^yTy:; y^8P«^ ynyiJS px yron^tDSi'tDSMn n tD^D 
"'65'T3^K yj>^Dy3^8 PN iyD8D-ty^y"i»D ,\vi^d^ ,Diy^njy^^D 
DiyDtJ^y:i to^n yjyn"ip:«p ytDJDyiy^DMx-tD^j yjnsn n .n^J 
pK'n iyny:iynyDJ^5^ tD«n pk D^>p:i^DyD-i8Q lyDstpi^ii ^viv 
■u rnsQ DD8Dy:i d^uis ly^n lyrnp iv nynyjiDD^uns n 
-JSP nn PQ tyDi«D yDD:iiy n tnn^DWJ^^s iin t^ns lyoDj^^ 
.^ni^DPsnDJSpnytDJiK px D^oi^-p^tDtJ^ nyuinip 
TK n T8 /lyrcy^ iv otj'siniyn^x d^j nynnyn lyji^n i^o 
PK ^^^DJS Dyj^^^P 8 \VD):v^ tyn«n Dy^^fS!T>J8:ns n^J'-tJ^t 
PD y^^'SiiD n lyns .1830—34 pa ^>jiypnyn^« ivo^'i^i lyn 
n^ lyn nyn^x D^natJ'isQ t^i in mn d^ii ,DyDnfc?n^^sD 
^yDsn:^^ D:n ,ynjyD^ns!n « D8ny:i rtDjyp D«in ,D^yinytD^^3 
.lypi^vsn tDQMH n .18D lyrtsi Dyn ^ini^ i^^Qfe? 3:ipini 
"J8^ PK isnjs^ lyiiy^ iy:^n ,n«"ny:i Dinnsn lyj^n Dsn 
-«p iyD''^tDDS!tJ':^^Dy:i "iy:j§nji$^ s D«n 1836 pn .i^^t^sp 
t538 nsQ lyDQstJ'^yTyj ytDjyiiJ^ynyDJix yr:^^K pd oyto^D 
n njiyi«D ,p^nDD lyD^nii^i^sny 18 Dnn^DyjJs n^^m 
i«ii 8 nv^ j^v:3yT ?im« to^^^f■DD^^n18 lyn pd JUWi-ipni^Q 
■18 "lyD^^jnyiiy; nyi i«j lyn^^mjs n^SQ to^ni^vy;! ^nvD m 
-'mP iyD^5'tDD8ti^:^^»y:i s lymi D«n 1844 p^? .id^^^-dd^-'I 
yjnnyD^m s D^nr-'^yn iy:«nj«^ n pq iyj«iipy:iDni5<! toyD 
yrr^n n tiQ tDrtDiDiy .iyiJiDtJ^-DD''^m8 n tie :!Jivi^pi8Q 
iyDD8{i^5'yTy:i lyji^ij^^' n pd nyn^^jD^D n rynsn ,ty:i^«:siy 
8 tiQ D^^pD^^:!y!D n n''tDPDn lynnnyajs iy:i:i^^^nto5«i m 
tD-i^prj^^jyTiyQ yDDjnyTy:ij« n .jJii^D8:^feii»fe§ ly^sJi^t^viiiJ 
-:iji 18 *,i«Drj D8^^ni tyny;! t^h :!:i:iy"ii8n iyrT^2Jin_I'^ 
.1822 pK ,iKiD'?jr:iiKp \in pK^ij;j P^n^rj t'k ixtaio QNi^m * 



,y^V5<TO{<n« n /'^tDy^^D«iD ^^i:yn2 'OD^n^^^a i:y oiyp 

.y^V5§08:^8DS lyn 

-y:Dnx 18 ^'^ iyp:i;jtJ'8a .y3j§:DMK "lyrTsi nyi 15<d lyo 
■yD yn'nti^'D n« yrjnDist^ d^o /ossipiyjiy-i lytsjyD^^v 
pyDD^^isn PK i^n;>«D-iy mts dpjib lyiiy; -iy t^j< ^lyii^'D 



]'K is^niKy:) t:Kn ny i«ii) 1840 pK ini:«'7 px lyc.py; vh ]'.n 

IS Uniy: IKT vn lyr'ryiT ,DD<'trn »i:yn lyo ts^o sxy p'K 

.]KOiKS N ]"iKny;i ts^'s -lyi b'd t'k iy tnii ,(;:i'?iny'7 ■T:'{yTj^« 

-y;j -ly ukh ,y7yt:tr p'T ]ib pxny; la^Niy^BK vk iy m oyn^Ki 

^ynyjy;sK D^''t2:yt2D''D tt ttxn ]m< si^bpiHi px p:ytr « ^2)!S*j 

-'ryTy; p'iytrti'K n ]i£ y':^KQK;'7«o« lyi ps :in:n; lyi b'O 

lytsynpyD nyi p«iiy:i ta^'^ iyij"np h ihs iy tin 1825 ]'« .lyKsBKw 

lySnK^i y2''Dyj;'7K n ]>« .taENty^yTyjs DJinys'nKij "lyii'^bp h pc 

n:yjyrjj:i!aDys lyn ind ttNin:Kp n p«*iy:5 iy t'« ,1852 ps 

W^V^ lyj'n lyanKB ytyiK^'i'KS yom; yTO .(Di:y'7DKn lyiKta) 

n "n tfijyn n lynnny; iy-«n Dxn n lysK ^d.tn is ■ii'?i:"fl 

]yiaD«p-D'i:tr D'O .DiTk inb ]yny;i ly^"? ]y;:i'?DNTiNE-'i'nKn 

n pK .lyD'tsiy 1,095 lyjnsy;; lyiN i:«n "ly ,|y?«2yj2nn iy t'K 

■;'7KE-iy IK ps ■iyo't::yj;''K nyn pxny: "ly t'« pnK' y^mytsyeir 

njy •?''» lyT lis iixny; ti'^nyiny t'k px ,;i:ics ly'i'xpx'? ''\)j:i^n 

-Dta'^mw 'iy:Ki:N'? lyT pN "lynytDtriKfl in^N d'^k yu^oyj-iyai^"? 

-y:;:K n ps nyi^K pKiiy; t'n iy .(Dp"i«ii iin n^««n) lyoHp 

"ly "lys'byn px ,i2EKB'iyB-iyp "ly^nxT lyi ps ly^'b^tt'O yt:D:nyT 

120K lyj'tDsm Dyn ;5njyony:"iKS ,1876 to 1862 ]is fi:yny; bkh 

]'K ,Dyta'DKp lyirnxttjyoN'i'iKB oyn pK ]yi2y!in-i«E-ei'i"nyj! pu 

T'K 1868 pK .lytsyti'ONp y;!it:2m yiyi^K px yiN;nn"iyMB lyn 

iy;y; ,niy:!yj":iii:Dy5 i^n tsKTnjKp d'tk iyt:Kit:y:DniN lyTm iy 

]iK ; lyo'tsiy 2,890 ;!n2y;np ,]yn't2KinyD2Kp px ly'jKiym^ n 

nyiK ,VBmDB^N p« '7n«ir'Ti:B' n px cEoypy; iy cxn 1875 ]'>h 

.1876 nyo tyt29 oyn ]y3i«c!yy; t'« iy j'i'KDiy ]nK 



DT'»:3y''ji^-T^nta ps ytsD^tyy:; 262 

,Dy^vst^j«m« yijy-impji^p no yoD^^n m lynytDK^ni^D n 
V'>^ .18^3 pn PD IyD^^^^y^fJ^^« n o-id iyo^Dtj'j^^fe5 jy^i^t ^n 
-Dn« pn nnn nsi"iy;i DpisDtJ'isa -^nvo ij^j r^5< di^dj^^^ 
ojijyiisn i^^jrn^nD nyn iv D^\'?jyiyjiyn''« iyDiunsy:i 
nyrDs^p-DK^iy is pq D:i«ry:is« Dn^i< \vd D«n 1848 pk 
?^n ny^iv Dsytj^yj lyomj s pk lynyranj^ d^s y^yDK' 
ynytDysK^ n pk p{< ,iyD^Mjyjy^yjj»-n8Q p« o^^-proyD 
iy3Ji?"i:y:iyDJiK pisdsj^ nypjytj^ d^s toaytj'y:! i^n t^n nns^ 
D^D lyoiJiss m)v: njyDtj' t>x iy dj^ii oyn ny^^iv n^^iiyj 
Dyn lis r^N iy djh lyii^ .y^vsr^jsn^ lyn pa n^^oy n 
,i«^:v pn PQ n^^^D^D nyiPDPs is m)v:i i« :i{5to ly^K^iy 
p^*? lyiiy: D^j /lyo^Mi i^d mi d^mi mts ,5'«dj>^':) iy t>n 
ayn lyD^D t'DMK lynnyi onytDt^^ iy .nytoDssn nyto^n^vsn 
TintD tyts^s Dyn ps lynn^Q y^^DJSDy^n yr^ysiv n ly^ni^f 
.ytDossn ytD^n^vsn ynjyDty ds^p oy^o ayi ps dt^j^i^jv 
i^nrn lyi tia tD^^nns nyi d>» lyiJinnsQ ajy tyn^'-^n y^^yii 
PS tytD>^n^y:v^>K y^s n pk jjnnsQiy yM:y:j s wr^p m 

•y^vsT^jsn^ iyt^>DD^:i$^jr-n^nD lyn 
P^K px iy::)yinsMJiv pk tyt^^sny^ mn \mv: nyn 
■j^K nyn^^tj'spjs^ n tyn«n ^lyDDstj^^ytyj lyji^nj^^ n n^n 
1839 i^K ni;5j .jjitDDn nyn^ynyn r^x D^yiisn nn n^J-'tj^r 
-'':i8 i»D^«n PK "lyDSQ n^rt^rrN n pa t^yt^'-oj^p,, s to»n 
P^«,. PQ :jnjn:i lyi isq lyDi^jyrisQ n w^^m di^d 
K nni^^ iynjy:^«Q Dyi r^i< px ;"i«t^:i"' nytointDJiyvj^p 
■pyo "wi AHo^'ti^mn ^vi^^opv"?^ pd v'':i-\v^v ivi pjst 
p^tDnn tD>n: i"i» dhd^dd nyto^^ji^ ^5'i:)yiD„ lyn pq lyton 
-y:) "y^vs^v«iDs Di^no yD^^j^^snsQ,, s t^s /'ijs^T'^s ijy 
-rns in vi< mn yD^yii ^i^-'cj^spjs^ Vi< n»"iiy:i Dyirnj 
^nyp^JsnyD ,DD^>n D«n ,Di^nD DpJsDyo 5qrs„ n tyDijy:i 
ly^y^v n /'lynn^y^'-D pn n^rtj^rrs nyD'':iiyp^s ^ryn^otj' 
on^-'tDnsD D^^-^j^nya tD^D tyj^n y^vs^vi^Ds iyjn«n lyn pa 
t>« nyD^yii /'^sjintJ^TTDi^nD. nvi ts;ii«i in'-s pn nsiiy:i 



263 tjyi^D ly^^: lyi lis ^D*^^: iT^: nyi 

n nyoyiniiiD. nx iVD^nnivDMN hd ,n«ny: iyay:y3DM-ii< 

tDiJ'iy nx ,rD^>vnnD lyiMiyjon-is iya« im d^jh nniiiD lyi 
8 iyi:n:i iv tyj:i^y:i iyD^^2-i5< nyj«tD>«:a n t^« ib44 p« 
.("••Dy^^DiiD it^i^pyD»"is») "Dss;i'^yTyrnK^» yDjy:soiys 
nc lyoastJ'^yTy: n ns iyt:«!:iy^yi ns lyjstDSi^sin T^i< yD^yii 
-^D^yoyp n« n^J^tJ'Tj^w nyD^jjyt^^s nynnjy^^o ,iyi^DK^ 
-y: -iyji^o^«n *iyi na j^^ijDiy oyi -nn toiytoo^^jsn .ny3 
yjyn^^tj'ifcitD n lyAyptDJs nji^to^nyim in^x pk DDjitt^^yT 
-j^p yD-i^tDD^iJ^j^^Dy: lyj^n ,D^nr^^y3 n pd lyjJipmnytojiK 
lyu'nw ,n«T)y;j oyun^ya "lyo^'-my; n^j''^r:^« pd lytDy^^o 

PK n^>K^8PJS^ PD DiyDJyV yro^MI V'?^ Vi< ,1850 PK 1844 

-nsD lytj'^DSiDyDD^D s nsQ \'^h)^v: t:^n:y:iw t^« wm^ nyn 
.y^V8D83^8DS y^s:«^V8J s wi^'^^i w in 

t^^y^BC'y: tD«n y^v^DS!:)^SDS iyi pk y^»n ymn^c n 
-»P»^„ n .Diyny:i tDsn ifcjtDv: nys^yii iv ^oasit^^yryj n 
'D"iy^n:y^^D px lyDtitojyrtj'ytD px -lytD^^m^ lyiroyio 
-:»D p« n''t3"is^ipt35*'in nn^x t:^D /'D2fe$t^^yTy5 y^^^ij^nc 
-^yryrisD yiy"i:si n lyrtDt^y^iyan^ i^i Dfcjn .-lyDoytj^t: 
tDyijnay: .iy:iyoiS2 px t:c8i5^nyi^^JD^D in^x d^o iyt:G»B^ 
Dijn /'nyp^j^yo pd m^:r yD^^-iJ^ns,, n d^s ,1826 i^k 
,y^vs:T^j^n«i nyi^-'tj'pii^'' ypn^cD:^' ^ lyj^i^t^nsiD 1837 pt< m 
-y: n Di^n 1848 ons m ^1822 tD^r tD-i^tDonpy D«n y^^yii 
iy:ji^^^t2S« PN Din^:{§n« ^lyTi^iitD^o i^yr^ito lynn tD^iyv 
.£27,000 tiD "iJijQ inyTyi fe!! tD:i«DnsQ tDi^n PK ,n:et^ Tiyn^x 
-fii^Disa yDfennjs^ n ,i«^jv nyi d« pd dpixii ^y^^Dt^' nyi 
-D»n»D-iytD8:iy^yn yo£» nn y^vitD^tDDJ«p in^N pa ::ioi^p 



-Dp'7<<s lytsDytytiiKtt ip ]i« -ju oj'cy: ^K:"ntyT nyj'TKT "lyn * 

.1840 ,4 '"br BTBKT T'K nyoi: -lytae^iy 



t)iiv IV D^>v tiQ ni^iiy; iyD^8ny;Q« lyj^n yD^yii ,iy:iji^ 
pK lynyDti' nn«i^ pvjsiiv yjyj:s!JisD n ns ^m^i^q pfc< 
ns :i:inyD:i'Djy •^yt^'^D8o«m iy-i d^o ddsidj^p t'to^u k 
n toi^ iyn» .i830-^4 ps oy^vsT^j^ji^i y:!"'^^''iiD''^v n 
"lyt^^iijyQiDt^ nyi hd'-d ,y^vsT^j^jn« lyD^^nyrx pq d>ui5$ 
-tDD^rois tix ry^y^vJsrD tyD^^t:jn;i Dyi pq ^j^to^un^ont^- 
nyj» pn iy:i«npy:i ^v^vb^ to«n iy:D^y'n ,DyDD^D lyirDfesi 
^n^j^tj'n^K yDi>D8:^s»8 n pq y^vitD^DDjj^ip lyn px :ij'ijyp 
-''^•iiD^D ynn^x pq y^:iny:y yvj«:i n iy:iJi^ti>ife$D ji^tojyp D«n 
n PK .nyDDMpy in^x pa nn«i^ tnyvciQ ytDtj^iy n px lyn 
n D«n yii^nyQ ^v^V' pq iy:iJi:!ynb*n D^^pnyD-i^ms y^s 
lyrsyj n^D p^? /y^«!i T^i< oy y^^yii D^y^stJ^y; to^: DQ^tj^^yry:! 
PK Dy yD^yii o^d tyny;y:i5j$ tynj^sn in ^i^r n t^ ,d^j in« 
■njy .nyi^^Jt:^^ v']n''i^ pa D^nr'-^ya n d^o w^t:)^? Vi't:^:^'')) 
oiyi^QyjDMN jJi^D8ns!2-iyt:5fe§:!y^y"i s mn 4843 p« n^^ 
-j^^s tytj^^DSDytoD^D Dyi ty:iyp lyDyiDivoms: iyn^^:i£D^o n 
PN /tD^^vDD^^iis yD^^:ny^iy:i n ^11 -invrii tyD^ms w in^a 
^^^tDJ«i 4nyTy:i lyni^n n-iD ni ,DQ^^^yTy:i n o^n 1844 pn 
■18 n lyvn^-^ifeUD i^f ;:i:iyii^n iyji<tij«^ lyi t^x iyoijy:i 
-y:i pnstDtJ' D^n"'2y: rD^yp in n to^tn 1845 pn .o^^vDt^^^n 
"lyDK^y^yn « m .nosp lyiroyij^ m ty»ny:)i^^iyDJiN :u 
lyn iy:yp lyD^iDyjonn^ t^n ini^> Dy:y^ pn :iJi^oNnNQ 
Dyn ty:iyp ,tyj^t^8o ^^n ly^^m^ yt^Di^tis pq :iJi^ytDK^ji$ 
tyD-i^iN tyt^'^iD8DytDD''D Dyi pn tD^^ni^-p^Dti^ pq Dy^D^D 
]iH',)V^ lyoijy^j^i lyj^n Dy .tD^'-v vy'?^nvw: n ni inya 
t^yD^D^p lyn^toipyrpy iyi yD^yii tsn^ ^oyvi^i^Tyi y:ijyiDtJ' 
y^^j N lyonyj iv ti«tiiy: tD:!8itDDMN«n t^n lyDDyt^D^No t>N 
PD Fin^iN2 r^N tyn«n nyi to^c :!JNto^^8 t^N *:iJi^yDti' 



,"iytQDyB'tDJ«D t>« j;ii^?3KT*i«s-ij;tD«jj?^yn lyn pfl p;'7Np«tD«"iQ * 
iy;jn«T i^i ps ;3n»ntyNn ptaj^^i'^y^onN i« .1844 ,12 'KD 
ts'j in^D iy:'n y^^yii ,I^t3jj;f2TpNT einx tayunjNn ,^'!?«T^3N;n« 
]'N ,«:«tt:j?"in "iKDysNis ps 'bjrpiiaiij l« px "i>t iDj^uy; ,K:ion 



iy::i^^^t:sij y^y^D ,dmk dpmt oy mi /"inK^ lyijyj^sD ayi 
.m:pn y:Mi^T n nn^DWJ^'-s nini<;D ^ ODy:Dy; ro^^vD^""^: 
D^nr^^ya n ivd lyoyvj^iBTyTyj i^ oin^Dy; Diisn D«n 
yoD^fesa n n« ,DiJ^^^Mry^-ii;>*DVJ n5< ^^nt^oyn ^DDsc^ya p« 
r^ijnyv ij^b t? mi invD d^d lyosn^' .oast^'^yTyj lyi na 
PK y^v5<"i^2Dj«p pK n«tTiy: D^Jij^py^jiu iy:>n nyi^^:it:)^D 
-pK'DpyT n PD Dyviijns nyi *.::irj^^«-i«i2 lyn^^vyry^DiK 
-"•^DTixi^D n p« DiJj^^Mry^-iSDVJ pd p^j^sj^tj^k rv:i§iw 
ty:i£yj in lyai^n oy yD^yn tytj'Miv pn ps p^j pd ::i^ 
'Diyp^JSiDyD "lyDMij "lyn pd nj<L:y*ipyD ^5§-iy:y: lyn ,''aD^yD 
tD^yn m^jr-i^no nyn pk yv^Djyo s DDy:oyjj« tosn ,i»^jr 
iyDDs:ir^yTy:i yuimpji^p n rs; ^iviyn iy;i^"ioy:^u oj^n pk 
n IV yj^^« pyDJnyjiyi in ly^rijT i^no J3n^j>5^rr« Vi< 

.yiyi:8 
■18 ly^^oyiDijtp^^,, iyi pa p^dpsd-isd yiroyut^iB n 



]yoK: DyT "lytsiiK ,1870 ,"iy2Kt:p« /'imyn tr't:nn nB-i«:„ oyi 

."I«'jT-DTnt3 K ps DpT«n "lyx, 

-jniiKniKE n p« CTtsis ,1846 ,"iij'7ipTi!t lyn'taipyrpy * 
Dyn pi: lyasnxi yDOin'£Dn« m:i ."Dy:iN-is D''2D7yD„ ps ip 
i23n«i lyD'^iytanyn n„ : pK^iy<3 BDi^cjysy-iKB iyj"T DysKiB 
"lyiT'?) "y*iyn:N px 'no^yo ]ib ysKi'SDiKp ikd oysKiB oyT pfl 
"lyT ps :«nt2EnN„ nyn sin« ]y::yj;y;;Dn"iK ,(iyt3^'T 66 ,1847 ,i)B 
H pK 1 "'tay'D^D 'onyp'^a ps'Tij'N-D'tsD nyi ps yiveipyrpy 
.(.T 66 ,1847 ,iki:n7j ,"Dy^Ki3 d'^zd'vjd ]is .it .t« .« ;:nnysny'T,, 
.2198 .5 ,n«i2'0 p'72N5 -lyttDyty^iNO lyi ]'n tt lyj'sy;; yi'U 
/']VDy5iNns pnp„ 'Dpxp pN ttpmy; t'n i23nK2 nya'^syry; lyT 
t::Kf3iyT 7«d 'jyfl ^lyn Dy:i«iB ")y;;nKT "lyi .n .« 496 .t ,5 .2 
'?y'Bir"i K d'7« .kji'!? ly^y ps lyc^nxn i«':T-TnB n pK 
n T« ,p«ny; i:piyf2y;iK t^k iy;y'7p n ps tt^'p^'^nn'^n in ps 
-]T«-iy^'T iyDi:nK£ i:Nn pK ,iyt:piiB 4,914 i:'?nK!::y ckh y:«^p:« 
-nc-iKE n t3"iu»:K;nK ttxn Dt:ny3«"i .b .-n Jiy"? px pb»ik j'!?ete 
DyoyM ]'« ,ym^E n .£1,800 !:DKpy: ik':t iy"i t:Kn ysH^M ,:s:i:!n 
pn^j "inK' 1KB K ]'« i:t<n ,iyi«taB'is:y t»k ts'nmr lyn pnsKS 

.pTB^«ip:»*2 



DT'':^''JT«-'T'ntD 5i£3 ytD:)^try:i 266 

■nsD pisitoK' Dsn /'DDstt^'^yTy:! 'onyDSDjyrtj^SD n« nyD>u 
nsis) PK ijstoc^ nyD^in in^« dsi^ ^di^qj^^s nyn Dnyoy-ij 
-J8 v'pv'^ n nyn^K iyny:iyj nn^K D«n nyT-^JD^o n« iy:iyD 
-^^1^ -lyD^E) •'nyno^tj'tri^ n px \v\:iQ^^^v^v:i yD^^iJ^na yiyn 
D^-nD^yo iyDijy:nyn"'i< D»n nyi:y^D«!ti^ iy:ijr j$ ,iy^^» ds^^ 
ij^na lyDJnj^J s .lyDyipyo ^8iyjy;i nyD^n«i^f«D d^s dos 
n>:i ny D«n ,i»tDVJ ds^^^^ii na iy:i'«Mi^J iyjyny:inyn"'« n« 
n y^v^T^Jsnj^ i^n na :iJ"iD^8in^Q "lyi t^x tyTMiy;iDMn» 
-lyDystJ^ n i^k Dn"'« D»n y^^y^i ,y^:iiyiy n nx tD>^':>j^nyQ 
yrDD"'ii 8T8 \v'?'B^ IV D^^pD^^jyD H iyny:iy:i nn«^ yjn 
.aj'i:iyiis:n nyo^-'nnfe? nyn na yDD^tj^y:i lyj^^oy^^s lyn t^« y^»n 
^yc ^r]V^ io«n nyJi^^Q ^^iiv n pd tD^uns yD^^n^DiyDi« n 
yD^^nny n .ajn''DSt:i^SD8 pa Dyv«:iQ Dyn iv iy:isioyr^n 
PQ ly^ji^osn^D y3^^DQ8tJ^^yTy:i y^^^n^^nD n Pi< lyj^o^D 
■lyr^^s lyi^^ij'^p:^^ n pa lyDytD^^^p yD^^DQ^tj'j^^oy; n 
n I1Q in lyD^nyn n^D ni ^yiiyj lyj^n Dy^v8T^:«n» jy^feUD 
yK^'>t)Dn:fei!:isBj^i5 n«D iyD^''njy:!y^y: /D^-iv 'ivw pa tyiraii§ 
Di$ pa n»iiy:i tovijy:D''i5< pao ^^n inx lyj^n ^n p« ,Dynyn 
-lyD^uife? yny*iJi8! n tyriiyj iv n«DST^:s:n« ytj^^top^ia n 
Di^n tyniDD^D nya^^^Dfe?: nyn .lyjy^a yiy^n nsa lyin^a 
iDJ^n DT^:«i^JV-i^ntD pa lyojyv ny^y^vjn^i^ia lyoni: lyn 
px DK^^Dy:i in ^^n ya^yii ,Dii<!Dtj^tDann iyi i^^ D^n^ay: 
T« ^js^tj^i^a D'jy^^s nn n^^iwa orto^nsn t^« ^D-ipoy yj^n 
nynyaj^p s lyam^a w'^h^ i^^tj^^pj^^ pa rytiastj'^yTya n 
■sn i»a v)'?2 ,1850 nyo px /i{^D:ijnn»ii px ryDisay^yn pa 
nnt? ^aji^Dsnsa iv^'^H^ nyn ^n« .Dy^Dipon px ty:iJiD8i 
nya iyn« ^m pa lyoyntDi^a n lyoipy: iy:^n oy lyD^yii 
\v':v'?'?^ m ly'J^Dv:) in tD«n /lytoa^K^^yryj yiyoyu n pa 
li^^s ly^n pa lyDn^tj' y:^^oy:i^fe$ n nrr'aivain rynyjy:ir''» 
D^tj'in Dpyt ytDDpyj n pa ^nn^i^a Pi< .y''Vfc?D^:i^SD5§ pa 
y3^^i:3n: ife$a soytD n ti«iiiy:i iy:i5§^{i'i«ta yrtj^i n ryj>>T 
-iijp yD^^tDa5<6J^:^^oy2 n pa ly^ji^o^n^a n t]nfc< oy^Dipon 
lyjyr^^ iyi t^x .Dy^v«T^:)s:ii« ]j'?\&m^ n m lyoytD^D 



267 ^yi^D ly''^: "lyi ]!« CD''-: iy"'''j "lyn 

"tDjyDyii » lyDDVij'DJSD rx L)y-ijn:y: ivm^D n iya«n o^>^ 
1KD lyo^^met "IV i>v)^'i lyD^/pniDMK ayi d^q ,?8J"nt^'T lyDv 
•yj 8 lyojii^ ,i«DPi§"iy"i dps jn:y?yDij':« jjn^D«iP8D8 
-ysK' PN "W^'pv^^ .DDDJjii in^K^tn .*n ,DP5§iDji;itp Dyjynnti^ 
-»-is yDD^^iyD n iid nyj^^x dps Djspsa d^: n^iiyj lyo 
lyn ,^8J-i^^T -lyri^T nyn .y^vsiyaiijJi^p hd iyDDn:s:s3 
ni /lyD^yii /'Dyi:i^i3 iii$ npJsjnyn njy tD^^piiJvns Dn^no,, 
•"•^8 n HD Dynjn;yj» ly^iy; t^n ^nsiiy: DyosMnsn t^k dv 
m ,::irj^^KiSD iiD m^yD n Dn>t:ipDn oiijn /'ly^sD-iyt 
-«P// m "^yiJsn-'nD// ns nny^ n onyisy: m\ V''i< isd 

♦."yvpnyns "lyirosnysij 

Di^n Di^DJ^^s D'j«!DVJ iyDJi« .lyD^^ii iny: DJ«pyj dv^k 
yo^Miv 8 lyanisa toyD^D^p nyD^^DSS'^J^^oy: lyjjsus^ lyn 
,1850 nynoyDsyD i^i< ,Dsn::^D-i^n pk jJi^Dsnsa-iyDs^y^yi 
-'>myi< lyan na lyDyionsD ns niiiiy:i DDirsn t^k yDpy^i 
is^B lyi T^N nyiysj5;?P lyrri^T lyi n^ix .lytoasc'^yTy: n^j 
■tDjyv,, nyn nx ; ni^iiy:i iyDi:y:j» :>D^^:n:y y^vsDs^^sDS na 
■yj D:8iDDMi<s3 T^i< oij^D^^'DSMH lyi 112 "Dyt:^D«:p ny^sn 
D^t3i3 n lyo^^msivD^K ,"DyD"'D«p iy:^^^niD^^v» d^s ,n«ii 
*iy>^j -iy-i PN y^vsT^:s:iJ^ "lyo^s "lyi na jJs:iyn^K oyi nn 
-^yii D^D ^tD^^'POP^tj'y: n nx o^^ptJ^^toPSO n .i:28*J^ny3iyp 
i«tp ,Dpy^fc?-i3 ny^n tDnn^ay^Din lyn^^n i^orj m ly^^s y^ 
■D^K T^« :jirj^^x"iSD n ^11 ,121^5 Dyn ns inytDms o^n tya 
-nsK^ V^p j^D^j T^K Dy .yor^^^Dsa y^s na nuiiy: lyoijy: 



-iirn px I'T tsj'Eyj ,1850 ,iy2c;'n"T ^n ':t ps lixn -i^t .1850 
-:7D''SV;DnN ]« .(18 ,"'«„ 401) pruK'^nin-Dp*?**!: ■iyi2DyB»B:K0 
>'7pm 'jrsDNpTii,, np px r:-:iMn inxtrn .iq ]is ^yp'cn« lyta 
•1KB c]OKp DyT ps i'7'n iyi:£Kn2y'7 k c'; ,1875 ,3 »^t ,"^:;piiKip 



-sntD iy"i D^D lyn^^ny; r>fc< ,«gij "Dio^t^nj^x ii^s ^Dy>^D«D 
■yi nyn iyiiy:i t^x y^v^T^Js:in« yoMi:; yrt^n n tis ,y^:^n 
D«iii riytDDSt^'^yTyj ns :ijn^D8:i^^D8 "lyto^y is hq tofc?to^ii 
PK .iJSDtJ^ lyD^""^:! lyrjyii iyi«i inyo s pi^ix tynytotj' 
.DDStJ'^yTy; n is 4yoipy:iii^3 lyn^i T^i< D^^'JD^^pini lyn 
nsQ D«n rii^tor: n« w'?'?^ tiD n^^iiy:! Din>Dy:i T^i< y^^yii 
DJ^in DQstj^nysiyp y"*: n *.iyt::yiiPJ«!P ynn'-x ryiiji^sj^ 
Dyi ,y^viD^DDj«p yD^^in^Donx n ty»ijy:nyT« lyvj^irx 
Dyi i^^D« iii? p^DPi§Dns2 n ^vi^ta^ iyrto^njy:iy:i ns i»^3 
i:y ptj'nj^i^-D^tDD ly^yjiMti^n,, lyn 112 ytoofeitsi P2 nsoK' 
-yj^u t3«n Di^^i /""Dy^^DJ^iD 'DD^n^^^o uy Diyp^^o t^tj^SD 
D^D ,DD8:i'iyi^^:D^D nyn no ^yonyQ-'m ••ii nnyo iy:«io 
-"•^ii tD«n n^? n«iiy:i Dyi:n:iy:i pk 3?^v«n8:!^«o» n y::^yii 
PN n^jpn n pk D^Dna yDD:iy^p n iv vi /ton^Donpy nyD 

.y^vsT^j«:i{^ ly^o nyn pq Dy^vs^i:!yn 
D^: lyj^n tyD8:!y^y"i nyDsm^Diu n pd lyoi^K^sn n 
-:i85> PN ty:iJ^^^"'D3«; id s .lyooyD^iB \m \^h))v: iyDijy:!3« 
lyn lyjyp iyt:«nDy:iDMns lyj^n -lytoiy v^vi:^ pn n^^t^^feup 
-»n PK ,iyDijns2 mn Dyto^^i^P iyj«i:«^ lyn d«ii y^vni<ts) 
^ytDDytj'DJSD lyn .y^vsofe§:^5<o{§ nyn tis ty:i«D{^y:ipmv tyj 
-ns Dyn ty^yp h^^jp pq d^jdd lyTmyjonis mn \:iVD''nHP 
-tDQ-'^n lyn px :i3'iD^sinfe$Q lyn pq rs^s nvi iy:iJ5iDnyn 
n Di^ii ^lyny: px pion iyDD:i"'tDD'>'n iyi iyn«i .Di«;tDEi^ 
■y:i s /"'toy^^DJ^D 'onyp^-'D pt^nr^-D^tDD,, lyi pa lyoso 
-ya ]V^}i^^ Pi^ ^ni$V"iyn^^:ito>D nyi to^i^ vi< yD^yii ,tDsx5i'^yr 
-D^DD lyoyj-i'-itj^n,, nyi iv yo^^iiv n o^ist v)'?2 tyj^Dc^ 
D^j lyni^n /'^toy^^D^D 'Diyp^"'D v^^d i:v 'Diyp-'-'n pt^nr^ 



,^iiB<!? ]Mtt> ipjjn i»t3 iy3'?yi^ f"imy"i ^'pnn nuiKi,, lyn pk 



i'?H^^v t35§ny: lyni^n iv^^s hk i^dvj •inyotJ'w D^^iiya 
p« iVDy-iDivj^n^ yirtDipyipy iyv:s!:i lyn iyn^niya^« p« 
nyi^^jo^D n no ^^^tD nyDoyi; lyn "iy3« ^y^^siD^j^sDK lyi 
Dv^fc< Tu i« i«: ^'?^n y^v«T^:sj-i«: n nx ,D-i^^yDyi lyaj^jn 
-yj -iyjy:^^K d'j«idv: pj< i>^d8 .rjyoDMpy y-iyi:iTy:a in^x 
-»:^i<Di$ lyi iiD lys^vjnB-DBMH n v:^'?V)'\ Vi^ ,DD{§*^^yT 
T^« Myoytoni^^sD yoMij tD^D n^ijiiyj tyDi:yj:« lyj^n vi^D 
t^^-wy^v: lyn^^nyj iy:i:i^^^DBi^ y^y^vjM^yns '?ni^)i yoMi: s 
-i^p -iyr^^Mit:''^v lyi nyn ,iS5i nsijs' lyt^c oyn .DQ^D'^yj 
-ipyrpy,, d^s toD5§ oyn ;yDi:y:-iya^N ^yrD-i«D Dj$n oyo^a 
\v:^Hn /'oB^tJ^^yty:! lyo^o^^^n^D lyi p.d ^vo'Di^? lyirtD 
"182 iyiiy:i ly^'^t dj^^i 10,500 n ns nyn^^JD^o 5,000 dmp 
Dyi Vi* tD^ni^vyj ,nyiy2j«!p lyD^nirDiu ivi ?inN lyDJ^jiD 
D^cnn yD^^oy ns d^^v 5$ ifeitB *.y^vs»^:i^808 ^vi pd ij«2 
inyryjDMK iss^s lyiy^^uD^ D':«!Drj P2 j^i^c-iy nyi t:«in 

— ,?i^^T IV lyD^py: Dn^« t^k i»-i:«:^ D:in .Dssn^ys^Mi:^ 

— ^ytD^Mi PD iyn"'^ny:i t^k y^v8T^J5§:ns v^'''?P V'i< TM^a 
-j:s^ "inyr iy»ipy:j^ns! iy::i^^^DSi$ y^y^vm^tis n lyj^n 

iy-i^^:D^D ^y^2 '•n^ ryoipy^j^n^? tyj^n oy "lyTi^x ,iyjjn^n 
nyi px iy:i2y: nn lynj^n oy ^y^B^i ,y^v8tt8J^stD8 nyi r^fc< 

'H?h'? n P.2 iy:iJ^^D55n8D-iyD«:y^yT .028t^^yTyrD:jnr-ij 
lyDi^^t^'fesn lyni^n lyDB^'^^yiy: lyi^otj' pk onyDSio lyiro^o 
lyni^n iy:i:i^^^DSJ^ yny^n pd id s djh ,y^vs:o5<J^«Q8 \v:v2 



.1851 ,nK'i:«' ]in y/:H^]'>: pc P«nyJ i3y*7:n;y; vh ny3'?yn 
■iKiT ,1852 17T T'n iiNny:; ];'aj;;^'j!DniK iv:'t dkii ,pyoii n 

-•jK ]iK D:K':ii-Tnu lyjyii pN ]-i»i<irTj»N n ]y;;m ly'jp^tsnx 



bf»3«''ai*'-T'''"it:) lis ytDD'-tyy: 270 

-^v^VJi "W*^^ "iy"i \^ WDH'^^vi^^ iiK iyDny:s» ^n no t\ 
vi^'? n TT tD«n '80 DSJi^D 112 ^iD Dyi Din^ nyn« .toDj§t5^ 
-»p«^„ nyn hd iy:iJi^''iDQij yjyn^^nynyn^x n .Diynjyyj 
'D-iynn^y^'D n^^ oiy^titD lyrt^'^o n^^ nyD^^nns lyirtD^io 
,aii^D8T"i8D-iyD8:y^yi 55 lytD^^ny^s^: :ynt$n "DQ^^tJ^pyty;! 
-«s« n iyny:iivD'iK n«niy: tyoi^^tj'Sin t^k dv ^v:i^V)'\ «^n« 
nx mtDv: lyj^n -lyns^Dpt^ Dn^ hk ; :iJiTDi<;j^808 iv y^vr 
DssK^^ytya iytDrr'«"i!SQ 8 na rsK^ p^^ IyJ«tDt^'y:l iy^^» 
:ir5>'ty 8 D^n«!vya lya^n v:i'?V)^ nyi^^^tD^o i^ytntD ^i^iy 12 
Vii^^n Di^ii it^'jr ytDDrtDDyD ti« yooyn: n ji^nD^^a ijsi'i » 
D»n nx ,iy382 >ny1'J^t^♦T^x n pn Di^Donpy i5§"i V2 m\ 
l«: nx nyi'^:;tD''o Snsv nn't< tD^o iyrt2EJ'y:nynn8 to^ni 
-^yTyri82 yiyi:« y^« ,nDJ3n lyD^^nny^ nn^x d^d ir]vri 

*tD''v iy:y' 112 iytD28tJ^ 

yvsDsa^SDS nyi 112 3:3n'^pnnns;2 yD'n:i^«i2ny n 
"lyD^yii nyny:DtD^oi8 n d^d ^d^p s 112 n«:iiy:i D^^^^stn t^n 
-i^ntD "iyv3{?;:i nyn 112 tD^^pD8TpnyD2''iK n Dn^otJ^yjiv D«n 
"yi38 "»! .to2«K^ny3"iyp ny^:! nyi ^""ix to^yii nyti^'0D"'j«i>ji'» 
-y:j'''8 tyn«n ly^^s n« no^yo dsii ,p'tDp»tD-i82 yivD 
-t3i:i moD TK ,i«nJ«:^ PiJ< l^tDVJ tifc< i-'^c'spj^?^ p« dih^q 



{IB DJK^ii' y"iyiiN n lyi^ms yi'^DJj'taDya ii« yaoyn; n * 
-'7yn,D'iynyMaj>'i2tr ]t« D"iyDUiyT'iK n ps n ii^ny:? ly^^'T 1851 
s)"i«n ^yo .nyn^'bjita'D i:yTni2 eji's t^i ly^u is c^njrtiyj lynxn ya 
-Ki n ]i£ Dy'S«':?NDK yji'b'nitai'ii yjsnnynns n tk ,iypiyiy:j 
ta^'S K "IKS tDB« lynxn ys^yii ,nyt3'^n-i«jyjio ]Mi onyj^str-'^yii 
-y:i lyi'n ,"iyiiyTnB y;ii'?nany!J n p« nyi^'jjtaio ynynr ta'jnyijyjj 
ta<3 ]is ;j«itoi'n k ta'D ,Dy'SKTnN;5n«-p^nt2D y3'^D''?trDnK lyn 
pfi Dy'5?«TO«:5-iN y;un n .^nit k D^iya 2 lynx oys 1 m nnyo 
y:j'Dyo'7y:jy"i p^p tsNnyj ta'i lysiKJJi^N 1i'?3nyiiyj lynxn 1830—34 
yjiDyo'jyay-i-Bii n ps :;u3ynsK lyny:: ly^'^T nr ]in ; ]y:;«-it2»o 
-noKji'7Ko«„ n m ,'7«T y3*7yn ,a5Ntt''7yTy:"i«5 K .lyjiinytatt^Na 
£600 pe noiDH ■iy;i'Dya^y;jyi k t3>o -lyau pu /'Diii'tyTiiK nyta 
.tcTDKS ta^: in: bkh dnit ikt « lyiv;; t^n ,-nitn ^ 



-yj m no iy::i^o»n»D-iytD»jy^yi n ns nw^iy: lyo^^nya 
-»a Dyi PK n«iiy: lyDuy^J^ni? ^yoi^D t^k nx tDDj^'^^yt 
-B» yt^'^nyJy inyo n *y^v«T^:sn» lyiyoy-ij ly-i ns dm 
-lyrti^n lyi d^d iy2fiJ{<3 lyoijy: im -i^«2 lyn^n iy::i^>^D 
PK onyDD^n nMJ< nycD^^D-is! n lynj^n I85i pj^ .p^tDpfc<t} 
yn^^i » D^yDiJ'yiDM"i» Ds^m^K pk p'>']2^^ lyoM-i: D't:j<^a 
nyi lis: o^^ms! pd aJiosc'Bis nyi lyss "i»J j^^j ,iyjjnyi«2 
yDD«tnfe» iyT»^iv t:^J ly^yii n^N iw: .ts^^v ly^^^jnyiiy: 
•lyo^trsD w "\v^:vD 'V3^'?'iv^vyi:i':> vw^:}^ pk lyo^uis! 
n iyn«n D^na-i^yn yiyos! px d»^b pk D-iyn3%-i yan^i: n 
-«p«Di$iB yD^^ny: n .lynyjDts: DPoy: lyjj-nyiJijD vrtmi 
-«n -lyi T8 ns^P tyr^Mi yirtopyrpy -lyjisn:^^ lyi pd w'? 
wy^^D PB nyto^ms yDoytiB iyn^ntDij§2 iv nT-ifc<D lyrr 
**;DB5<tj'^yty: ny^siiojyv nyi pd n«iiy:i lyo^^iy^tDU d^j t^k 
-ytpy nyi pb i^^^d^d 5§ v^^ .i«Drj d^^^^m^ ni nrs ih: 
"lyn^K D^^n nyo^uns lyDsm^JS n iytDJ:JintD-ife$B t:«n ,yivtoip 
n lyni^n ,tODS^B p« onynn^i iv iy;jnyiJ!jB y^nsn n lyny: 
ly^iy: T^K jj^^ijsn pn t» ,iy3^Dt:^i5<!B T'^'T'dj?: D^nr^^yn 
-yn p« p« ,y^vi<Ds:3^y:»y: iyi PD DStD^nyi lyopynn «: 
y>vi§^v»Di< y^i§ntD:yV" n d'T'di^b ^n lyai^n issi ^v^dv^ 
n lyDoypssn iv "tn^r^^n^x p>ini<D pb nyny^DL^^^nns pq 

."iyD^^3"ij< n PB ?«ior 
-yni^B y^vD^pytpy iy:is"i:is^ n i3»n d^^v "in "lytDJix 
lyiyii is^tJ'i^D 5< DB^tJ'iyn^^3D"'» ^v^:^: iv^- nytB tD^y^ 
-iyD^^:nyiiy: nyn i»: tyo^^a'is yjj^^tDSDyDD^D b«.7 lyBsttj^s^ 



-nKB-iytDKjy'jyT nyoKn:i3'on^n nyi pis oy^^ii'jNTp n nyr * 
-DT^no,, Dyn ]^K ,1850 ,28 lynD^rissyD ,iy2Ke-iyT>'K n ps j^i'jokt 

.1850 ,ny2Dyi^N3 /'cp«mK ik':i» 

lyD'ttirn 13': iyii< iKp n ,cs iy3'*72nj?nyji lyn ix: B^'mK n 
n ]•)£ "iptai^niK yt23ny'?yrt:»: n lyjio'UKn ]'k 'u lys'j^.'n i5 



•Qi$, nynn Di<in y^st^j^^i^i n T8 ,D:)8P8n to^xD yirDpytpy 
m tD"'m«"p"'DtJ^ 4851 ,nynDyvyn iyD2i Dyn i«ij ^yastj'iv 

■yn ny:)n'nsvin 8 id^d DiyQDjyy:i tyn«n nyny:iDD^m8 n 
lyD^yii n:y:ii''t? px p>ntoD ^ t^ /'dd^^d,, nyi Pi< yv^is^p 
-y:^8 m tD^D ,Dn8 :i^D lynn px ,nyii tDjy;!y:8n Dyii pnnj<:Q 
^>iN ."i^nD n^:^t^'n^J< iyvjt$:i oyn pk :I:1D^^t^'D^1^? lyj-'^o 
""•K 5'«iT y:i8iD n t5<: 4yi^^ti^y:!i{<iQ lyto^mj? n tynj^n Dyi 
■»n D^nr-'^yn n n« .tDDnyroiy^^ s i^ \iv)) \v:iViv:iiV2 
tyn«n 4852 nisiJ^"' lytoi oyi .Dini^:jr« :i8^t^'n«!£) Dyn tyn 
-t::y in "••Dy^^Di^D nyo^'-o^^^^ns,, lyi pa iyT'^:iD^D n 
tyDio Dyi Pi^ ,tD^^v lyD-'^jnyiiy:! lyi ij^j lytD^m^? i^^ d:i8T 
-y> \vDn^'?^vi ^tDytj'^iDDyj lyn^sn •'n ••ii ^D^nn-'^yn n iyn«n 
•l^iji;?^ pt5 p« n^^ti'^pj^^ t>j? pnnfena pt^sD yr^Dni n 

inyo to«n ^D^tj^in ^m tonymy:! tD«n lyD^y^i ,5^^fe$p nyi 
T^N Dy ly^^y^i ni >n'?)v Dy:''^ny:i^8 nyi Di^oyiytoj^xisD 
tyj^n pinoD Dyn ps tytD"'''n^yv:''''5< n .noi^P iy:iniynn2 
n PK D^nn-'^yn n pd :iJi^i:8n n p« ,ni^ny: lynnti^^n 
y^8 p« n^"iiy:i tyrJ^istJ'i^D tyj^n ti^^jr iyi iid p^t^pisiD 
ij^nD yosny^Dii? lyj^Dy;; iyn«n lyt^^m^ n .ty:i:iD^^v 
-i^n yD^yii /'iyt:D^^«^^f«D yD-i^tDDnp. ysn:i lyj^^^p lyi pn 
fiDSP Dyn p« iyQn«iiy:ij^n8 wai^n lyvj^ii i'd^d in lyn 
D^D ii^3 D^: ,tys2^«iiy;i iqin lyuyvjy^: « 5^^^^ iyn«n Pi< 
-i^v n t^N ^ynn d^d in« i»j *,yv^tot5^ i^y:i yuyto^n^iin 



tapityy:i tiKn ,ii<an i^n T»pi«o lyiaysty ,tt'tDmN;i tin"? * 
]y»»Bnp K p« ysitatr-p^ntDD n i^ra'bNmiriK ci'^po'^jiyo n in^x 



lyijny^pny y-iyijy; iin iy:ii<"io-i«!2 y^^^tojyay o^o ,iy:JiD 
iv:''\ D^na-^^yn n .-lyo^^ms n iid yv^iiijB lyi ty:yii 
ts ,nvi ^MK i«: D^J jnjynyDti'sa ,tD'j:j'py'yjj>^K lyn^^ayj 
"yn«i2 yiy^n lyn^vpniv iy:ijijjnst2 ins ly^^it lyD^u-ife? n 
-j^psn oij Dyi lya^ntJ'-iyDJiN in« \v'?i^\ ^n ry: is: ,iy:jn 
PK D2S!:^'^^^Jo^o ly^n ns in njyjsTBs /'^jyoip^ji/, lyo 
o^yot^'yj t^'^'Jpy;D in lyn^^n iyDD^^5$D^2fe<P n -liijor lyi 
PK lODSti'iyn iyDi^i$D3» hd dpj^si:5§d*^ lyo^s oyi ^ni< 
LDDyi D«i lytDnotJ^sn i^^pmonx lynsn n« lypnasD v^V'f 
-yiotr yivDpy^i^P !■'« ov v:i'?v^) lynny: iv lyD^ms n na 

ns iyDipy:iJ^n5$ iyj>n dsii £5,ooo n pini< Dyt:D»y;DiK 
-Dsti^^yTyrnsD v^v^:^ 112 £5,000 n n^ yjyiD^u y^^^t^jyay 

"y:-iyD:^K o«ny:i in d«1i1 yiroipytpy n .ni^iiy:i ony^y: 
HK iyi^^:t:^D 3,500 v^v^'^'i^ yin^x lijj do jyv^otr iv lyoo 
li^j ^pfc^iiy: lyDi^^K^y^Dn^ lyj^n d«^i nyposi^yD i/500 n 
-18 lya^^nyj lyj^n yD^yii nyo^ui^ y^Di^is 10,000 n i^k 
\:i:v^vv:^ D^nr^^yn n tyn«;n i^nnys nnn:«i px .rs^DD^n 
fiDSP PD :iJS!JDnx iyi t^k nyo wd^d um^ nvBviy yiy^n 
n in lynfcjn ^ns^ pg Pin^ii§D px pk ;i«i^p iyiiy:i pit^ 
PD iy::ijjn«n n nnx d^uis iyi iv DinypyjDi5< lyo^^ms^ 
.nnifeiii lyjsDK^sin lyj^n D^nn-'^yn y^» toyoD •D^nn-'^ya n 
,"DjyD'ipi^i„ Dyi lyn^nti^iytDJix ly^sr lyo^uis yiy^n ts 
in lyni^jn ,iy;jin tis pm Dyi lytojix ,"'n P2 y^D^^D n Pi< 
ly^^^nyj do lyn^^ ryn^^n >n ; lynyjyjiyDJix ri:y^nrDO 
,Trn lyDDn .lyT^^isQ do t«oi^ n tynj^n m jj^tiv ly^n 
Djy^^^-j^ifin ,^8S iy:in«i Dyi iy:!y'n i860 pn rijyn^ntj^ 
-1S2Q1X,, m i^^inyoix o"?^ lyo-'^ni^ n pd :iJi^iJ5<n n 
Dyi PD lyDDJia iv pyii D^^ty: i«p oy^y^D lysi^ ;"y'?2v: 
Dijn y^vfe?Dfe?:^y!D« iyi pd yivDipyrpy n dj^ii ,DPJ'i5ij^DEi^ 
D«n D«ii ,iyD^''ni« iyiy>,. pt< ^n t» ,riny^piy ,iyQoy; 
T^x Dsi^ ,D:yoipi^i lyD^^DDyisD nyi iv dj^h v^ D:iy^y;iv 



^118 tDpJis \vw^ ?yrn ,n«iiy3 ly^iiKiivyjam^ dh^k pi^^x 

lyc^^^iv jyn^^^pD^ix Tt lyo^^y; "t nfc< nyii^«iiyi s o^d >>t 

*."jjnyn^j-iy ni< tDMD 
PD 8T8 nyDJiK iy:i«npy:iDM-i8 tDiyii d»^i ,;«tiv ^ 
■SD nyj^yii isj iik yD-i^vyty:! rjyii in tD>D D:i«itD /'pm„ 
-iSQ n^DS^n i^f Dmp OT^D^K nn^^ nx ; jjiod^^s-isd y^sti 
tiy^i DTiDs^n nyr:yii do lyriD ij§n ,j«nv sts lyto^sn do 
:jnyi«D y:n«T n t:i'?v^m^ lynsn d»ii ,D^nn-'^yn n 
v^^VY. .^Dsp nyD^-'nn^ Dyi iid nunip yD^^p>^:iDiK n iv 
^.lyonyjivjs in^x iyiiy:j ry:iJ^Knvyj ?yj^n 
-jn:i n DDSDyj lynj^n 1852 ns iy:!Jn^D8s y^^^DSD^m n 



]iN lapmy;! ,1852 ,26 '?nBK ps iN^ipi^s lyivBTpyTpy * 
-B« in lynxn ij;^'m« bnn^ yDmy;i « .1852 ,1 ikd /'lyanmK,, 
Ijjaxn 'u ps y^ys n« ,tD3j?J3^pNT oyn lyn'njrisnytajiN i2JKTy:i 
INS £1,030 lyn^'byjiDnN taxn ,^yo iD"i«t3'D:«n .y .taiynjjj^iyjiDnK 
taSnxsyjpmif y^N ly^ixn yD'ryii ,-ij;ni'7;it3<o n pjriiij iyj'T«T d^t 

.mn ny»u 

T'K tiDiJp lyom:; D:?ay^ W^V^ •ntatjnyta^'? nya^i "lyi ps ** 
(nytD^n lyiaysB') dnok^ .ia ps laDnNn,, nyn iyj«oiyn is roiyn 
•jjriyND,, nj;'! pfl "D'ta^rnDND i^nta ]« aiNSyn,, -ayn px ,TTn 

,Dy^Spy'7 D'n«'7'n'7 .» ^ityTT ."id ; 1860 /'tNty'^XiDKDK DJP'^D 

"ijrtaiimK ynyin px DnytaO'io-p^i'tyTJiK n„ iyo«i I'lytsjix 
ts'D "bm T^« D«n ]xu t2»3 t^k "iNia„ iaj?'7SD«9 « ; (1852 ,]«n:N'i') 
]y;)iijKTDnN n ]in ; 'i'y'a ta"i«ttiBD3KTi .y ps ,"? Dits::;;"^ p'o 
n IKS) nta'ttD ^:i'D px (iyannn« n n«B) ]«tDVJ OK^'^^m ps 
-i^yn p« nytaioiK ly^iy^i taya'o^p ]y'i'y's:;5D oyn "i«b (D»m-»'7y2 
lytDDysoKD n .1856 p« ,( .ii .t« .k "D'j'DaiKp "^n^'tDMipy,,) mnn 
nynrsys:;! pfi "d»^^id„ nj;n p« ly^^s:;:! ij;» INp D^nn-i^ys n ps 
tytasnt?! n ]in lyuij^mpNTnj^tanmK n ; 1852 'bnsN t>3 1851 
ps B-j»tDpKnyn) ,"iyt2»inn«„ on pK — ii?J3i'i'0«n«s ynyiu ps 
lyo'bKny:; Ikt ta«n nys'ryn /'n^BD inyntai«i p« pk ,(t«Biii 



-lytj^'OD^jijov-i^nD lyi PL yoD^ti^y: "lyi p« DPJiB~i:yn 8 
;y3«n o^nr-'l^ya n d«!ii oyn "iy:njyL2t^^«iD lyi jjijyii^a 
-i^n ^M ni AWiv n^J^t^Trx n oyoiJ^jisiD d^j o^n ^lyjixnya 
p^.^tot;' c^j ^fjc:^^"? t^'^DPfe^D t^k y^vs:T^jfc<j"i« n .DC«nyj \V2 
M Di^n D^^':)::^^D:yi:y n ,D-inyp-i8D *.n»ny: o'?vo''>'\ov'^ 
pi^iK D^y£:t^'y:pyiii? in^x Di^jn ,nD8P Dyi Tin iy:)«ipy: tD«n 
tiD .D^yii iJ^^-vi^^^o ly-: pfc< y^vMi^s lyDDjynyryjji^* nyn 

y^V1D^DD:i^p ytD^^DIj^y^D^-.X DSiP^liD *-: t:i^n lb89 V2 1852 

D:yny: "n:^c^T:^i< pa Dssti'^Tyy:! iyDi^D8:^j<D8» nyi ns 
nv2 ,cv''^^v:^:^H isa y^fe?j«PV5<J y^*: y^s ns2 ^yii^o d^s 
yin^i< iyD^.:y:-iyn^K T^''r.:y2''.D5i' wim Dy^^»T^j{<n» yo^s n 
">\2 nx DnyrsLv-^yii^Q 1- D«ii .D"i« Dyi .tyjnDtJ^ os^vn 
K^^iDPSD DV^K lyni^n ,1830— 34 pj< lyo^j-i^D lyaj^n "lyo^^aie; 

.:y355£":yp"'8 n lyoirc'D 

D3fc!!"i2y::^n8 tsit^ 5$ts! pinfe< T^t< DJ^ii "^yi«D "ly^^j,, iyi 
D^D ^^D m^yo yj-in o-'o ^^d ,Di^''K^"iyo:'i« in Di^n n«Tiy: 
•"lynna oyn pd Dfji^^jm^nD lytj'^s^D uvi pd ,ni:nDn yj^n 
8 iv Tu lyni^n Dy^^8T^:8n«: lyoD^j^'^so n .-in lyrn 
P^DPSD yniyo^^c'DMi^ n nK^n^n lyoi^ynyn^N i8"i3 lyoniy: 
nnn:i^ Pk nnx^D-^^ya yD:iy!?y:i Pi2 oy^v^r^j^ni:? n pd 
i?j^^Dy:i!'8„ n iv r^ny^y: px .D"iyi:in"in«!^ ry^jnyvj^^j pq 
-12^0 D^8 lyoijyjj^ns ^n lynsn i830— 34 pd "D:«^JVDi^nD 



pB ipJjry: tiSKty-iyTi^^C'D in^N t'n 1852 \'>s ^iiD D"2 * 
D3K'7Kn H t:Kn>'; m i:xn c'^Noyn t't'SN lyiK ; 9,737 bimk 11,829 
t:£«tyij:*T''7JC'0 n vh nnx' im iie p,i'.!''ine pN p« /£5,382 pE 
1VE^i*l:«3 ckh n:KE ■iy:'iayj;7K lyi ]tn ,12,553 T'n lyj^ctryj 
"i«E ts'j c^Koyn TO CNn y^i^Ni^iK^iK i^'p Dxn yoiD « ,£35,695 
-;♦: nn'K t'n ,]vt2EKtr^yTy:5 y^mynns n m triynjK px x^ko 
-'•nD2 pE yt::^iry; k lynyj ^«i3 |y;sit3:iin di!? t'I 1852 ]'\s yci'ty 
-pK-p'N i« iKi ,1892 p,E s]',D D''2 j^KEiy pN lyDpKii iy;n 
]ifi Bfii<B'iyT'7Jt:'D N UNny: u uijn ,pyt:D'Tpy ny;nn«' js'^jiyc 

.£214,000 pu iy;yon»B ^j C'D ,71,000 



D^jDD n nnvD ivi^io iy^«p»tD«ns yiy^n .tD^^vjiy^ yD^^vyr 
3jnni^Qn«pri? lyD^^^yiyj lyn lyjy^i nnjsi jyto^s Dyn na 
nyj^^Dy^^s: t^« oy lyD^y^i hd nyn^^« .ly^ss yiyunsn no 
nyr^^-isnt^-^nn lyn ."woi^'pp yivDpn^is n,, na t»>jr 
11N yc^^t:)D^:)y"ii« n na ''DT^^fe$Diyivji«., iy5i^^DP«i3Dix nynj^* 
Dyi ^nfc? n^iiyj lyt^msD t^k oy^vs^jsiin^ yt^'-'tDD^Di^ti^D 
'^V2 Dyi ns tyoyiyDJ^K y^y^vyao n ly^^ti^si na Q"'Vjna 
-ID nyi na nijpn n ^^^ ajiD^^^:^^8 n .isa t^n t^« n^x^-D 
?:^^v:i lynjyt^iyn ty:inj^n ayi d-'ik topm DDstj^^yryrnytD 

:y^;i{S^8Ji5 nyrDDyip s iin 

n nx ^TD iytDi:i nvi mn lyD^yii ^tj'jyD iy:ijr iyi„ 
■y:i "lyn na n^^:tD^» ny^^^v-'j « d^8 in iyD^n:ii^f"i:^ :ijir>j 
n DnniDti' lyD^yn n« ,yn«iDP«"i nnitotj^ inn tDsstj^^yi 
nyi lis Di^^an fn Djnp iy ts "•us J^^aiy d^d y^oyD^ia 
Dn«iny .DyoniyivJit^ lytj^^j^vnya nyn« ^itj^ nyK^^rvnyo 
D;i^DDyi8i pn ns:n:i tyomyj s i^ m ,^i^t ny t^ ,i^^i^to8J 
tD^j mp xsn lyDt^'iDi^D lyi y^^yii nnx /Dy^^y^nvis iv 
y;in«n n n^v^DPsis fn px niifc< nx ;DnD"iv V'p w^nn 
"'iDi^D «T8 na. tonytj^ya in ny Dj^ay:i y^oya^ia yD-i^vo 
mvp Dyvfcjis 8 nn"'Di8Q iv ddsd n iy Di^n ^Ksn \v\:i^ 
-yj D^D lyijnisa lyj^n dh)) m^yo n lyj^n D«n .dh^x 
i5>^a8 iy :yD nyp-'j^Dyo nyi lynt^ .Dy^Dya^na yD:iy^ 
pn tia ^^^D 8T8 nyae« n« iy:iyoi8a sts toyoD iyny:D>iK 
-v^j 8 pa iy:i''niv yiyn^nsn n d^d in lyjypsn D^-in lyny^ 
lyv^t^sn ^»T D«ii ryryj p^p d^j d^^h iy ,Dr>J8DyD ly:?^^ 
"iv-D« in tynnt^yj lynnyi tDiyii iy *"Dy^:iy^nina v:i''<t 
isa tyr-nyj iv onyiDtj^ yD^yii ,y^V8P:8;ii« iyi ]h ryo^^ty 



.1845 1 1 £3 yjiN^ 



.DV^Dy^iins ytDjiy^y: n n2 lyt^'^yo n lyo^jy; oy mi 
n^D Ml .DJjjn D^^•?JyDJ$^t^'yJ3» pd too^^: nyriKi lyi 
ni^j D^j j:ip-iMi yj^D^n^niv fe§ tDfe<ny; ^inyr lytoysc^ ly^yi^ 
pi^iK inx li^J ,p^^» y^v^T^jfe§j-ii;j lyn pd yoD^t^'yj lyi pimk 
-15<D n iV2i^ .:2^:v^^^2 ifcj^jvi^nD nyi pd vd2'i:^v: lyi 
.DPnya^n d^j -lyiyiiojy w^t^n d^^^ lyjy^ pd ly^Jijynsn 
Dyi pD nyijyto n lya^n^sa DJi^py:i tDu ryn^n ^n iyi» 
-ons i» iyn3DnK-iy-iMi iyi« lyo^fe^nivD^K Tin^^D lyrrsT 
Di^n iyD^u"i8 n ?imk .m^x^D-^^yn vd:iv'?v: pd y^Dstip^D 
DD»-iny:i D^n yD^yii rP'-op^D-ij^a n d^j pm:^^^ m DD»Dy:i 
-y-iyjDM&< -lyDjyD^^vyjDMK lyi ij^j 4852 p2 y:y!^-iyn^: n 
nyD^yii ,DyDD^D lyivDi^noD^j-'ois Pi< iy^y^vjfc§j^2 ly^jya 
-pjiQ n lyrj^^KisiD i^ l«^:r nyi nj^a DD^oy:i i^^^ya toi^n 
-D:jnyDm^2 y: pd n d^d D2«:j'^yTyrntJ' 15§d s pd oy^v 
"••D s 51MX in ly^ytoi^pyn^ idin «?» nn^^ px ,D25<5i^^yTy:j 
-'yj D^j i^-'D^ t^i T^n D^n ly^ tyrj^y^i P5 njsotj^ ty^y^vji^j 
Di^n y^viD^DDJ^P yjni^"i n is ,iyTmi$n D«in d^^v n .D'oi^rr 
-J81W ni nnyo n^a ")yn« .mJiiDn VT'?D^D:vr'i< y*in^j< toetny: 
nn^K px D^ys^Mivy; d^j DD^j«^:r-i^nD p^p D«n ini^^ r^ 
DJ^ii ly^ny^m yj^v^n pk P'd^ip yDistJ' n pn .d^^-^ddu 
"iy;n^^Dii§D v^v^'t \M< D^nn-'^yn pd lysny^Dmyt Di^n n 
-piMi *in^N PD ^jiroyD^sn d^5§ D:yny; n^: rD:v? lyn^jn 
n^D t^D«D ,D"iyii T^^? oy TK nynny-i lyjy^yi i^d .d^^pd^t 
-^^^i* IV oytD^^n^y^j^-'N y:^^^m;:y!^ iy;jyinrnj? tD^» n\'^n>i 
."^yij^tD Dy^*j„ Dyn d«jid iy:Dntotj^-Dsnn n nyi 
PK 'Diyrsti^-^yM^n n iv rsTjyjyj lym^ipiyo p« 

yD^^D^^t>'DnK V^V^^f D^Q ,1830—34 pD DJi^^JV 'DiyLS^^m^-ni 

Dpjis ,iyDj<2"t^ti^^Q n p« lyDD^'^^yty;! n ly:^^ ,iy^y^v-i»D 
nn^?^ iyt:i8 pd nox^o-^^yn n pd Dy^v^T^:)5§:in«-iy!G n ni 
••T .iym^p-D:jiv*t:'^nyD:ix v'p^?h'? d^« ryj^tDtj^Djy ,DiyiJin 
-^^n D1V /'^t^y^^DhJD 'Diyp^^D t^tj^nrt^-D^DD ryoyjn^i^i^n,, 
-IS D^!2 nyn^^itD^o yin^x t:n«nt<D n-inji;} ps o^n ,^y^2:j^ 



Df^i^^'ir-Tnta lis j;t:iD''tj^y:i 278 

•lyD^ons IV ^--nyDDiK lyn^^ny; n« n«iiyj top^^Ji^ixn^^a 
-jiK"iypj«iP loin^cyjj^^^ ij^sj y^^f«T^Jfei!J1J^ n D«sn 1846 i^x 
"D^D ytD^s: i$§D y^Djys « lytoyst^^ ^you^ n« :iJivDtj'iyD 
iyi^yrD:iJiv^D6J'nyDJi« yrij^i n iia ^JiD^sin^D n .lyi^^:; 
.y^vsT^j«:i-i« ~iyi ns ^y^vDann lyi lyny;! n^nji^ na t>« 
n^^P"Dj:'!V">DtJ^iyDJii? ly^^P^i^ oyi na ;j'ito^nnD"'it< lyn d^d 
yj^n iiQ :i:nyn:^ii nyi iin /DSi^tj^^yryj iy^«j«;^v^j s p« 
-Dnns! iy2Mny::{$ in toj^in ,D"i^Dtj> vi dij^dk' nc iy'T'^:iD^D 
-i^D^K y^spfcj^ n iy:i^j>>Nnb*a iv to^^pnyiiK^ yD^ii:i n tyr^ni 
n ns :!:'iD^^in^Q iytr^D«j«py m ivt'pw^^b » d^d y^Di^: 
TiD »DD8tJ^^yTy:i n Dn^ni .jyij^^tQ DJJiv^jDtj^iytojix yoni: 
-jytDtJ^DDn^yt na y^v^nynya t^^p tyiiy; t:--: fx ,iyp:yiy:i \vd 
-••Di^p nyiJiTsn ^v^'^t D«ny:i tyni^n yiD^yii tyDD^?t^'^y£)*^yp yn 
-sin "ly^n ij^d iy^«iD:yv nvi iv tyj«iDy:i"'^n jynj<in iik nyi 
T^K n : ijnrn ly^sno^yv lyi ns m«vin n tiQ p^n lyDD^Dti^ 
-DQStJ'J^^Dy:! IS? D^D y^v^T^j«.n« yj^vj^^x tis iyi"iy:i n-^imi^ iid 
-«nD^^n y^8 tyDipy:ij^ns tyj^n oy nyn^'yii fx ^yo^p lyn^^ 
.TiiKvin y^i5 n«:"iiy:i D^n^^vyiiD^ix lyj^n oy lyn^y^i na tix m 
n lis nytoyipyo n d«ii ,dj^d ni< iysfc?Q-n^n:j^ nyn iv r^n 
n tiQ :ijnnDjyv:«p v^'m'-i n .DviJsn ryn^^n ty:i:i^^>t:sj^ 
-8K^y: tDJ^n dj^i d«iii n^yo ytj^-'DP^ia n tD^ny:i to^tn ryiJ^a 
liD 3JitD^8insD nyi nytojix nj^Q-inyryi tyn^yto^nsn s rys 
D^D lynjmsD tyiiya t^« dj^t tor ^d iyn« .yirDipytpy iyi 
-Si? r^K T8 ,iyiiyj i^^^yo r^s ii<tj rx /y^o«i:i^Dnx ny^b*p{^^ 
ajw^DK^iytoJiK ly^^^tDDnx njsn iy>nQ"iv ^ t^^D ^«it m'p^'^t:^ 
ynyDyn« s ifc?t)i^Q iqik «t^ ^imx m nvi^'p^tM^D v^n^i^ iv 
n^y: dyn nc ,Da>DDyi»n lyiiya ntj'r ^q ^y t^k n •'ii ,y»"iD 
Tst ."i^D lyray:! lynnyi nx .toDstj^^yty^ iyvj^:i nyi tia 
n nn-'^^ntojyv iv iinso fe? nj^iiy^ on^oy: fx ,1838 t^t< 
-:h^ ns ytD?DSi§n v'?^ph'^ n ty^-ij^mxs iin ojiD^^insQ 
ny^sintDjyv *iyn na ly^iy^s t^x ty:iJi^''^Dai^ n --^n yo^yDtj^y: 



-^y3 ivj^^^jjy nvi ns yny^!? y:y-ii5ay:j^^s n .DytonK^j^^N 
A^'PB lyrr^i cyi oiyMsn tD»n jjio^^me^D-DDD^yi iv nDt^^o 
y^De;2i<! -iyp«p.0 i^ D-in^syj i^^i^-'disiddix d^«ii lyD^yn 
*iy-i:y: ly; oysy -ly^n^x y-iyoyi: iv d^: nnx ,tD3s*ns:D n« 
n«isii'DM:^^ MTS ni ,nyii lyjisyjo^iN orioy: o«n yiJ^Dyo 
.ns;:^D -lytonn^^siDjy^ o'd y^D«i:{^D^i« y^i$pi!j^ 
-ya yD"i^Db:j^sc«„ n ds^ii ^^y^vit^^LDDJi^jp lyi nytojiK 
nyti^uife? lyiroi^ayiPJ^^/, n pa lyouynya^x tofcjn "DDSij'^yT 
tyni^i Dyi n^o lyj^sy;; »"D"iynnjy^^o nx Diy^Ko lyj^tJ'SD 
::i^^^t:B«! n .pTDisc' iyn:yD^n83 d^d t^f^^yj Dy^D«"i3 
,yDDft§S!3 y^8P«^ V2vy'i< y"in^« Di^^Jsjntojiijp nx to^nyiny 
-.ntj> y^^yi^ ,m:pn n dm^ ly^sc y^s pn to^yusn n "iyn» 
.^8D lyiy^ P« ly^iJKH iv ni "ijisd i^^in^sD^K lyn 
m)v:i lyns t^k :iJi'^^D5>!it nyi P2 y^o«:iiOM« y^y^v:s:^s n 
-y; tD^j Di^n ^jys p^*? •o^^'^d^^pimi nyn pn mi ,d^js^ inyo 
n D^D jj^sp:^^x pK T^5< ov lyn^^D .nyi^ iyay:y:D^ii< ldisd 
.n^y: iy:i^^x nn^j< in ^u to^sn jj^^^^dss n .nijpn yD^^t:pj^s 
m DD^^^^yiy;! lyvjsij nyn pd DiD:yr^« D«n nynji t^n oy 



-Dtt"2iK ]iE Dy':?Ki:iKDK yyoj?:;',, o'ly^n-ii-iyn ."n ps Dn"ii$ 
yomy; ps iy;r,^''t2SK y;!':''N I^'^xn ,283 — 284 lycr ^'"lyijro 

t:tk tik pKt3^'a-D;5jit2'?Kin«e i^^^'tkt i^n ps ;3nsB»"nK lyi .ayts 
nyi i!J ]y3niry;is 't ts-i^n ysHKitt nyi lan'? lynK ,b:kpk20ik 

-[MK T'K n .1826 ]1H p«^iy:J t2-|U'2K;iK T'N yS^yn /''Cy^'DKD 

-j?iiDKD 'D"iyp''0 I'tyTii'N-D'ttD,, lyT p.E pKiiyj t3Sii»<2 lynnfl 
,1871 pB "i2pK ]K':p-Tnta„ c^jn T^n .1824 ]«n i2yn:n;y:j ,"'n 
c:K':T-TntD n m ptk .T>nny; lyn'tsuKS k •^jkhv:: 't enn 
T'K ,yt:oK«n ynyT ]^b tanpa^'inny lyi ]« j';:ynsK lyiiy; ]y-"T 
t:?noy!t lyi^yj iyi"T nyr^y; n dk^i n^yo yonij k lyny:: oy 
*iyn iKB T>^tair<nt;jKiKB lynyji iy3"T Dy'SKT»:K;iK y;'B"iK n pK 

.j?DKp lyT pjj *?''» "iy>'T ps o'^piys'T 



"tyD^5'jy:iDni<„ tyoj^^sn n nyii nn«^ ryny^ no ^)o dw 

^y^sntojyv lyi no :!:mnj^n5<2 lyn on^ ^lyto^-'iiv s iv ^^-iii^ 
D>D nn«^ Dyi \H l5:j»d j3i^i^ds« yiy^ r^ mts ,v)vd)PV^?v 
ivo^VB^)'?v:iD)i< nyi .i^^jd^d ly-iy^ 15§q y^io iyD^^^:i s 
WD om jijnj^Dny is lyiiy: t^n i^-'^jd^ix lyD^^iny^ ria i^s^a 
ny^sP^:^ ti2 ^n>Qy:i di^i tyto^snivDMX hd tyD^jy:j« to^n 
■''2 tytDin^^siDjy^ ::iv^D^ s lyDJix ^JiD^sinss-Don^yr 
niv n^^yss ^:hpv^ D«in i^^^d^o nyny .DyDD^o-ns^ 
'BH lyT ns ^in^^tj'LDjy nyi ty:iyp Dsn ivDipytpy ly^siDjy:^ 
y:ijn iy:siD y^s pk ,d«i Dyi no ;i:n''^tj^Djy n .^ji^^-id' 
Dvyjyi:i5§n :i:yiDti' lynya nyn^^ lyj^n ,yv^t3tj^ lyrD^n^y^ya 
-y;i nyn ns ly^yry: yun^toonpy n na jJiK^to^^toD^ix lyn pimx 
lytD^snDjy in px lyn^^n yD^yii ,nijpn yjn»n n .DDS^^yr 
iyn«n /tyvyryj y^y^v:5§j^D n >)) topjia y^yj«''^ito^tDDJ{$p n 
-j^''» ^y^vysD 8 tiQ lyn^^D ,ny"n Diyi3yy:i t:j«ipyj o^j 
.Pi^vsn lyny^ na iyD8:iy^yn na :iJi^D8nsQ ly^yansi 
\v:vp n«iiy:i D^soya tj^^jyi^iisn y^y^^yao s i^^j t^x iviyn 
■vyty^ iytDjyDyis;rDDy^tj' nyn« lyo^^^isiyn^i? pa nnsay; lyn 
-yoyiD^iK p^P .DyDn«tDM« lyt^D^yn lyi d» i^q i^"'Q8 ;ijny:i 

-yn n lyn^^i? lyD^ii Dpyr d^d ty;:i^>>tDQ« y^» iss n^iiy;! 
-nn^sDnx n^Jiyn t^k px iyoipy:ii«iD px 3:i5'Dsnfe$Q tyDSjy^ 
-^8iy:y: ••^iiv ^n nyi^5':iD^D n pd \iHw:i toi^Dipon i^^ 
,py^iv lyrt^T Dyn i«q lyDiissj^^N ^y^vyso ,ty:ji^^i^n»3 
■ya yj^n ly^^sny lyoipya t2it< sts n-'ix t^j? Ds:iy^yi lyiy^ 
tyDi^^'sttoyn ifef!:)»T px lytDpyin tit t:>o ryDr)^^Q yt5^nyny:!vyt 
n^^pmonx t^k oy nnyo i»: .ly^nyii yj>n pa v^^i^m 
DDStJ'yjafc? D'-j ^«T ^Jiv^Dti'iyDJix ]'^^? t» 4i«ny:) t^iiii^nj^D 
iJi^osn^Q-tytDs^y^yn lyn pa :ijn>^tj^tDjy n jyn^>D rpyii 
-".^iiv PD DytDniij-'sn s inn nj^iiyj ryD>''ny:iDi: p« oyi iy:iyii 
-^yty;! lyn pd lyi^^^to^o v'?^ \)b jjio^tot^s^t m --^n ^yt^n^ 
y^v8"'v«D8 n r^K DSsc^^yryrD^Jiv^Dt^iytoji^ m D^b* -ddk:^ 



lyton^^soyi 8 ns lyoDnK^nt^s n on^ in nn^D y^^yii ,iy::^^ 
nyoj^K ,::i{^'t:^^tDDMj< tm r« ,iyD"i«inyo:i{< lym nx Dpyij^p 

.yiroipyipy ny^ynojyv ^ 

lyi .DCj^^^'nyBiyp yoiM^^siD^yv DDjyn » lyiiy: \h nnn:«i 
-j^^t< pn^DWJ^''^ .lyiiy: t^k ::n^D83^i§Di$ nyi ns ^y^v lyoMi: 

lyvji?: riyn^^ * "pi^-^^yi,, lysn iyDD^o«:i!jpy n Di<tn ,Dyi 
yivoipytpy y^fc§iDjyv n dkh ,rix pk dhi rijyn^n ."i:5§> 
-IV -lyit^ iyr^Mi83 iv t^DSo yDi^«:Dast n iyt:^«ny;i :njyDc^ 
\:i:^pv:i o^: Di^n h^^jd^d V'P .o^n^vyrp^noD lyj^stnpn 
lyi PiMK lyi^^D ,a3i^^^DE«: pn n2 yv^o^^-p^nioD p^"? lyjnp 
Dy Ml ''•1T8 .y^^D^pyipy lyi pd jjijii^isista lyD^^pmonx 
-:n«3 y^^pt^^ n d^o Dj^pstn pn iv lyiiy: j^idm: lyn^ t^n 
o-iD iy*:5«riv iy:^n ,iy:i8"iD-i«D pd :i:n>^i^o3y "lyi ^^n iy:ji:j 
-yt:'DJ^p""DpnDDn„ ii«iiy; Din^2y:iJ^''fc^ y^vfci!D8i^S!tDi§ "lyi 
PD lynyotj'-i^D pa n«tiiy: D^yDt^'y;l:yo«T1v lyj^n y^^yn ,iyD 
-i^p yrri^i n .ocst^'i^nDj?: lyn pn lyjJi^^^DSiji y:i^»ni$ n 
■^8in5<D lyn d^d i«d iv tD5<ny3 oo DtJ'^Ji^: lynsn lyt^yD^o 
iyni<in i^d ni ^lyiiy: T^i< d«i^ .yv^tDi^' iyrD^njy;iy:i pd jjid 
"j;;i T^fc^ y^vpJiD ny^n .:ji^^^D£« nyny^ pd yn^a^nx n ^inyry: 
:ji:od{< n«!2 PD lyoyiyDJ^N yrtDiJis n nnx lyossivDnN m\ 
IV PK pyii Dyiiv-ipy: d^j ly^i^r "lyto^^ms n ts ^lynyj iv 
PK .yv^Dtj'-p^nDD ly^^-'toDnx d^^3 y^^oipyrpy lyn ryDfe§i 
■DDn^yr p^p D^inya d^j ^n iyn»n ly^Ji^^^DS^ n w r*{<Tjy:y:i 
^n Tfe? /Dnfcjiny ^n piD Di^n tyo p« ^tDyonsD^x yr"i:yt3tj^ 
-i8rt:BMn lyi ps ty:i:'i:i"i«"iy;D n nn^DDin 3:yntD*^ iy^«T 



n pK iyT'ir"iyt2:iN y'^wpK^ n 'iy^«T i!? t::"o dkt * 
-tfa pK pHiiy^ iyDi:y; ;n:yi:ir iy:"T '^ytt'ooiyny'? ps lycDKp 



Dr'»ii!:?'':iT»-TntD jis ^t^D^'try: 282 

-jsjp-iy:y: n« ^i!jiD:«;p ns DytDD^D in^t< to^a /y^viD>DD:»p 
na ::nn^D-n8rQ nyn ns d^-ipdmi:! n iyiiy:i i^i« t>n ,^«id 
8 ;:^5'^c^ s; ns :i8nto^^n '^v:i''\n lyn .toD^K^^ytyj ly^-^j lyi 
-yi iyD^^D>"»^;n8!QDiK i» d^d \ii^))v:i tD^n^vyj t^k dsii n«ii 
-yiij^ns t:iHn ,DD8c^-iyi^^:iD^D nyijyop^Ti is na D^^proyD^ya 
ytDDi^MT n lyPDti'yjiyn^x Di^in dkii ^hdj^h s dd»13 
'ivr2 DJ!?n nj< Dy^vsT08Ji» i«oi^-n^ntD yriynns ns moi^n 
ly^spi!?^ lyny^ tyjy;y:ii§a w ODsij^^yTya -lyi ijiit: LDD$§Dy:i i>^ 
lyi no ^""^D lyD^n; 5§ .:iJ^:ijyiDL^oi$ dmij ini$ ^y2"Dnj 
-••Ls^njyayj ^imn mi<vin n iid n«iiy:i ly^Ji^tj^iiHD t^n nojDn 
-y: D^n^^^yj o^^v lyjy^ iv lyj^n yD^yii fty:!J"iv^DEJ'nyD3i« yj 
y"iy"iJ8 PK lyDDstj^^yrya n d«^i ,iyDiD v::^v^^ p« ii«!ii 
-sn n^i^y; T^N Dv m) m .oDixiiy; doi«:i iyn»n ty^iSQ 
D"": Dpyny:i Diiftn i«ii i? :ir^^^ s na :!«iD>^n nyi rs; ,ddi«ii 
8 tDT«i^ynyn^i< tik dj^h ij^j ,n^«ifin y^D^J y^s n n«ij 
nsD pyii DviJsin DJ«py:i D«in oh)) r0:^'?^2 lyT^yopsii 
-ynynn^ D^nr*'^yn n ns :i3^:iyiQ^ix n px ^yv^DK^-p^noD 
a:^:io^''i?i^D n t^k d^^^; ny:ij^^ s i»d .ryvoyi:i y^s wr^v^ 
fy^vpyD«iiS"i^nD isd dhj^id n d^o yvtotj* iyrto^njy:iyj t^a 
nyD"'^nnD ^ 18S y>Djn^3 d^s D^^nto^n Dv^t? Diyii dj^-.i 
-DO i$ D^8 n«iiy:i Diy^piy ,p^dp«d lyt^^^DDo^ior-T'nD 
na intj'n oyn n^ii^ DP^n^D tym^on^D w iin^D iro^^iny 
-^yry^ ^,yn iv iy:i«iD^"'n yj^n D^n»v d^ii 4yjn^itj'f:DiK Dyi 
PK P^^3Di« PS .D^^npjsnp tiD ^i§Q p« nyrjnn^D iv in dq^:j^ 

*.nyD^y nyn ^nx 



toi» ip^yiaty in ]ik ,1867—68 ne ''y'DiCNp iy3i'?;iijyp„ -lyi ins 
I'finK lypitanp yn^nSnyseiN n ]ih lapi^s-rssMn nyi ins nn 
lua JJu^nla■^^(s j^gji; k .1879 n^ 1852 lytrnis DTO^ovTmis 



-^8 lyi w DD^itDji^p DyjynyTy:;j« nyjy>P r^^p d^j n« 
n lyiiy: rn DT^ji^^jv-i^no no y^vnjsno iyjyoi:yjjs p-tDy: 
I1D t3i>*n "Dn^:yr'nj^K iyD^^Ds::^5§Di$» n dh)^ r^'"i>D''?^:v£iV 
yi:y-i^DDnpy n ^ii av^^^i^^v^v:^ v:'D:iV^ .^2)^:1 is annjK 
-y: 1850 n5< 1S34 lyc'Mi^ lynjsjn /"^y•^ynD:^^D;^' ns i«'jr„ 
iyTMiy:Dmfe§ nn Dl^^■I di^jti /y^^ito^DDji^p ^ o^^a-istyjoMK dkh 
Djn /'lyTJ^iJ'TJ^N ytDi^D8:i^8D8" n pd n •'n tDDsmym nTs; 
"lyT ")ynj$ ."iyDPj<"is:D in^i< pn iyn^^K^-i«D D^jiioy lyny: t^« n 
Dt^"iynsi3 r^» l«tJ Di^n D^^':'^iDD^:D^>ny:i pd Si^sy: -lyo^s 
-^niv» Dyi nyT-^JiD^D yD^^jnyny:) n ^^d Pi< '^v^n^ii n >^d 
■'•^tj'iy ,'iv:^'^V'^^ ,-iy"iyn»:r^tD*^ n P2 * "i^^ip"!^:; lyD^^cDjyDyn 
o^D D^ytDtJ' 4884 Djn iy:^*^ny t^« iy ni royD^y^yn ruyj 
"i^no PD 1VD-18 Dy:^yv:^'x iytDD^i2tD"iyn oyi i«:d n::'£K i^i 
nn 8 ,inyty:i tD^j ry:iy px ^soj^^'^ lyn to«n o:i:yiij§3 \^':v 
^'2 Av::'\'?''^Bi^ n p.D iy:3i^D5<!n5s*2 n pd rt§^s oyi n^K 
n PD nny n \V2Hn isgt— 68 pa y^D^oiijp iyD^^r:yp -lyi 
-o"i« ""n T^i< Dy Di^ii ,nvi nn« tD:iJ5^py: lyo^n in D^nr^^yn 
PN y38iD>i« nyrT«n "lyn pd oy^siijp lynp w lyny: i''?:vd 
'D-iy^^^pnn,, lyi pd ij^^ipi^v lyc^ni^^nys lys^^jny ts pd 
yoniy:) ts ,i^d lyj^^y: 4871 pt? ^ii Dy^t^• nTfe? **. "^tjy^^oiijD 
V2''?'^v^Vi lyDU Dyi lyjyp ojy!:^j"i5< d^s oy lyviJfeitn DJi^^jr 
•D^^PD^^ojyDy IV lyD-i^myoJiK ^n Dyn DJijn ^^m ,iJijypiy:» 



-y;"iir2'N VH DNii ,1867 /'vnn »^!:i^rj-iK£„ wji ]ih ^yp'tsiK 
.(lyu^'T 20 ,1867 .1«i:n7) "Diy:'N»'n i:y Dn;'i::ysi«p 

x^^viyv;^ lyn ps D^''^{Kf2iNE:iN y"iyn:« pK yccD'CNCD tn: c: 

]j;j'TKn DyT "ike pxv.y:! t:nnayj:« ;it2:oDniJ5 tjin t»n jjuynsn 
.j':22MT uD^irn ike iy:TEy; w i^i^n td ]ik rp'^yn 
p« 3980 iv;nie ,t:7*.Ka ]'.e lyjjiuxTD^'.K n ,^trD'7 ,i2nyT ** 

.ts^ONi lytam D>n pK 4086 ]tk ,t22n«n lyc'M^i? ayi 



Dr''j«'':jT'-Tnt:5 ti^ ytDD-^ti^y:! 284 

pinN Dp-iyDy:ji^ piti^ iyn«;n n^D .yD5§^pyi pd ds^ip lyi px 
D^^v yvnp ^ \V2Hr\ ly^^K px ij^tor: yD^yi^ 4y:iJiD^^if •'^i^v n 
lyD^^pniDMN Dyn d^d 1851—52 tix 1850 PK iyay:iy;D>nfe§ 
« -ly^y^v y-in^K iik DD^tj^^yry:! n iy:DSD tDJ^p^n pq ;)V)))i 
-»DyD^y:yi ^ lyiiyj oy t^k :jn^Dfe?:^^Db* nyi ii^j lynn^;^ id 
iyD^^D:yDyn«D div ,yDy-is ly-i iv lyp^tj^i^i:* nn^Dj^>« ny:i 
"^yDiyo ,yD^^D«j«!D y^is ,p^^my3^« lyt^^^tonp ^ tyny: iyi« 
yrtoD^T inyD n i^it? mi /lytoDn^a y^^^nny^ px v::''?'\r\v' 
"••^JD^D n 18D n^iiy:i iyny:iy:iDm8 lyj'-n d«!1i lyns^pi^^ 
nyiycJii^Pv lyi i^ nj^iiyj top^tj^y; iy:^n lyDyiDi^a .lyn 
P2 n^"iiy:i tyD^;sny:i2{$ t^x Di<ni /'d^ui^ iik ^^d^s^jp iy:yn 
.iyt:^>i"i m 1859 pQ "v^'i^^'^^o^ tOQ^tj'jyDMi y^^^v^to,, lyi 
■y:i:j^ tj^^Dp^D in ^dmx dt^mi oy ni nyn^in ly^^^ pn morj 
-j^D^^v n ^v 5nynn iyn>ntj> iv D>^n3y:iy^yj lyiy^ m tD3^3 
"saii^ lyi iy;yii oy^vpy^ iyny:i p^? lytDKiysy-i ^v^V''? jy:i 

.Dy"ijn;y:i lyn^^n ^n dj^ii ,y^^^T^j 
Di^ 0^)) Di^Dj^^fc? lyDni:! Dyi tnyotJ^n^Q i^ jjn:i T^i< oy 
li^^jr-Tint: nyn n''ii< Dn^xy:iD"'ix D^^n "^yi^a iy^^:„ nyi 
■nsDi^: yDD^DDni pn .nn«i^ r^^j^iiv yoDpyj n i^n D^yii 
/'Diyojysi^p ii{<i ^tDy^^«tD nyD^^osj^j^o^,, n tyny:! t^x :ijio 
lyDMi: Dyi P2 lyj^D^i'Djy t^x ,inyT ly^yii i>» n^ .y^^yii 
DiyT'O:?' n in iyn«n 1866 px .1859—60 r^« p^njDD iyj«:iJi^^ 
yD^yii /'toD^tJ^^yty: iyDi^D^:i^!s»s» l^ px iyD{$iy:iDn:iv 
pa Dpyi«ip lyvjs: oyi 4y:iJnyijy in«i toyoD ,iyoijy:ji<i to^in 
■y3 lyvytDsntj^ nyj{<;-ij{<i^ n toj^n 1869 t>x px ,ti^j^ti^n^i? n 
ty^yDtJ'iv ^J^T Di^ii ,toyto''o«tp ty^y^vysD s Do-'Dti^fciin DSj^tj^^yr 
n pa D^^'p^'^oyo px y^viD^toDj^^p lyn,, ty:yii to::nfei!n s 
y:y:i^^x d^^i p<!D^vr)«t: hj^d lyi to-'o /'DT'no yDi^n^:i^^os 
■yj^nn d"'3 t^k y^^yii n^n » — ^ynt^Dnrx-pm iyi p« 
iyDpfe§i«D jyrt^Drj oyi tinx jn^yto:]^ too am^w^ toin^D 
Di^iii ,i»D p^i< v^P iyi"iy:i do DyoD pk oy .D^n^n Dyi iiq 
iyDS»3»: nyny'i*iD:)y DiniiQ 4875 ti^? 1852 ty^^mv .do D»n 



■DnyDPsn^D V')r]'>i< hd yiyinyo "lyis oyj^^x lyonyjj^n^ 

.jyDnou' ytj^^D 

Dyn ns innjyDj^Tiv oyi n«tJ ins> Dpyr nyn^ ?ij^d n 
i< ii^s in D^D ly^ytotj^ ^n Djn 4852 hd "dik'pis^,, lyoMij 
"lyn ^lyDs^t^'^yry: yomy; p« Dyi^sis w"?'^^ ns yiJinys 
"{>3 li^^JVT^nD "lyj^^oyj^s: lyi pd ^ypn{$DD^•^ Dyi ly^nyv 
lyonnp v'pv^'wr^i^? v')V))^ n ij^j .D5i'^:ii^;i oyoD jji:yii 
tDj^n inDQ yD^yn pk nn«^ lynn iyoipy:i ly^n 1846^9 pa 
p^P lyiiy: o^j iy:^n oy Pfc< nyD^nsc^i^D p« lyo^^ny: in 
■p»yi n .iy:i:nyjy^p-i55D"pi^ yr^oyj^s isq lyD^^njyjy^y; 
1834 pD DJ^^jvi^nD n PD lyopy^i^is yoj^iiyj n iy:iyp y^^ 
*.iy:i:ioy"ioDn"i8 yivo^iynyD i^^as D^DiDDjy r^5< i«j o«n 
-"•tj^TJ^i^ n pa piDj^p Dyi pD ^»2D"in ly^njyDLi^^ia lyi nyn 
■p^^:o^i< Dyi PS 1853 pi< pi^^iy: t:^^^:i<n t^n "lyD^yn — rnv2 
"inyv 8 1S!D lyrst^'-^yiisn iyj«DDy-is n pd p^noD lyD^^ 
PD ^DSP Dyjyjji^yrto^j nvi pd ojnyDyn-pi^ "lyy^jy^jjis 
PK tyD^^pyntJ' Dyi pa pn lynyin^syD "lyDDj^D-iyi^*:? n 
Dt^^n — nyD^^ai^jyi^^N nyo^y^ii^i n pa ?io^p lyii^^DDna 
-1^2 yiroyi^s iv Dj^^jr n pa ly^nnyim oyi DiyDy-i;i{<a 
DJ^ii y^vsDiey"! ytDDy^tJ' n .dso'^j^di^d lyomj s pinx lyao^p 
mn pi^iiy;! toiyDy-i:nb*D li^: vi^ iy:«:ipy: lynt^n Dp^noD 
-ysi^i^p iy^ynDDn:^K pa rya^^:na n pa ::iD^ns*^"is!a nyn 
y^^j n D« .nytD^u-18 ytj-iy^pyjianx-inyD n iyt:JiN y^vssn 
; lyoii^a ••ni^ iyDi:yj:i$ o^n lyiny^ o'jyiii^ pa ;ji^pmDjy 
-jia iyny:i tyj^n 4y:i^T iv tDyoD i^d ly-i^jja-^i'isa ,yi^"'n pk 
-{^PJS!^ P« .1834 pa DToyii« Dyn pa iyn^''tr'i;?<a ^{<Djyoi$T 



cxn "pr2«s yt2:5'innnK5 ]is y>sNisND« :;':K:x'i'N:,, n * 
,1860 m i^rcKi i'« tti>i:D'Tpy ,in:;Ty; intr v;-i<n i^tt m ,nNJ 
-c^r ps tEKC'T'jjsti'O « IS iyp3u:r;5nyi:3nN 't vh 1852 in: lynyt 
lyi pK t2^y»Biyy-3 c^: y'i'«"i ]''p tr»tapN£ bkh p« ,i:;»Tnt2 y^'*? 



Dfjy^'JT'-I^mD p£3 yDD"'tyy: 286 

Dynjn:iyj /'nyj^'-s ny^^nt^tD«n,, n nc ;^»Diy lyn D»n I'^k^ 
-»p nyn ns JiJio^nstj'Dnx ny^yj:^^ nyi iv D"in^Dy;i 4844 pk 
'lyn nsQ nyD^nnyj ns ossK^^yry; lyn ns n«"iP iyirD8"iys«t 
lyoMiyj s "iv V2 .lyt^^jyDiyisin yjyr^x yiy-in pd :ij'i;-ij^rs:i 
-p-i^-' nx -iy"i^^t^i§p:«^ n no lyin^D yroiD n tyn«n "i«n:i 
-'':»:n«ini$2 na :!jnM^j«:n« n tyny:!y:!2^i« lyD^^nis ^y^^^t^' 
-n»P nx nysytJ^ yivosiysj^j^p oyi:n:y: lynjijn nx oy^^st 
-i§^:f»D yD^^toonpr, n lyn^^n o^'>'^ '^v^v^^'i^ lyn t^^ -ly^^D 
-SB n pK rytj^n pd vv^'i^. n iyDi:yjD^i« li^i:^^^ pq "lyDD"'^ 
-i^DDi^BSi toyoD s to^D tyni^n p« 4848 PD lytopy^Jijns -^vv^ 
-yr"iyi^'5^n«nQ pd ;i3n:n: n Dnyisyj ;jnyDD^>;isn lyji^^^ 
pyii D^«Ty:i iv^nr) lyDnrnyD^uis yri^yii i^i< .lyoDSij^^yt 

yD^^tDonp,, n lyD^yii tD-io ^DT^mojy ny;^t:i»Dni:i lyn 
n PD nosP Dyi i^N lyDiJ^niyjj^n^ in iyn«n "lytDD^^s^vi^D 
"•'^ans n IV tD>Mjyay3iyn^« yroDnDn^? "ly^n My-i^j^K^rrx 
nsD-DDn^'yT pd nyjy^D v^v^'t to^^oy^ to^sn ,tyDy-iyDJ^xnyD 
y^^^^p yrSiyvDix .ony^^^i p^^^^ 'ivbv^'P^V)) yijyD^si^ 
-ns n^rtj'n^K pd \iHWi ty::^Dy:iji$ lyj^n ty:JiDy:iyto:ii< 
lyn pK nyDSDDin px nytoDitj' nyi^^jtj^ ny^^o^ynyn nyo^-'n 
; pytojyv y^ynDonrx yoni: yiyijs i^x m toi^DtJ^DDnn 
-yD^Dijp pi< DirtD^pyipy n tynj^n o^^v int^^ y^^^t^y pfc< 
y:^^K iy:i»nviynns DDny:i D:i«or y:iyi>^tj^n^D n pd lyto 
"snyQi^^p iyi^^;D^D n iv nnjyD^ipyn ny^n d^q y-iyu^ n 
yrti^i n ts ,ni$iiy:i i«!^P l"*:! "iyn«i t^x oy .y^^;p^J$1Q yir^ 
8 D^« tDD^Dyaiv tyiiy:i d^: T^i< y^vsiyB«ti<tP pd d"i«d y>^: 
y>>j 8 0"?^ nr^j ,iJ$''jr-i>ntD nyn pd :iJ'i^pniDjy lyns fi^M 
y^^^toDnp n Dni^ii .y^V8T^:s!ni$ ny^ynoonj^t^ pd di^^d 
lyn^in 4834 pd lytoD^Jiyn^ n iv r^ny:iy:i pk ^ly^D^^^^vs^D 



.nvi3^£3 'onts'n ns .(1893 ,j;;iK^£3nN yi^^^'i's 



287 ^yi^D "ly^"': "lyi lis t2D>^:i ny^: nyi 

n{<D-n> VOID yvjfeitj n ts .ly^ytDtj'niiD D:«pyj cd^j -i«: im 
-r^iiJD "iyi« ,yij^"'Dyi -iy:yDii5^tJ'y;s» ix pn D-inoe!:i*i« »iyn 
Dyn pD r^^B oyi lyoyjisa ^jijt 4ii^:r-i^nD nynjyo:;' 
IV tDDuy: T^i^D lyai^n ^n .lynnyjiyDJix lyuyDstD-D^DK^a 
nn oD^^siD^B^P ly^yn^rij^K Dyn na r»^B oyi lytD^u-iyiD 
yn:yDj<D-tD^Di^iB ns lyoBSit^'iyB-iyp yijyD?^in8D"DD3>yr 
"•^D-ij^t '1 lyt^Miv nytDD^"": vy^i^r) '?r\ii'i vo'^w: « .nyD^''mj§ 
-ii<D n ni>myj lyj^n i:yjyrnDV -lyn p« pn ifc5i:«^ pk lyo 
PK lyjuiDnyjiytoiiK yrtsi n pd nyLDyipyo pk nyoPst'ii 
nyn^^jD^D d^s D^^proyo ytr^Jiy:y -ly^n iyny:y:BMN lyai^n 
toayiT /'ty:iDy:iDMK lyaj^n i^d,, .djkov y-iyi:iT83 yiy>n pb 
oDn«3 ty^^^iny^ in^x pk n^j^t^'Tj^x n pa yivtsipyrpy n 
iy:^n nyi^^:D^D y:yi^^i? ynymx pb v:i''?\::iV m) Tst„ ,1855 pa 
iyT«^-iS!B i^fe$n ^n iyn»n ^oBy^^^y^ px iyto«"itDy:j^n{§ 
"ly li^J "lyBytj'piyii viv^t oin^By: tynj^n px y^V5<T^jfe$:i« n 
It^^jr-i^nD "lyT *i»b p^^j div ."D^nr^^yn y"iyiJ5§ "-n nyj 
-Dpy y;ni^n n pb ^sbdih ']V'?V"^'^vr2i^? "lyn t^x :i:'ijyii{?3 
yny^n iyt:^8ny;3?s \V2Hn ^n idt ^d DjyDDr:yii jy^jyonya 
-j^K ,'^yByt^'p^y^1 y-ijyc:^8i"nsB-toD3pyT pb lyoisB y^yj^:n«t 
-yiyDrt? ""n d^d im lynt^jn diijii y^s isb -is^p n^iiy;! lyD*: 
oj^^tj'ny "y^vpn^ns ■iyv.''r)s;iyBJ5i^P» ly^yii Pi8iy:i "lyn -^td 
PK DJi^'ijr-i^ntD n pb iy^i^p«tDi$"i3 n px ^^j d»t pb moD 
yiVD^nyBi^i^p n pb ^^bidii-i oyn i«:j nyn» ; tD^^v -iy:y^ 
20 y^"i:y:i i^a ,tiMK ny Diyn 1848—52 pa ly^jioyj-iytojit^ 
iyi p« P^D^^i^s nytJ'^DPKis lyn pb y:»na s pn iv nns^ 

"iSiBo^^v ly^yiDpy^ytDJ^K lyrti^n ayi ^inx ^ytDDinyioix 
nyo^Mi DJ^^jv-TinD n nn^^sD:»p pa tD^-ims n t^k ,n^nt2 
":^K ytDi^o^:^5<o^ n .D^^PjyDi^^ti'o:y tD^D nsiiy: tDin^ay:) 
t:^yBijtDis:a p^noD -iy>n li^j ihj^^ inyv n pk lyn^n n^:^ijn 
!fcj*jr nyn toi^n isoi on^? pn ,-iyi^^JD''D v^v^^^t pa ^ntsv n 
.£73,398 pa iy:iyoi^a rys^f'a^^^n^a^iK oyi ryn>^py:2^'i:iv 
lyiy^DJ^^Dc^ Pfe^ lyD^ijyT^^ts* pa lyDBS^^'^yry: y^s:«^vs;: n 



DT''3^"'jrn"'ntD ps ytDD''tyy:i 288 

-18 ^^DDpyo n ^u iyDipy;n»s t^« DT^j»^jr-n^nD hd ;:ny^ 
-^yi^sn nyi^^ti'^PJs^ n ns y^i^8>^^»D8 yrov^x n .lyto^u 
"83 n nyn /i853 fi^ yiynsip in-iK tyn^iny:j« D«n Diyj^ac^ 
Dyn tyj«ipy:iDMns: in«"' lyn^ytDyn p« tyn^^n D-iynyir^yii 
mn lyD d«iii ^d^ui^p^dc^ *i«!d lyi^ns na "dd^^ n^nps^n,, 
nyi D^D "iyn« *."8d186j^d 8:ij8D// ly^n lysny;} tDijyn to^D 
yjy^ PN DT^jiS^:r"n^nD lyn to«in ,ry:)j§s-'n n na dhj^jd^^x 
nnyo lyn^^n nyin^D n .jji^yt::^ y^^^nns y;. iyDijy;ijj$ iyin«> 
■y: iyn«n n»: /'lyos^p lynyjjn^^^ n„ lyjyp D^yoitoyj d^: 
-unfc§ D^D y^vn«a ytj^^DD^jj^^jm^no n ty^Dryiisn i^ toDu 
lyt^'^tD^^yis nyn ^mk Dynjn:i8n tyiiy:! lyrn d^^ii ,tyDjyD 
yDTD8:i^8D8 n pa y:i8iD"'u n .Ds^P^yto^o tiQ y^Dj^j«py 
nyr^^^rns nyj^"'Dy:i^!i$ d^s;,, Djy^^^v^n tiyii tn^:^t^'n"'K 
'pv Dyi *VtD^^^ yanjii n^D ny^^tot^ oyn tys^ynivDMis ly^^jot^' 
nynyjDD^uis n t» ^y^^aj^-'S^ d^j i«: i«;p d^i lyirDipyt 
-nsiVDiN D^D ynynii^ '••n DstJ^^yry:! ists iyD38nt:!i§n» ly^yn 
Dpyiivsn n d>j ts ,inyt:^i8Q iya^inj» ly^yii -"n .D^>p:yn 
i»: /lyoynyoJ^K yiy^n ty:inytj^ iv tDDssy:*)^ t^i? n d^j pk 
■p8nj§D Dyn lynnnsMi^ inn lyviJ lyjjyia iyD'':i ^n toyn n 
-••n ny:)y^P^8S ^yj^^^fij^si^ns iix ny^''^^ v^vt tia lyto 
-D^»i8Q« T8 is^s iyi ."lyD^^'PD^^tDi^nDJsn^D yjy:i^"'X v^v 
■pN^ p« DP^ntDD pa m'?B oyi tyonyjii$D ty^«T "tytoj^i djji^ 
ytj^^DD''j«i^jv-n>nD n n«"»"iy:i iy^ysy:i ^nvo r'?^ t^« ddi« 
a:nn^D:)>^8 nyn ps iytoD:"i:i iv oy^v^Dys lytoiynjin .Diyin'-a 
PQ y^v«^v«D8 ly^sji^^vs:/. nyn PQ n«iiy:i ddsdi^d iyj>n 
iyto^8ny:i d^ip isn in D«n ya^yii /'tyasa yDrj-i^t^i^Q n 



ji'iyp tTB t33«o iiK C3:?"i H i2p3yityKn ,ttnnnns i^rtr''?:)::; i:;*t ns 

.21K— .1215 pK inxtrn ;'ij?p ns n«iTy^ iynntr:r;;"i:;t2ii« t^n dnii 
"'i'yTy; iyttTO«;i^«o« npn ns i2«n iviaipyTpy ns Dy"n«.. ** 
,(1855 /i«ni^':) ''nytt^oi^ onin yiynt is pi^ib^tj^k ns ^st^^y 



-y:i ivj^n iyDfc<D y^s p« iyo^^ni» n rs ,iy:iDy: ya«n i860 
iy;^^MvnD ns B^vjns Dyi lyv^DL^' iv D:^^jy: p15<Dt^' lyii 
D^^v nyv-np fe< ists .oDnyrDmn s w in lyDisinyDoiN 
lynnD cyii nyD^ni iik i« dv^« 112 re; ,:yrniy:iD^'ii< in idkh 

•D^yii "ly^ynoDHJ^K lyi nya^x ly^^-iyn 

nyi ts^D lyanny::^^ in toi^n Dt^ii /Dp^ntoD 112 y^^sy n 
DV tJ'^sa ni Hyrmstn to^in i857 r« ^yijetn iid ^Jio^naonx 
-yii lyj^n ^y^vysD lyDss'^n n .iyjjiJD«n V2V' lynyj iy:^n 
-yj Dinnsa nyD^uns'^yiisa lyii^ lytDD^j^t^'feiiD n ns "lyr: 
PD iy:ji^^^tDs» y^j<!P«^ n .ikd pk ::nyi:y lyi pd nsi^ 
D2i^ ;yni^n lyDSD'^n yiyi:^ pk "iy:y^"^yrv ,-iy-iynDji^otJ' n 
n w^^)^'^ ,iyDyD^D«P y^5§iD:yv y-iy^n pd ly^ni oyi lyjyp 
yj^^^p o"in^Dy:iJ» :^n:vD\^ oyoD 4859 px 1S53 iyin«^ 
--.It nytD^uis n v:i'?V)^ pk ,Dyon^Q yiynjirsn iy:yp Dp^noD 
y^^D lyjixi^y;! iyn«tn pk n^nj^«Diy lyi^yj yi^vo^ t^yoD lyj 



— ,nKiB"i ]TN ,iy'i'a'« ,jj:t?coi« "ijr^n ,Dp>neD 'i,, nyr * 
lya^'niK-Mn n lie ;ji:iyn«n nyj'^oy^'i'K nyn ]ib ;:nyn^ity k 
':Hb) Dpj?i:m ns /'nai^D iytt;5i:''N"iK£ "iys:N; lyn ly^'K i^dko 
-DnN iyia'':K3 ]y:i'TNi oyr p£ oxts'jnp p'« .(.t 56 ,1853 ,iKn 
v'7^{:«^^?^li yi2j;i:njsj;;i-n: n dnii ,dk*t iyn>»; t»k Dp^ncD ]i£ ina 

]iK ]l?t:£Ktr':yTyriK£ n lysiT-iytD:!^ is eyci'DNp « coicw^n 1858 
-nyn^N ]TN j?:i'nyfi p£ B"ini£y; ,;jjiDmyc:iK ;*;unt n .d'^tdzd 
-''7i::y£p«£ nyn ts'D B:iii3yp 1860 pK tt ckh ,"i7tyiK£ y^yny:: 

■y;; ]ynj;jiy:Dn"i« t'k oy ]j;n t'k dktj ,B'ipj'i2yD lya^ttDOK^iP 

/'Dp'ncD ]iN ii?t:E«B''7yTyj"iKfl ]y::yTi osnKi,, iy:nKT lyn cnyae^ 
yiynKa:yoK'?iKB n lyTK lyayn id k (.t 651 ,1860 ,:Kii«'?) 
lyirnn .1868 px 1867 ,1838 ,1825 ,1824 ps /"iy2'2 yn^3„ 
-y:5 lytsyBB') ,iKt2;2'iy"i^ »yisnK:j .no iyny<3 ivi'^r nyei'niKtt'o n 



bf^3y'':i*'-T'''^t:) \^^ V^^^^V^ 290 

--18 n« Djypnyjs nni«!iQ lyn fini< lyDss'nn n pk dj^h lyo 
lyt^'^Tiv lyDsosj^ yjynnt^yjnyDJiK n ivm^ "mjpn-Do^u 
-D^-'D yroii;? n tyc^M^!^ n^^:nyiiyj) nyo^ui^ m D^nn-'-^ya 
-y^Q Dy yD^yii pi^ /(DJi5''j'i''-n^njo n nx oy^vs^v^o^ 'Diyo 
tiD lyjjijnsn n ns D^tDia yoDjy^P n pyn iyny:iyjji$ ly: 
n 112 :jijy.p-iy:i$ n r^x pqd ^^n .i^ds^ tyirDpy^^^P ayi 
liD :jiDDn lyi PK DtDnyini^Q DnD « iyi"iy:i nijpn yrti^n 
y^SJi^^vsjiytoj^K Ml Dp:iQ nyni$ ; lynno ly^ynDonji^x 
"DSP yDiyDuistQ ii$: lyoipy:! ^«:ddd« ""n iy:)^n ^lyDSoPsntD 
'D'D v'^V't Dsy{^y:!DMK lyn^^n Dm^ yn^^n yD^yii px /tya 
nc tiQsip n n^t:py3Dyi w tDJiy^y:iDni< in tyn^in nt< ty^ 
"ipy:i lyj^n nnoD px njisiotr^^toti^ nvi tD"'D .nv tyo^niv Dn 
'd:v tyj^n isss ps ti^^isa pk .doiddd ynyrtoDni \vd 
-••ms P5< DiyDD^^D n lytj'ni^^ lysDSP yD^^iymtJ^ tyjSDK^ 
-jy^nnp n i^k pk yntDonrx T»^r^«DDnp nyn px nyo 
pK^8D"ny: nyi ps ^^nn^Dj^^x n n^^K^Pi^;^ niyD pq nyn^ya 
-noni^j PQ nysnyn n pk ^nyDson^tr pi< '?v'\v^^ nyi r^K 

,1861 T^n 1858 PD DOIDDD yOMi:! H PS ^Vni$. .]VD^)^^:VD 

1858—60 p« ]^'^:H'? t^« nyD^-'nns-'n n pa p^ntoD lyn t^k 
n^ntD nyi ^mk ajipnm pn dm^ nytoDi:ytD''nsn lyi lyiiy: 

.:)ji3yii8n i«ov 
-jyDPsii "wi iiQ iyDipyaDM-18 t^k 1859 pQ o^nDK^ lyn 



-y-i nyaysty) ,^iN^ni^ .d .^^trn .na ,(nyj»N lis ij?t3D>3'D-Ds'7'n 
.-ID ,(|jrtDB«B'^:;Ty;? DJjiH'taty-iyiaiTK yj»ia'niyjy:i ps -iNUKitsDU 

i;naysu-iKB nyn .'b'n piyns .id ]in ^jix"? .n .5 ."id ,*ii;"n:/*s 
lyp DD^'irn nyo ny:yn"iKBtt'nK5 "lyn iriiyj t'« laya'DNp d»;T ]is 

.5 ."nj?"! ,l«t3in .n .n ."id ,t2::DTK5 mi^n oytaoxs .y .-n p^i i!? 
.B^n .ta lyay-ipyD ]«i:"i»-TnQ \'>'>h px hinb Dxi'bm ."it /OmND 



ny Div T^N iyDtf;D-^n n p« jfcJtD'DtD^une! lynjiDtr v: ^ hd 
-:>''DU' -ly^isnyir? n na n^^'^iyj o^ytD*^'y:Dn"is ^«!d tyof^ 
-ynn nyji^nji^^ n pd n«iiyj D^^jj^n t^k nx 1846 p^ lyiy^^.o 
D>j nytD^^an^ n lyj^n lya^i ly^sa yn^u pk .1853 pk nyn 
T^N lyt^yBLr nnj^^ ny^Q o^d o^nyni^D lyn t^x iy:i§Dt^'82 
-i^DD -iyji>n:i!?^ n pd n»iiy:i t:ny^y:i2nN nynni ::ijyii^3 n 
-:{^p ny3^^DDb*t^':^^cya s ii^: T^i< ov ::)'-)Vih^ Dynyn ,Diy^ 
o^nv "iy:yj^^K lyi pk .pi^iiy: iyTMiy:pniv wi'^^^v y:v^vq 
r\2^ ly^fcjr -"n ^lypiMr-.VD^iK ODny:i nyiy>iDj^^i:tj' n tyn^^n 
D'n^-'^yn n Di^ii pc ,:ii^D lya^^n s ni inyo d*": iy:D^^n-n§ 
Din^Dy: tDi^n d«t .o:ife§TL)jy idik lyn^yToyi «i^ik in lynsn 
iyD^^tD£SE^j^^»y:i b* pa jj'n:na lyn iv /isss p2 DD^iyn pk 
'^v:i'?V)^ nviV'?'?v:i'''^ m Diyny^iDj^^otJ' ,Diy^»t:D pa toyo^c^p 
5«; D^nr^^yn n iv dp'^^v: is.35 -ly^^oynyij ly^L^is oyi to«n 
-"!» n 155 ,DJj^^"is!a iyn«n ^n tyD^yn pk ,nyna lyniMi 
oi^to lyiy^ ynjvjt^' « d^d pyii tovn^pnsa ly^j^r lyuitDiy-DtD^^n 
]iv)^ lycnjyjjij ly^j^r dcjipiv nyi p5< lyDPfe^Tjjj^p-'n T5§ p« 
D^: in D^nn-'^yn n lyni^n Dtj^iy^v .onyta ly^n^i Dyi ti^K 
lyni^n lyni^ lyDys'j^ /::^^i^2 Dyi ly^y^i D^ytoyj ri:yDni 
o^''p:yDi^^tj^Djy lyn^ynyi o^o lyrniyjpniv jjnyiKD n ^n 
-••^tDa^ti'j^^Dy:) iyi Dyin Dyi::s: i^sn .1857 rix 1853 pn ni 
-i^2 yn^yrn ;njy^yo*kJ^ ,inii?D Dy^-i: « tD^soy: DytD^Di$p lya 
^ iin lyr^py^D^K lyni^n ^n y^^yii ,DyDi^a iy^2 iv :ijnyi 
-^i>'iD yoi^D n iyiiy:i iy:^n D^na-^^ya ly^s n lyti'mv .^113 
Dj^ti ,iytD>^3i^ n PD Dy:"'^K D:iJ^Tyj2i5 i^^a tDijjn y^^yii ,B8^ 
Di^n :ji^i:)5<n yrti^i n .iyny:iyjiyn^« ::nyii$2 n lyni^n 
PK .BJ^^^ijin yoi-iD iyi WiVi p-iniDD tyn^feiin {§ iv loin^cyj 
Di^ii ,i«iJi^^ P55 DiyDD^^D-nn y^^ lysj^n ry^iijii ^niv pd o^^v 
lyoj^^^y: ,iyo^^ni» 50 ^n iny^ lyiyiy^ oroByt^yin lynt^rr 
-«tn lytD^^nis! uyrnt: r^j^iiv-pxny^D Pi< lyt^cyc^'y: yiy^n 
-yj Ds^n DJ^ii ,tD^nDC^ iyi .:r,rt:Dyti'5<n ly^n n^t^iyta \V2 
iyi pD D^^v iyi p« lyjjio^^v ynoD^yiDyi n pn ocyniDK^ 



D?n pi^Dti' mn ,D^^nn« nx ^^to^asP lyti^n^^ non^n lyD-in:! 

tiQ DDi^Q:^^x5$n too .Di«:tD:j'Dsnn iyi pk D^nn-^^yn n no 
Dy^"*: Dyn ns iynj$ ,;!J^jv"'D lyD^^tDjysy lyn ns Dyn;i{^iQ oyn 
-ijy:i:«! lyn^n lynn^Q i^^^jvi^nD n D«"n ,DpysDyn ns mo 
-^DtJ^ yn^ym iyDijy:i iyay:iDD>un8 iy:i«i"i:)^^ n lyn^n avd 
jDi^i^Dns in iyni<!n ""n .1834 t^^ iyjjy:ni<i2 v^V'i m i:)'? 
lyoynDn^a-iyD-'uiis n po toDyn d«t iyjypiyivj« tojisTDjy 
nyn ^v .iy:iJij:;n^rDtD^m» n iy:iy^i ^n d^d n^toipon i^f 
-ns "IV D^^p:3yDi$^tj'Djy n lyDipyj^v ij^j p« jji^ytDt^^ nyrt^n 
••n tyni<in ^yD-iD d^^ pn oji^j^-'^-isd v^v tyD:D^jn^2 nu 
y^»iD:yv„ n ."^jyo^pj^i,, iyDi"'ninQDni^-to"i:i Dyn tyoi:3y:i:iS 
Dy^D /Di^tj'fe?! » iyD'ijy;ij» D«!n "DiyDD^^D-nn pq y^v^^v^DS 
,1834 pt^ nyny;ii«2 v^v^^t pd lyDiyn yn^ytn to^o iyvjfci;:irx 
-yoi^j^ D^j ^jjT y^v8^v«D8 nyrr^i lyn pd n^^^to^D t^>p„ t» 
-•n iv >n d:i«;id lyD^yn nytj^uns: t^ ty:i^DDytJ^sn nynj^ ly^ 
/DsstJ^^ytyri^D nyii^ It^iov-i^no t^« oy lyrD^yn pq \vi:m 
,DQytj^y:i lyn^yii ijy:in^x pq :ijn^^i:!yn lyn t^x in to^^^D d«ii 
/iy:iJi:i:n^rDD''^ii^ p« lyuiDtJ^-Dto^^nis n tyo^Dtj^^n P5< 
t^K iyi«i D^nr-'^yn ti« lyto^-'nis; tytj^niv lyDPfeiiitDjj^tp n px 
/'pDiyD-DDJiyn nyi t^« iyi«t Dyv^p^Q^^xiiP n 
mn DT^j«^:r"i^ntD ty:iyp ;jny^piy"Djynp yrtJ^ii n 
-j^3 iyi PQ yvDK^ n ty3i^?iiy:i iyt:^oi» yi:iyp^nDD n isa 
iyi PQ DyD-'D^p iy^8itD:iyv iyi .D^yii r^^Jvi^nD ly^^ 
-tDjy lynst pi toi^n ly^^yii ^DQ^tj^^yty: lyiynoj^-'Dt^' iyDni:i 
/3>D''^vnnQ D^s aii:iyiiS!riyiiiDtJ'-t^^J iy:ii5ij«!^ n DrtD^D 
-••^K D^8 "D3yDip«n„ Dyi ty:iy:! ^f2W nvi tyDijy:i!]nx toi^n 
PD lyDstsy^yi pa iy:iJi^D8n8Q .yrt^Dnro^yny^ n pd Dyjj 
lyto^sny^Qt^ lyj^n tDi^itot^^toenn iyi pq ly^isQ ytDin-'j^^i^!? n 
iy:iy:i n^nD ytr^DD''j«^:r-T'nD n lyr^^^xi^D ^v hd ,iii<iiiy:i 
-j^ns lyj-^n dj^ii iy:i»itD^"'n n .lyD^Q-nn n po D'»nr''^yn n 
n T8 ^yrni^n iyn»n hdi^d iyi pd iy5>'»^tD y^s pd ryoipyj 
iiiyryi ly^y^vj^ra tiyDyi:i s ty:i»DisD lytoss^^ytyrisD 



n .lyiiy: it^^in >n D«in lyo ^^i ,tD3fe$Di^yj ynyoynj « n« 
n .£300 iyji^nDy:^^n iya«:n Diy^sio'i^jyi'sytD-ii^'D lyjKUK^ 
iyDi^ipy:DMis DJ^irn^j: lyj^n yD^y^i nyD^u"is;Tii:?r^iiDDnp 
-:nv \^ DP^t^'yjiv lynt^n .^dkp iyD"iy:i:y^"is!D oyjy^^^x u< na 
y^8 p« n«ii^ya di^oiiijd lyj^n "iyt:yD^D«:p"istD,. .yniD yD^^ 
•lyoiD yon-i: DP^t^'y^iv lynj^n nx nytojyv y^ynoonj^K 
"lyir^ n« £8oo iv DP^5i^y:nv lyni^n lytDoyii^DJfeiiD nx i»:t{§^j 
-pii^\, yt5yi:n:iyr^^j n .£500 nynyn iy:i^iDyr^a t^i^n '?^B 
-^yoyp n .£230 Dp^tryaiv D»n "m'^^^K^DDfe? 'onyj^^D n^^:^' 
lyj^n tytDDsiK^^yTyj 'Dny:D^D:ytoynsP iix Dy-is"i:«i2 ,DiyD5<D 
-^yossT "lyi ns y^v^itnyD n iyn« .rnyrna D-iy-iJU5<n ly^iy:! 
-:^K nyD^''Dfei!3^fe§Dfc<,, "lyi ns ^^ny^^Dti'^u n lyiiy: t^k v^d^*? 
IV iy:;i^"iDy:^u njfe$jfc<::«: lyDs^i ^m D»n nyD^yii /'o^^rm 
tDJiiiDnyn dv^^^ i«j oiyn oh)) ^jn^D^s » — ,i«!ii ^ £i,ooo 
DDsoyjD^D lyni^n d^ii ,n na :jnyoD>^:^a d^ij d^d 
£23,000 ni^iiy:i tD^yo^rya t^« ^^n-ion .tiDj<p Dy:)y^ 
in iyn«n Di^i^ ^ryDDstr^yry; n ns iy::i^n«ivDMx n nn s) 
tyrDK^y^nynns D^ni D»n Di^ii yoiD s ,(tDa^^^^tD^2 Dpyin 
.p^nDD s! px yv^tstj^ y:)niynnD v:i'pv)) ijy:n^« 
-18 n ife$D DDsoyj i^^:iyD tD«n yv^DtJ' y:3>n yjn»i n 
Dy D:n ,iyny:iDt:^^ni8 n iid ly^y^v n nyt:tr iv lyo^^n 
■«iD y:y:>^K yiy^n nn^sivsm lyny^yjj^^K o^j ^n in Dsn 
t:«!n "DiytDD^^o-nn n no y^vs^v^Ds: y^^no^yv,, n .ty:i:nyi 
in D«in Dy ,"Djyoip»i„ Dyi m lyo^^ny;! D^ya^nivn^D in 
'i^] Di^ii nytD^^nis; Ji:y: iy:np iv ry^y^y::^^^ d^j lyn^ in^« 
1859 lynoyvyi rx .ryn^ntJ'iyDJiK iv Dn^« D^nj pn ly^ 
npi^i,, iyi T8 ^^s^tj'i^D SI DDSioy: iife<Ji^y^ .dd ii«^ osn 
Dyi PQ ::iiy^piy yiijs^' 8 pk ^iiyn lyrivyipmv 5'»t "Djyo 
lyjJsnyjDnx Dyi D^Dtj'j^ ^»t iy:^>fc<ni<;Q-i«3 iy:)y"n ryry:i 
D^nr-'^yn n pa tD^>ptDij<5ti^y::^^K n .oyi^^ny^ v'?^ px Piyii 
isnnya px ,i^^"!:y lyni^ ,D^tj^-in ^niv lyo^^nyj^^ i«: toi^n 
■i:yi:)i$ :5<5't^'ii$D iyii^>j^*t:y!^B D'Tii?j}^*y^ -dd ni^^ t^x 4860 
.iDrijyyj in \:mr] ^idsp lyoiyt^^nisD iyi m ni;j"ny:i lyo 



liQ tDi;?n iy D«ii n^Diyi i«ij too ,DT''j«i''jr-n^nD ns yo^^tj^y:! 
yjy-i^^K^isQ n w^^m ly^n^cyrnnnx n Dny^yjD''i« ^o dj^t 
^mv ns ;:nn''^i<!DJi$p lyrtoD^i nyi ny^^iv im« ni^: .ty^^D 
nvi ns -lyny^ Pi^ o^^nayj toj^n ny yD^y^i ,Dy^v«pjs:ins 
nyi iyDpj§'ny:iDMi» t^k 1859— 60 pd lyDSQ-nn n px p^ntDD 
t>x iyn>ntj^5§3 ly^y^i vd jy^^yii) "^••djixp Di^no iyj«ij«^„ 
i^i^ •'Dy^^DJijD nyD^^DSJ^so^,, n pn .(^yto'^s^p lynjyj^^a nvi 
lytD^nw s PD yv^fj^jinij yDD:iynyTy:ij« n /'DiyDjyQi^p 
p« li^toio DfcjTi "^yiJ^jD Dy-'j,, Dyn lyoijyj:^^ Di^n dj^ii nstQ 

.t33siny:D"'n^ lyn^in ly^^s 
Diy^tj^-'D nyj^njj^^ n nsQ Dpyny^D^j^ Di$n p^noD lyi 
ly^n lyD^yii px nj^ttomv tytDino^^ijn^tTyi njy^tj'^^Q nvi 
lyj^n ^n ts ,nDX ypsD t^« oy .ty^i^Qyjj^ns t^x yntDonrx 
nyn n^a yirtDs^vo-'N n ly^uyj ty^i^tn om) n lyiiyj D«n 
■"•Di^P nyn lyii;? ^oni^toi^DQnn nyn px :ij"!:!yiisn tyiJiDtj^"p>: 
,D^nn-'^yn n iv ^jjnyiJ^D n iyny:iy:!j^n8 t:j$n lya^yii ,DyD 
ns! yDinosni^ pa toas^j^iysiyp v^p lyDJ^iDi^Q on D«;n 
nynn^D:^^ lyi lyiiyj t^x ".yD^yn nytoDi^s tj'mi^Ej^n .lyto^n 
nn IV lyn^vi!^ \::i:HPVi fi^n D«n ,:iJi:iyn»n lyriJ^n nyn tia 
-"18 n PD nj^iiy:i D^nyiny tyj^n dniii ,iyD8:y^y*i vb)^: s 
''"11 nnyo do iyiiy:i i^^'-dpsq iy:''n oy .Q^t^ tyiy> pn nytD^^i 
-tD^D lyiiy: iy:^n yD^yii ,mnj«i^ pt< ly^tJ^^tD njytnD my m 
-yv iyiiy:i lyj-'n n p« ,y''Vfe?T05§:n« T^i< oy lyD^yii pd nyn^^a 
.Dni^p-D:ii:v^Dt^iyDJ*ix vpv2'''?p ^hj^v nyoni; ^ pj< iyDn«:ii 
,yD^yii /'-lyt5^^nn^? ny^tJ'^D pa toa^^ti^^yTy;! yD^^-o^nc, n 
piD :ji^^^Da« Vi^v^r^vp 8 lyiiy^ t^x , inyrya iynj<in n^D ^ii 
-ji«it3t>^ n •'11 DPJ15 ,tD«n ,1830—34 tiD "ti<!or 'Diy-i^^n,, lyn 
-py yjyDJ^nnnyDJi«-DO s lyD^sny^^t^ ,DD8K^5'yTy3 'Diynyno 
OS? n tDi^n DDytt^^yry: lyjy^ iv rj<ny:iy:i t^x iynj<! ^nytoon 
18D pi^n y^v^nynys) lyrn^ s pd nytDpisn^n Dyn tyto^istnya 
PD tyvJ8J''Q yin*'K d-'d r^jyns^ iyiiy:i t^k p« jypyiinsQ 



■j$3 lyDjyDysDJ^p 55 >n .mijisj^ pk lyiy^n p^:" lyjixiiyj d^j 
p« Dp^nDD n pD 0"'^^ lyn px» iDPiyosta nyoDsas 
■yj lyj^n Di^ii ^yrvj^-ix n iyiiy:i Diy-iyno n lyj^n ,1S59— (JO 
"ie:2 lyny: t^k dj^^i ,y^5^«;T^jy::"ii^* p^« pk DiM^jj^^ns m\ 
ntfis v)'?2 D^J DJifc^ry: Di^n px *ijfe§^:jy n«;: nya^x D^nssj^ 
.Iy:J^^;^Dl^'"lyD:^J< yj^^jnyny;! n nsta nnx ii^j Mypyiwisa 
:^DyD!'y:yn lyj^n lyiy^io yjyo^^ti'yiDnN nyjtjijjs^ n ... 
pK DDfc?5^'^yry: iy>n pq n^^iiy: D^^tot^nyojiN i^^dpj^q pn 
ytDD^oEJ'^zDiK ifc§ ^DW ly^n tyo^^nj^ tD:j^py: iyo>«tii 
-i^sc'yv lyi^yj iy:^n yiD^yn ,tyD«2 ynyijj? n ny^is* ; d^^v 
i^sn lyj^n ,Dy^v^T^:^;n« y^^pj^^ ^n^^v nyDni:i « pk oiyo 
ny^tj^^tD n PD tDyo^ci^p nyi *.y:s^ nyopniy; s px lyn^^ny: 
T^K tD3^:r^yTyj 'DiynynD:*'^D*^ n '•n /inyTy:i'iv :]i^2i^ o^d dish 
-•'Dt^'-iyroJi^-p^ntDD o^d •iyi^^:!D^o yin^x iy:n«iTi§a 1:^ n^nu 
n PK ; p^noD DyjynvnstD jj^^ Dyn pd d^^^ yvjs!:i n :jiv 
n'J't^'TJ'^^ yD"i^Ds:^j<D8 n pd i^^it ^ £i,ooo pd lyjsiD^n 
p^ntDD nyi mi i'?^2 .pmj^^s lyay^tD » D^soy:! ^n tini< ostn 
yr^^p n PD nyT-^JD^D yjynyTy:i:i$ n ]v:''t ,d:'i:vv: "in toi^n 
n lyDyiBti^^n w iyD"ipyjD"'i:w in Dm^p-Dj:iv^t:tJ^nyD:ix 
n pD ^yii^*D Dyi it^j y^v^i^j^iiJ^ ly^sJ^jj^vfe?: s na jjnjn:i 
PK fi^^n y^iD pn iyny:iy3 ^n oi^n ly^^s Ds^^ni .no^t^rrj^ 
-K^^D Dyn ^^ y^vs;T^:»:i« lyjy^^^N pn pd nijpn n lyosaiv 
-Da:"iD^n:iv ny^n ^inx DDi^By:^^^* inx t:«n ny ;i^d iy^ 
lyott Dyi pijiiy: tDnn^Js^ii^ t^n toa^t^'^yry: v'^ n .tD^mi§ 
ytDtj'ny n .lyn^^JD^a tonyiJin vt'?dv d^d 4860 ,^2v 
pK iy2« nyo^nj^^ « tyny:! Dy-i:ii5ns in-ix t^k nnsp ^ni!^ 
D^fc? ty^ny^iy i^ ^td tytoi^ nyn D^ny; n oi^n 4862 iy2«t3p» 
"i^DDnii^D ,to^^p:^nyD Djyoyii ,\v^2vr2 s nyDyipyD-^i§-iyjy:i 
-Di^Qj^^s IS IV lyn^i-nyi i^^2 nn^x tDsn D35§:i^:i^P pk d^^p 



.1867 /'mn »^ia>'jB-iKB„ ,i'?do .0 .y iKDyfixna nyr 



n^y^sysj' r« i«^:r 'ov'?^'^ ny^8P»^ nyi 112 lytoyipyo nyn 
D^D Di^n nx ,y''^SDs:i^s;D8 nc ni^yo n iyQn:!8n i^; i«:i D«n 
yi^^iDD^j-'Dns nn lyDJix .tDD^tJ^^yty;! f n DD8iny;ito^D in 
n«Q 8 Pi? n« Dntj'-iytn d-'d Dyi:»n3 DD8Dy:i m^Ji^ n t:«n 
-D^D 5'ni^^ nyn na to^^poMi:! in^x i^k ,iy:sDK^y3 n t^j? in»^ 
-^fe5D8,, nyi i«:3 ytD^ni^ n d^» .lyjyDifeitQ nn^i< px nx iyi^^:i 
tyni^n iviyn .p^^s "Di^j^t^^nrx ti« ••toy^^D^D nyto^^Ds:) 
Dyn pK Din^Dyaj^n^ i'?^^ dh^x lyD^-'prnya D'on«:i^yQ8 
ro^^pytoytD Djy»yii ^^v^r)'^ iJ^^jvn^ntD n pq T^np Dyj^^^P 
yoD^t^'yj isom^nD lyn pc Dp:is-^^it:jyv lyi lyiiy: t^k 

•ins^ iny^ yoDpyj n i^« 



293 



Dyrn5<P 8 d^s \'^V'\^ Djyo^^^^^a li^p oy d«ii lyDS'^sa i^ 
nD jjnjn; n ojijynsn is^jr-i^no lyi hd (DriyoD^j^o) 
-8D iy*i ^11 /iytD255ti^^yTyrDj:iv^DK^nyt:JiK i«2 yonij y^pyrs 
j< ,PT lyoMiya 8 ^'^ V2 AV^^\i^V2 t:i;jn njyiansD lyoD^j^K' 
\v:m^v:^ lyj^n yj^yii /yoDSsn i^^jri^no na y^iK^ y^^J 
-'^Di^ na iyDy^3i^"i3 yonyoJiij^BisD n d^d d^js ^« d^:3 
n^DiKi^P DBMn n oi^ii /Usld'^^'dik nyi .n8:^D nfc< y^vsiDD 
n DD^iayj DHn .iJ^utj^^ Pi^ lynyj t^k lyossK'^yty: n no 
yj^^K lyiuin^v^n v2''?2vnvB VD:vni^2 pn y^DS^a yt:^nj;jv«2 
liD ^M^nsD p« Ts /tD"i^D83 t:«n 1^551:1 n« .yiyny:^ n o''d 
'V^?VD m':v PQ T^np Dyj^^^p nyn px in lynyin iyin«i^ yjy^ 
/lyo^^prnyD yonij p« nyopsn^^ to^o lyt^jyo lyjiDyj ynyo 
-ny ly^n iin ^^d DD8sy;nv n^^£:yiDi«D wwi lyj^n y^^yii 
-ynysn n nn^DivDin /D^yo^iysDytD ny^n t:n^ >^d ojnnss 
.iya^nti'5§3 i^ijn ly^yii td lyiD^yn /Onnp Dyn nn ::): 
— vB)i: '■\v:'''?P lyn d« pk ryt^jyn yoD^ynyry^Js n 
m)Vi lyj^n — 5§D:r n lysn ij^ dv^« pd ly^yn n>Q y^^y^i 
-'•tj's^D n PQ iy-i:5<m^2 •'^iv n pd yiyoyipyo ^5§iyjyj n 
,tDifc§:^yss onyni^i px ]^'?'?^ D5<^^ni ,Diy^j^tDD px lyDD^j 
is^jm^nt:) n px D^^Dj^^st iyDm:i 8 lyoiPsn \V2Hn v^'?v)'\ 
'^^2 yrT«T n lyMDD^ii^ pi< :^{^2ny ly^n ny^^iv iyj3itD^i{<3 
"lyD^^jyrnys px ^n 0^0 lyum^ :)jy .oy^vsr^j^imyi vyt:^ 
-ynpyo ^snyjy;! nyi ,^^8; '?V'>2V'] Avw^i lyj^n .DDstJ^-ij^na 



DT''3i:5''jr-Tnt:i lis j;tDD''tyy: 298 

Dyi iiD lyoynpyD ^J5iyjyj ,i«D^^«tp piny nyo^^jyt^^s n 
■•'Di^-iQ ;s ny:n«: tj'ni^E^n nx nyiy^D na "tyii« ny:«nj»^„ 
'WD^i lyDD^^s^vysD no m^jv nyr-i^p s ria 1^^:110^0 lytDjyj 
-n» iyji$ij«:^ Dyn na lyin^a nyD^nDi^2j^^« rs n« ly^isto i^^ 

Dy^o,, Dyi iiQ lynj^Qiy nyn tyiiyj fx .is^^s ds^^^^i 
ny ^11 /D^nyviyi pitj^ lynj^n i^d *d^^^ pn ns "dt^j«i^ji^ 
-yiniv n Drj'»"'Ki8Q /movj d^-i^mi pq ^i^m lyn d^d ,DJ$n 
nyiity n t5D^5y:l1^f D«n px ,Dy^^^T^js;i«i lytoD^j^tj^so v^^pv? 
'v'p^mv^'?^ 18 P2 DyDD^D nsj^Q pt? y^viD^Doj^^p vi^'?v^ 
-182 iy^8J«!^^8J lyoni: 8 P2 lyoMJ n iv ,y^^8T^:8:!i«i lyD 
PK t:^^ni8 "lyn^nyj t^n pq lynjiDtJ^ y:!J8^ n px .u^n 
-ni^Dyo nnyt 8 D^nyjiQ^ij? ny Di^n nj^m^Q tiQ «nrn lyn 
y^y^vjsrc pd DyoD^D Dyjoynsn 8 ^you 8 i^^dk jy^i av^ 
vy'*^ PK DJ^n lyD lyD^yii ton^ ^lyoDnyin 1^2 p« nun^n 



pyiQ'jy ytrniy^taKir ps p^np P«^y^ t^n ,]n'?n DNi^m * 
lys'i'yii ,-iyt3«B P'T .1813 pN ^niK*?-!'** oytao^N ,Di;nyi:pnNp p« 
-"lynnN -jn iskh ,'nj;ii5B'"'7yiiKn « ps nyia^Ninxa « iyny:i t'n 
]K pxny^ va DN^'i'm px on^tn^j; lyny*? pnnxs x pn lyi'^pyj 
in«' 'm .1825 pN ,TiDtD'y; pk pnixs-^yiixn « pN lyu^mN 
-«D nyonn:; nyn px ^ii'binj;^ obn iyj:n"i«i3 tt ly tjwn i^rtaysty 
,ik:itk'?:i ^^n ,iNt2D"iyn:N pN tD-iiKiiDi^Nn ]'\^:;n n ps pnnNS-pB» 
,]ioij;i2-inj;'7 I'U tsjnjyiNS idnh nj; -lynnK onx^ 19 ps -ly^'by px 
.D^nn-'^yn n ps d^'^n ]is yjj'jya'^s n ta^D i3Kny;i noinn iy taNn 
pK ,'7isiyn»'7 PN ttDii^cNn D^« lyBnmN pynx iy t»n 1835 pn 
Dyn:} -ivT PN lytaNutrpiyinnNi n b^id ,iyn>^pj;:nyniN i»t tDNn 
lyn .IN'ji' nyn ]n lyDN'jtrpjN lu idnh ly inii ,inp pn lytDiys 
iy ?>N ,1847 PN ,B'n;i3j;sj?j jin pNny;? tDi?yTy;jj>nN t^n ino'byD 
lyta'bNnyj taNH pN |ni:p lyn ps lytappyo ^Nipj;;i lyi pNnyji 

pNliyj 1851 PN T'N y^5}NT^:N;i1N pU lyn ,Dy'T3NJ I^N lattN,' Dyi 

TJNiNDNi nnN^ jii^jNii!? lyn^N .ijNniNS lytao^j'tTNO oyi ps ^nta k 

ON ps nytcynpjrD d'7n pNiij;:i la'i'nyiny -lyim inN» iny' iy v^ 

,1874 t^N ,tant3 pn V2 ,y'5?NT^jNj!nK npnn -i';-! 



299 j;Dj;i:"'any;s v'^j;^^ p« Nt::^ '•i 

■MID "lyr^unyv n pd lyrvj^-'N* lyiy^ iid usitDK'sn oyi d^^y 
tD^\':5rDi:{<n"iyM-i n .y^v^T^Jb*:in{^ lyi na "lyi^^jo^a -iyi:yT 
i^^Ej^ .nD"iyi"i pn ns r^nisa nyoDyn lyi r^« DyoD^D pm P2 
nvi pa i^iva 05""^ "lyi pn i«j jyo lijjp :i5tD :yriDj^>n V2 
ly-iiE'j' n iyj^2yj ,d^"iDD "iiJiJDDe^oD pn n:et3-is!D lytDD^j^K^^to 
-•« 18 .D^m{< "W^'iHovro Pfc< lyD^^n^onyDit? d':^'?^ ps 
p« t3''"'p3^^0PJ''S ypD"i8^yv:8P ,D^^prDDM-iJ^*D v^v^'^^ivn 
PD iy:yDi82 Dyi nyDy-i:n5<D iv d^^"5d:ti5TS3 yti^^'jvop oyoD 
.mJiiDn D':{sP5< pd yrj^^i< lyny: lyj^n ,y^v{<T^:s!m5 -lyn 
■^8 ly^^yj lyj^n "D"i«tDS!tD^:ii§„ lyD^^m^? lyii ,d^^v s; pn nyas 
PK rjyD^n^yj pn roDMni^D-D^: inyr d^s: tD:i8pfe$n v^DVi 
nyjjfe<^ 8 "i^D nnDjyvji^p iv n^a tD^j lyj^n di^ii ,iytj^jyD 
tDi? lynj^n ,y3S!;D''it< lyrtDD^^: p^x Pinx v^:i'^V2v "ly^n o^^v 
-ysti' "ly^n pn D:iyoy: toj^n oy Ds^n^ya^niv mi ,m:nDn n 
"r^ 8 iy28ij'y:i ,njs!3iy:2 iyDD^:^t^fe?D oyi nnx jjipini ynyo 
T^x i^^si :i'::j^D ."inyo i«t: .dip^^313 Td^x pmj>^8 lyr^D 
ytD^nn d"o *j':yo s iyi« nyjnyn iyijy^jy^:i p^p iyny:i do 
-••D^^i^QnyD^^m^ "lyo^^c^yj ^ lyiiy:! i^^i iy pj< MyDyiyorx 
t:>*n lyo D281p-d^>^diin pi< D:yc5<iysoyt: Dyoyn ^^x ,iyp 
1M i«i: ryri^^yj DJ^n ny pk .lyr^i^i^s D:i<:py: rijyD^r in 
]^,N i^^Djynfc^ DSMn lyiiyj ii^: do p« ny t^ ,y^vns!-iD s 
PS ^na lyiiyj t^k ny t^ li^j /Dj^tdd^uis "i^^jnyiiynyoMx 
.Dy^v^2^fe? yjy:i^^x -lyij^ r^b*DtJ^ iyD^^:ynys 
Dyi iy^iJfe?Mi8D "IV D^y^vyj Dj^*n m^^ d^^i^ d^^v nyn px 
» P2 lyD^^ytn lyDniDi^D i< px "-ij^d^dos; lyD^n^ivyta,, 
-y: Di^j^ysi? D"iyn«-i dj^h ,y^v8i{^2"ii^*p "ly^yvj^j^s iyDM"i: 
-ya yjynyTy:i3i$ is: DJi^ovTinD n i^s w^^mi iv DmyD::' 
s ]vw: T^K iy Ml MTj$ .:^)'?v^^ ytj'''D''^sQ pn y^-'^DSxt^'^yT 
*iy t:ii$r] ^D^pi^inj? i{< p2 D:)y^8ny5DyD s d''d tj'jyo nyD^'-K'y:) 
lyn^sn d^*ii MyD:yoir,{s; yrD^n n d'-o Dvostn irDprDDJ^x in 
n p2 lyp^Dnp n iyjy25<v,Djy pfc< lyoip^u D:i^pv: \vi2CV2^v: 
Djy^oisn DO inx in \:!Hr] iy .os^p^yD^o oyn pd iy:;y; 



Dfi^-'JT'-Tnta lis ytD:5''tyya 300 

Dyn lytD^nnivDMK DDity:i lynD^fc^ is in» t:«n iy .D^yii nyn 
DjyDyyjQ^N oi^n m nyi^^:iD^D i^^jrn^nD n nsD tDj«Tn»n 
Dyn ni inyt tojj$py:i d^j -inyo isn tn iyn«n v:i'?V)) /n nsQ 
yD>^tDDS!tj^^yTy:i na tyoDnonx yom; .pjyti^ ayn nn p^ntDD 
iyiiy:i y:ij Dpym ^n lyj^n d»ii .tyDy^n»i3 yt^'^D^^^s n« 
T^N ny DJ^ii ,D>^v nyn i^« ts n^D iyj^Qy:i nrs .lyD^ois d^s 
1MK iy T^« nJsnii^Q V) ns lyoynpyo ^!snyjy:i nyi lyiiyj 
"lyDJ^N,, DyT na iyn^^:iD^D yDD:ynyty:iJ« n na lyr^x m)v: 



D^T lis taNti'7iTj;-i D^« ipNtatyiDjy t^k ,1870 n« 1869 p« iyD«^p 
pN iyi2Tpj?:5 IP' IT j?D'7yn ,iyt2K::;'?j;T j;B'iTns:N'is 'ms ps TiT«n 
n p« ::uyiiNi p3i'7Q£3NB'ii'ay;i « i^nMmtJsnN ,1863 pK iNnjK^ 
laynjnjy; '7j;onKS va )ri!?«T'iN;iN n -iir^ns ps ij;Dyn:;BJ'N 
,1864 ^lynoytsBiTD ]y!D28 oyn riKnjN^ p« jji'^oktiks n einx pNny;! 
]is ynK:snN tasnn n .ynyn k ]yta'7Nn:;:i taxn DpiKO "biNp ixn 
ps nyiaio-iK n ps jiju^j^'niks n lyi^y:? t'n y'!<«Tn«j-i« i:?t 
p« ]TK ; D«'7p""ij;c3"iN DyT ps :)5iN'nsKi nyi ins ij;'7Jj;'? y^K 
;iJiSN'7ptynNS n„ : pxnj;:! ta;iNTy: tin ;;jn:;'bpiy lya^uina nn'N 

ps INTIIN tasnn n T'N ,tDDi^Nt2»BKp Dl!? INDDID'OIN DyT pS 

nynyi ps pN ijy^y i:;^n':?nd ivijjk;! dj;t ]is ,'n:;sN'i'pB» iny 
-jnjj;; lyJ^T 1870 px 1864 ij;trnn ."anp;i;jj;nBN nytrita^'i'NS 

n pN ,iytaNNt2B> ytaj^'iNiNs n ]»« "jmn mi iv't^j?^ yB^'NySNt 
]:;nKn lyiij;'? jro^iNvs^i^'x j;j'3"n pN ijtubnb'^vtj?; ins ytaoinyD 

S]J'S ps tDNI '?Nipp N IS pNliy:? amtDlNSJK T'N yi!iN1ClD»i»I21N 

lynNn ]iN l«^i«'? P« lyoyT^j lyjin dnit ,nj;'T''?:jta'o ;;'5JSis-pN 

-y: IV^Nn MT j;3'i)j;iT 1!f iyt3j;tai'?N3Ni5JN: pjyTntyiNS n IVl3«^t3lNS 
yiVKlN'^DUJ?'? DIB' P'p t3Nnj;j! BO IpN taNH UNI '?N'lJ?jyj Ij;*! .tOlyn 

tTN ,iy:ji'i'i't)SN n -ipn^N ^NitsiNp t^n dv ly^^:;^ lyiN taaxD 
-DJ^nj'iiNS N m inyo DNirj'!?jm tsjyn:;:? ^n lynxn c'^tapNS 
l^tasyiyy;; jrj'u !2-in'Sj;:jN laxn n^N*? d^^i nyn ,nT lyiyni!? 'ryaio 
]is dn"i;nis lyT pN iysi!?ins n .ny;ntatt> Dy;y;nN pir bimn 






-MiriKE n ]i£ i;'t:«;y^yT lyoip ]y:;y7i: d;? y3?yn is ,i;'Dyi;:i<p 

-»TiK£ lyi taiK^'jysK pK ,t2i;nupB lyi lyiii*; ly^iK t'k 1870 
]»DKtrn:y2 taipny;? ]j;n«n oy lyi'^yn is ,b«"i '7«-iy:y;; ]i£ ■iyi:ys 
-biv I'jiHiiHb ]ir Ti?j5t2'D K ]yn>^ lycysty t'n lys'^yn ,eEK-ip',t» 
Tn'?n .iypie''7K5 nyts'^niK y:::Kp«n rsu y"|y^J« "I'ik mi ,k:ki 
lyir;; IV^'m d;* ys'^yn jye^nn) d:n':t -Tnt: ytri?;:^ :?:':"« 
^M^fKi^fNDK lyi ]« ];'D«'i'ts'yj;:K -ji* lyzKn ("lynix; n px i^'CDitr 'i 
]<K KKH tDNi ^«-)V3j;: "lyT ivn pt< ; d>''S«ti:k;i« ys:K;i d'?k 
DTints) ra«i ij;c21k iv-^t-^' oyr I"1N7;'j:2iin 1866 lynxiipK 
-D;'jyn lyiN ,"'7N:N'SN:iyt:'N„ wji \h tt ]yD'^B'is:K (^'djikp 
,]y-3:is'T y:"i is ysK'SKcy lyi p£ -iynyt:tr-i«£ lyTN^isis D:yta 
^'lyiNyBKi^'K y^TK ly-spi i^ti^nxn DiytD''S«n iy->*P VJ^iff ^'^ nr 
n m ,p«iiy:5 iyTmy;pms ]:;;2n;nKE yT'2 iy:''T ,Dpin'^D 
-ZHb "i^T .lyT'niKn tsxi lyrciiziN "i;»:ki:k'? n*;i ]ie ]:?^«pKi:»<ns 
n iy5ypiJ?-« IS t::;NTt22;» i^^ek in cxn '?'D:iKp-DTna ii':«T 

n ti'D J?'SKp^:iOKp PE ^V'tS'O lyiOTTKIKtanN DbH ySK'SKCK 

p^p^:iOKp IS lyDK^tTKn cxn ]i« ,Dy'SKT':K;;iK"iKE ytyniy'^D'iK 
]yD;n;2Np jripnyD ^inNiiyj^'z ttxn mK;?ysN .cpym w c^d i^t 
]x ]'N ]iK ,'t:n7J2;* pE t:«;y'7n D^N /"7N:NisK:-iyt2:'K„ n*ji p.E 

D:?1 /'l^THll piK^ V:„ I^T pK lyj'ty"!;' VH DKll ,lMlirt2-'X 

]:?;ij;ii ;:ny'i'p"ij; ys^'i'-iniEDnx ]k iy-y:yj iy c«n ,1870 'ko ];'c21 
-iiKB n Ml Djn HKj .y'sx^sKDx lyi ps ly'i'y's px ]y5's:n2 n 
Dj?'spj?D jjiTMnsiNiE n i:;2'm pKiip tDpn*n;'t:jit< vn y:if2Kp -lyT 
-i« ]1K n:N'7:!2y px t:ENtyiyT'?;i:'D n ]in ; pKiii*:; ttp^ctriyi 
-BK vn D«ii ,Dyi;:Kp lyri'jiny^ i^n .iy^KEy;!BK vti '\'';iy;b ;nn 
-isi::nnK tyoN'i'B'Ki ttxn ,1872 ]'k ,:!KKn ]ih pNn;^; iyB'?«ny^ 
"^KiN^SKiiyt:2'N„ lyT ]iK ,pnN' 1^2 ik: cn"! '?Nipy; n';i u*::ki!2 
njrcnn« nyB"'?;^^ in px y*?*?"! « ip'Btr is t2nvn:r::EMK t:«n 
^yjiDKi y's«T'2Nj:iK n t^k ,«pnv?2K px 'rnsii-x .;:i;yiiK- 
y^ittZMi ]''p i;n2m«E t2'3 ^xoi^'p ly^x m unh ,pKiiyj i:rB^Kn:;^ 
pE ;2in'nirx3 yi2:KDj?ivt2a'N ]k .ijr;:in'SK3 ♦;'?«:« 'SK2'i;*t:rK 



DT'^:iw'»:n"'-Tnti jis yta3'»tyy:i 302 

rK /5>6J'o^ /•'ITS : lyDpy^^iifi v^v^'t ns ny:ijvn:» d^s dh^k 
jyv:ynyDJ«:p y^^DD^i n 1^ n«Tiy:i iy"is^y:iJ^^« ^y^vyso iy 
nyi D^s Ds;njrDi^3 px vr'? DJJin^vny ny^«:«^ve;j lyi n-: 
pjsn s ns ; lyDs^p y-ijyjo^-'ms n na lynyDK^iJ^Q ny^y^vysD 
tya^^py:!D^'ix ly t^j< "lyoi^sayn ny^s^v^D d^s y^v^Disyi pn 
y^D^Di^P nyD^^rjyp nyi pd n^^:iD^^ d^« 1870 pj< nJssiiy:; 
lyn lynyj r^x ny p« lyvytyrDD^^npjsiP yrpyo:i^:fc5 n tyjyii 
DjyD^^vsn tDJ^n r:yp iyt^^^:ijy I5§ lyD^yii nytD^>ni» nytDt^ny 
^:v^ d'?^ ."lytDay^^sn inyt p« nyto^nDisDJ^ nynij?,, D^t? 
8 iv lyDiP IV to-in: p« Qj^p lypj^^D is? d^d ,iy^^^D"iiKn»D tn«; 
-lijD ny^feiiyi^K m tyiiy: ^y r^x ,iyj:iyj n id^d D^jnjyDtj^ife?!: 
-ijB nyn i^« :iJi:iyi"isa nyo^^nis "iy{i'^^:ijy nyn ps nynyot^' 

*.to^yTi nyti'^to'^ 



.1870 nynoyiiKi pfi /'imn i'bQ"it3"i«£5„ pN lyj^tyi;' va 

-DnD-Tt2-i«np « ps inu in lyTiyj? t'k taiKj^ysK b-i^n"! * 
.Vt2N'?B lys'^js'^vp "lyi P« ("lyta'^NinNS lyiiiip iih T'^sr) lya 
15? .1833 /ixuK' ij;tD23 dj?t ,b^n p« pK^ij;:; pNnj;; tin "i:; 

,"iy3«D-'7nj;D pN ");?'7NtaD « ps tsKtatrpiyn n px p;oipj;j?JN iy 
jniV2«02-in tD»j ,t2i'n'iN n r2:ix;'7j;;!DnN "b^Dint? tt taxn i:; i«it 
iy3i'7pyj-iynn« in nj; bkh 1852 p« .poiyta-iny'b ]y;^iflnj oyn 
-p iy:"T pj?a'?j; y^'u m dj;t hnj ,1855 px in: ; n^y^syiy px 
-ipy;ipm!? t'n jik npnyox -jNi Knyni«nj;:?Dn« ny tDNn ,ij;3-iNtDty 

-pjN TT tDxn ly .■!:«'? i:;3i'?pi'7;; dj;*7 px i^n''"?! lu tanytDtyy:; 
-ini« iy"i«i^yj I'bKi t^n pw ,iN':ii-nj;'7NtDD '•.j?:?'anN i^ IN IVD«'7B' 
T'N ly'JNtsD n ps n^NiixB ni;-! lyiT pN Ti'jjita'D ■iyt2DJ:?n:;T:;jiK 
n«£3 ]'N t33NnnpjinN ]^^:v pn ny bnh lyixny;? t3TTnN;-iK 
-j'^Nsny i« iNEj lyti^pD^'i'^ytt y-iyoyn taiysyy:; taxn lys^yn ,12H2 
liKiiyj ts'bnyiny ty t'n 1862 pN .tsnp^itayia ^Niiii-n^ntD ly^'n 
oyT lyta'bNnyj laxn pN nj«mNB Dyi pB ly^yipyD '7«nyiy:i d^h 
-lyi ]i« ]yniy;np yjyi'tyiNB ny'ri^f ,tsNn *iy |yn ,1871 r^n ocn 
-injyji T'« Dy lyn ,1870 p« .tanijjiTyi j'^m^ns ,y»!?NTt5K:5nN 
ta'?yiatt»y:jDM"iN iy bkh ,y'D'DMp-'7mtr iy:«T3N^ n lyiKiiy:? layT 



15<^s m lyrjyo y>yrj^-.«! yD^yrst lynyj 'J'j lyj^n "lyiyno 
njyn^'^jv^ -^nv^ T'?jvnvB lyr.y: t^k ^^s;j .oiSJ^ysj^ iviH 
"iy:iyi nyiDi^^i^s ornyD^N do nyD^nyj s: d^o 03^•:;5<3 iin 

iiK r-.ryrv» d^^ i^ik m /'i^*:vd lyoTsiSK^y^j^^^^ iin "lyn 
"in ^ar. d^>d:'^n pn iyD:ii< di^ii .dpss lyi "lyai^* ; ":^o^^^ 
■y:iy"i:tofc:2 -ly.y^iD -)y:«!i:i^> n ns y^v^pjsij-iyt yj^^^p n 

^y^vyBD -lytD^^prnys: y-uyo^nto Dj^^'^-it^r) ^i^n ly ts: ,T^ni 
-rnyD Dto^yt^'yj v\vt d'-d D:yD^^vy:D^iN "iy^2 n m iy3is*n 
>n nD -ly-yiy^ a})) j^^isiy Dyi hd inyr li^p iy!3 mi ,:ytD^^p 
I«;dv: Di^ii ,p'o^^j^s lyi 112 nx ,"i{<2 pn pk DDs^Dy: D^*n 

•lyDDSit^'r'yTy:! DjjnyDmisD ly^sji^^v^j hd Dn^2 Dy-i 
y-iyij^ "ij^: ^Djr lyi px D3^iny;:>n5§ dj^h ny:i«: iinn^'j'n 
n n^< iy':s!^« P2 iyD^^":5rD^^^i: yro^M-ii^D n -iyi^>N mpyo 



]VQ t:xn -inxi y;^'>2i';'ir2';i .]yr2>!2ty 7,600 iy;:n!?y; icxn ny trciKS 
]iNi:DTif3 pN t2:yDK'?'ix2 ]'iN£ i:NTn:Np N pn iyi:y2;*;: DiTk 
inxB'n "lyD ]iE ]yt2D:i;j is iyjjn^y;pn',!f "iw t:Nn i>' ly^x rKixn 
"ip ]iE n<'?;i3ii3 d'jn pxny; cn'isiyKz ly t'k 1871 ]'k .pNm? 
-;n .ryTj?;5 Dtt''np:N-)p-y;'pyt2triN d^t lyn'N ^''D'ONp i^^'^js'jyp 

K TnpiNiE ]iN lynyj TIN -ly ,DT»^N:-ntyT uiQ ]::2v;y;3K lU 
t'K lycystr .:2iBns ■iy:Npnyc« in ins K::;n:NED;nNp-D;;'np 
lyT CO VH px ,pnnNE-]'trND N ]iN -ivn^jTsnN in lyiNiiy; 1J? 
.10 .i:£;'try:5 iyniyny;-t:u on p.£ n^nn-'^y^ i;i i^iNn;'; ta^'s 
]1E "Ni::i»„ in 11E T^'b^ttio ■iy:'!f2nN np t'n lys^^MT ,CNn;7y2N 
l^n ]ytt'?Nn;'::N ::Nn ,1894 pn tany^y; in: kn.-i dnii ,1871 T^n 1867 
Y^H "iNi T'N i;' ,Dnv'i'N!:D n ii£ ijNniNE d:;t px t:£Ntriv-r;i:'o 
-yn ,;52i;;mN2 iN'iT-Tn-it: nyi ])« ^■i'D;nyi:2iNnNE piNt:tr lynyj: 
lyeiyo^.pNT y'7*,Ei:i;-,i v'?;*'^ i;'2;'::;';nyniN t2in cnh i;* ly^'j^n lyjj 



lyD^yn nyri^j^^K nyi lyny:! iy t^« ,tDJ«oiyi lyni^n n^o D«;n 
IV Tu D«n lyD^yii iin nss t^n ^u lyD^ui^ lyn'-^ayj t^k 
-n^D nyD^ui« d^s ns^^i pn iyD^8ny:!J« dij^d lyto^^y^ iyi 
D^D lyDiiDt^'Q^K -ly D;iy^£: ,i«t:8i«i iyr-nnipiyo d^» .nyn 
lyiiya Vi< "ly nx iy:iJi^Dsn»QjyD8o yoMij n oyny-i yj^>T 
.Dn«DK^-toQ^in "lytj'^^iijy nyi hd iy^8Pnfe§i n iid i:iiimH ivi 
iyi:ivjy^:i pn "iyD:i« .a»:i8Dyi v^p m)V^ d^j t^x -y lyns^* 
■'•5>«iB D»D yoMia » lyay^ya pn ^Dtsmtojy lyrv^n nx r\T'?o 
d:i»di8d ny D«n Dnnn v:'^'*] d>d lyDSTiv px ^noDn ytj'^D 
pn ly^yotJ' iv m .i^^DDSL^j"'^Dy;i lyD^uis: iv D^^prnya n 
-y: D^J PK yroy^DSJ yj-in .un^iytoj^i pn o^^tJiD^^jynyQ 
rnysDiN DD8Dy:i Dn^i< iyn«n lyto^MriKnyj yroyDDDaytj' 
/p^^s lyJSDtJ'y: ny tD^»ii .y^visT^J8;in» yom^ s tynaivD^x 
-n^nD P2 HD Dyi iv lyny^iv DJ«py:i :i^:v)'\ i^:! iy d^j^^i 
n PD ny:i^«DD«: iy:yny:nyn^« lyn d^8 n^^j ;DT^:«;^jr 
yo-'n: n isia iyjnym»Q nyiy^is^iQ 'iv'^ pn yto^^^n yo^n; 
-pj^ji^ to^j ""^D tD^^^-i»or ^-tD ,D!s^p-nyD^^nn8 oyn pq lyoj^D 
tii$.n m DM81 nyo'-nn s ^Ji^yiisn lyn tyny:y:i iy D{$n ,d^^^ 
-^yn nyDn»2yn tyrtoDnD^N lyny tyn^n n i^n jyrivyjij^ns 
*.r)iDN^D""'^yn n pd ds^p d'i^^ Dnyny:i \Di$,r\ lyi 



tsKn ij? PN ,1827 pN ,"iyD';-iyTn« ^« ^^J ^pj'N-pny'b obn tyoip 

nj? T'K 1863 pN .1834 ,'jr p« ixm^ lyi in lyDN^tyyjijN "iir 

iDNH "ly .j?'ijnt'3n:in pT ps nj^tD^ipvD-pyiiNSDpNp nyn pNiiy;; 

pB lyjjns^-spnn I'T taNH iy ijrn ,1881 to laoN d^t lya^NnyjiN 

.1883 oyiD^sj;! ]yt27 d;?*t lyiiNtasyj?: t^n ny .ta^pjii^yt: 

■jr;j T'N ,tt'<jnNp ps lyjno « ps ]nu "i:?t ,"i:?j"rN tt^nnNtrtT 

-yn ntaiND ,pNtDDmNt2 ij^ny*? ,]NiNnn i'n ,1820 ]^n pNup pNi 

"DPN .'i'jrjj'N "lyjjv nNj d'?n ^nj nytsDiB' n pNiiy;j t'n pn ,iNn 

]TB ;njD ip tyny: INT TtN D^ m ,'t:n'7 ]'ij;2^n Anij?i:;*TiNn 

ly iNii ,iNnjN'? ]'N laijyTNi citd"? tu nj? taNn „m3N^tt 'byn y;ji< 

■jr; lyttDTty-iyoNT lyn ps •Ti'7;tfliD "ij?jynyTy;jN ]n iiNiiy; t'N 



305 VDy-::^2i«s V'^V"'^ ii« ^^^i' '"^ 

ti:^2 n Di^ Di^ii ,Di^D:^^fci! iy:D^^jynys iyD^^jMKiiy;iyDM« oyn 
ni^: ,Dnnn yiy^n ^mk tm^3 do D3^Ky;DnN lyayin ,iyLy:yo 
MyDt<^p yijytyiyn n nx Dip^^nis nvy^^v^'?^ nvi ^mk imk 
lyocny d^^ .::ijynj$3 Hijovi^nD iyi nD "lyiy^PDMX d^s 
-{5^p-iyD^^3"i8 n T^K tDiyiJimnj^^ lyojnyvj^o Dyi pk ^ko 
,]yt^'JyD Dj^^p^yo^Q n2 oo n«iiy: cnn>Dy:i ::i:iyiis!n lyo 
,iyni>* ,D^>^Q m ,yi:y^n^Dto^o ds^p pysyn Dyi ns "lyns 
,-iyD^^3"ifc< y'nD&< iid i«^ noj^pjn iyi« nyjj«p'« ,DtDiya«"i 
•lynsjiDMx v^V'^t "iSD D^^')l^'yJ ^y^vysD lyiiyj lyj^n y^^yii 



;:nji2"iN£ I'n W^)J^ T'« ta''2"iK y;'t23»n ytsi^iy pu .lafiKc^yr 
l:n^i lyi ]iN ,iyt!N:!y'7;n""]«E ny:Ni:K? pu ]v^ii'?0KT"i«B n c'd 
-JK7 lyT ivn .1859 ]'K ,-iycmN-nn n ]i£ t2T«-pK'? oyn ps 
pKiiy:! ny T^N ,18110 i'« ,t:yi:n;y; t? taxn 7^D3iNp-TnB "iy:KT 
"in i>n T'n ,1862 ]^s px ,-i;n'7;t2ii3 yttojyny ?;♦::« n p.£ •i;»:i'k 
-;?npyD lyi lynp iy t^n ,1872 ]'« ,'7'd:ikp d^t ]ib ;M:iKT':K;iK 
-IK Dyn i^fi "lyiiTS n ps -iyi^i« obn .j;':jnti:k;-ik ijn ps lyta 
i3"mnB ^KD p|0'£ "ly axn ,iki:n? pN DT''7«pnK"i lyoK^p-nyts'^s 
p«ny; t^iytiB'y;: '7«o y*??? tin ly lyix ,t2:yo«?")«B p« iyoip:'n« 
]'N .'»ii:iNE ly^wiyn'? "ly'ryii'EK lyi ]ifl ys'TKBK "lyT Tin 
pN ,;Ni:Dn2 ]'k p« ,1869 px ,TiKEyt:D pN ,1868 pK ,<D^yB'tD 
,]yD't:tr n lyc^NEB* T!ii t'j hd ,iy;;nsy;pms tu ly ckh ,1870 
"i*:; T'K ]iK uinn:Np ly t:Nn ,1870 pK ,piKiintaiKD pK -lyz^t 
nyTKiyn''? ly^ys'SK lyn .lya^ctr 304 b'D m^n pjjny; ly^K'riy 
,]yDit:ty 2966 tn'?n lyDipNn tsNn ,iN'nyt2«n ':td lyo ttKTn:Kp 
y2'^f2y:^K n 'o .lyo'my 4382 iy;n!iy; i2«n ny;iK i:yinyn 
ut:k5k lyTMT VH ]i« B-inn2«p lyTm ly i:«n ,1874 ps ly^nxn 
pE tiNta^uyn lyT .lyivBNinyDJNp ]in iy'?«iyn''7 n ps pKny;i 
.*?nKiT nyjmynnB "lyn p£ m ,iy3'?ynyn lyny; vh ^hk^ lyr 
nKDyEKiB lyny; lyj'u nn'? pu 'o .1877 pN lyniNtttyyj t'k -ly 
]iE "iyu"nn« n .p^n D^iKtro lyo ]ik tsyoixE iKoyEKiB ,i^Da 
-2in lyiKH p« i2'>n:yjjy'?y;i -iyi ta'o t3Si:«3 t^t jynKn i»<i:k'? 
]iE ,DniK "1K3 "ifion N ; yvNioDiKDyi y;mmp"iyD h tsin'ty;! 
-s'jy Dyi /'irtsyEDn '"^pm,, oyn pK ly^ityiy t^h ,i'7D'n iKDycKiB 

.1877 ,pyD lyta 



DT''3^'':T'-i'^ntD ;i3 v^^'''^y^ 306 

-n: iytDpssD{<!p i8 px orr-'Kisa \v))V^ p^d^^^^b tyo^^pnyD 
,D2St^i^^nD lyD^^jynys-Djyn^j s iin D;^j^^j<ifei!D — ,ys 
DDfe?ni8Q Dyi no io^d lyDoyij^D oyn na ""nD njyoK^^is n« 
-Dp^yia n D-iytDtj^yj odj^ nr^ Dnn ny:)^yii /D^^n-intDDiN pn 
-snx 1V1 1^ lyDipy:; lyj^n ^n t^ ,no« t^k oy .lyjjijyiifeiin 
-HB iyn{$ ynj^yD iyt^^DJ^j«py iyjytD^5§ny:iD^'i« r5< in«i yn«: 
-jyiy>i2iv lyrn^ynyi d^o lynj^n ^n .y^D«T«^^2 lyj^^D^^ 
-s;JiytDrt<„ avi na DtnvDpy^j^N"p lyn^n Dyn lyDijyjj^ D^'-n 
DT^^sn^iinr^ iy^yntoDnj''i< lyt^^Dsoj^^n nvi nx /'^;sj«^^ 
D^j lyn^n ^n dj^^i ,nnDn lyi ^h> .ty^^Pn^n v^'^:2v n na 

li^^jr-n^no n Dv^in^Q ,:;j'i:>^d nynix ij^ij .Diy^piy ,d^^":> 
in lynji^n ^n ^^i nvi i^^ n^^tiiy:! tojypnDi^Q t^k p>to^^j<iQ 
IV \:)^^r]:v^v'?Vi s lyn^n lyoys^ ty^yn i^d .iynvy:ipniv 
ni n« /'tyDs^t^'jy:!^''^ v^V'f tiD m^non,, yiy-iJi^ lypiyo^'n 
yiyt:^^") n DiyDt^^yj lyoyst^ lyn^sn niJinon yrtj^i n nTs 
n t3J$ ni$i:i lynj^ .:iJijy'nsn nyjy:!^^« ly^n PQ :iJi^p>iiD:y 
lyriDD^^asT nyi p« ^-in tic tDD«Dy:i iyn«n yny^n rrunon 
iyi pa nyt:)yiDn«Q y^iDtoiyii y^^yts /yii^snys nytj^^tonp 
■n»n iyvj^:i To^d iyoijy:iJi^ lyni^n ^n jjijiyii^a j^^jm^nD 
Dyn PD iyj:iy:! yny^n ps DT>^^nninj^« lyii'^Dj^J^tpy Dyi lyv 
-'•J8:n«i lytD^u-is lyn i^d d:i:«^i^q tyn«!n px .D«^p-^yo^o 
inyD n yD^yii ,:iJir:^^K"i^Q pd lyD^^T'nc V2v^ ^h^ y^v^r 
lyiiy: lyj'-n d^^^p iyti'nyj:iy:i Dyi pd nyn^^:iD^o yo^ypMitojy 
Di^^^toy ^^^DK tyii nyrDDnDnj< ny^n .tyr^ni^i iv tD^n^ 
y^yntDDHJ^K p^< yt^^-'D^^^ss i^d DT^niDjy nyjyD^^ny:ipniv 
rD^^njyoi^i^ti^Lojy pi< nynoMi^ isiT^ iyny:iy:i ""n tDi^n ^D-i-in^nD 
-18D ny^n .tyrDioLDjy DJHipy:i to-'j dj^h :iJiiyDt^ p^p dj^^^ 
p^ ,Dj§^p-^ytD^D' Dyn pd DpjiBij^Dti^ Dyn i^d D-'jynjytoti^ 
"nyiiK^ ytj^^Dp^iD n lyviittJ^Q^i tDJ«!py:i lyni^^n ^n dj^ii D«n 
-yn ys^^jnyiiy^ nyii tiD tD^m^D ^n t^^in ,y:!^^ lyi pq tytD^^'5 
DD:)yn ty^iy:i t^x oy lyii nn^*" tnyv yDDpyj n p« .ty:i«t:ife$o 



307 yt2j;ir2"iy!S ^ny'^n jix ^tsii'' n 

n DJiin ,pmj^^« iy3^:?p^?jaii< oyi lytJ'nn^'SJiit nj ,iyD£:s*^ 
-jyj^^« yny^M iy:^n ,iyE8*^yj iya«n iyD8tDD?5$nj nyipy^sy;:^ 
-■•n .y2fci!:DM« "lyn "isd DDssy^iv :n:yDc^:?iD lyny: iyD2fe<:i^ 
-D1K IS D?« lyt^MiD^iK n^t iiiia Dy D:n ,ny^J5<D yross yiy 
yoDjy^P viv'"'( oo D^M^ lynyj lyj^n /D^^'?r:^^^p yuyto^n^iia 
-D^^iny ni< jJioDy-oDa^yr lyjnjyo'^^is ny^n nns .m^yo 
lyo^sny; in .lypmonx ynyny: dvi:^^ ^n lynsn ,d^^"? 
HD --ns i^:?jnyiiy:iyDMi< iyny:i iy:^n nx ,Dpy-iJijp i^^:ynys 
/rtD*i8:;?yQ8 /iy'jfe>:'S pn -p^v^^^ Vo'd d^vd^v: o«n Di^n ,y'?^ 
-i^no HD "lyijytJ' n lyns^n ,i'-iynj;j \)i^ \v' 2^:0'?)^? a"?'^: 
"83 yD^^:yT"iyB v:nv^ iid jjirj^^xii^D {§ ^jy:yj«3 ar^ji^^jr 
8 m ,D^\'?rnyD"DD2yt^'y; yD^^jny^iyjiyDnx m .nyDPSi 
KT8 038D Di^n ,D^\'?3^^iui?D ny^y^v^sii: nyi na d«o yoni; 
.DS^P^yo^D lyc^^^jjy Dyi ^imx pnu^^is lyDi: 

■ji^^ PK Di^snj in lyai^n iy-n:i^D y^siDjyv n t2« Dnj5 
PK lytojyDsnysDyD y^^^jny d^d lyt^jyo ^n«i!^ yoMiy: fe? lisn 
PD lyoi^j Dyi tDji^oiyi ^^^dj^^k V)^ w^nn i>o .ly^y^v 
tDiytD^yy:i in t:«in nyD^yii nyiju^n n 112 oj^:j«t .^^tj^n .0 
--.^ot^y^^'-n lyni^n iyD5$G">n n .DT^:i^^jr-i^no ps tDD:yn pk 
tj^m^^i^n ni^^y:ns \n^^n nyn n — nyio in iy::r s tDiy 
yvjstj n •i^tDS^tj' i^nii^K^n pn toDinm^ia '^2vn ,'?v'\^n 
PD lyin^D yoniyj tD-iD jjnj-'nisD p« iy:sDc^yj T^i< ysin: 
"Dn ly^^j iyi pd iy:i:yn:«i iyiiy:i iy:^n y^^y^i ,nmjii5 iyi 
n .yiDJr lyi to^D jj^^pj^^^? pk D^yu^ny: ]V2i$n px ::itD 
: iyi^y:i lyrn nnii^is iyi ?inK lyiD n lytj'mv yDD:ynyTy::fcj 
-j<n pifc?t:^ lyi^y: rsi t^« lyD^yii n^«:«ipyD iyi:sDpy^s! 
; Diyr-'D n pd i^^^^r y^5§:{^^v»: n riJin^:sji« tDrosy^^ 
Ds^^ni ;iyt3^^3ifc$:yT^^s: lyusi^jjy pc:^ n pd *,pyp intst^'n 



nBi«j ,pm:y'7K pK iixn:?; P«2yj t^k ,pyp inKiPTT * 
Bp'iyj;;: ]Mir dh^k lyn t:«n nnx' 7 i!? .1819 px ,n:K^"iyn!2'.n 



I 



-Di^nD iyiJ!fi:iTS^;i Dyi na t:D^^;i lynjytD^^^ lyi ^^ynsoyp 

■Dn« in t:«n ^Djr lyi iiq p^tD^^«3 y^Disjyi^^i^ n 
3;j^^jnyiiy:iiyD''iK torj^^NnsD D»n n d«ii ,D^oiyT Djy^^^vyj 
Ife? t:^D ,i^nt3 Dyi I1D iyt}>^njy;iy^y:ij« n p« D^''prDDni»D 
riDKi !"•« Dy .tyoi^syn ytJ^^D^^^Q nss y^v8D^;s lytj'^^nyjy 
.^^j§:! n« mD'?)^? .Dn«:i^y38 ,i»^8 nnx Dssn^ya^niv nsj 
Dyv8r^J8:ii»n»2 n ts ,iynM^:i ny^is^a nvi tD^^-iDy:! lyni^n 
s ty:!yp ly^yD^^ nn nyi« ,:ijnyDy.Tn^ » nn^QDin tyj«p' 
•ly^say:! t^« '?v^2^n nyi lyii D^>jf s p« /:ijnyjy^pn8D-pi^ 
iyDMn:i s na hd ly^sn^D Dyn pi< Di^i^:iyj ^nvD tyn»n ^n 
-81 p« l^W)) tyny:iy:iDM« ij^p nyi^yn ,yD8P iyi pk inyryn 
inytDtj' IS1K 8T8 ^nx PK /yr^i^DD^ms 182 V'^^t:^^ yijyto^n 
lynp IV ,tyDD^^8D''a8p ysn:! « i^^ss lyii^ toD^^^D^asp 8 
-jnsi yjyDijy3j«! p^Dy:i^8 n nyi^^N lyrjyn i^a lyto^^m^ 
ii^j Dvy:yi:i8n ij^^dpsq iyiiy:i p« p-id^^^q 18Q iy>n .tyjjia 
iyD^ui8 tyiy isd tyrip ^»t y^v8PJ8:ii« n ts ,?inn8i 
:i^^n^ iyj>n D^ni-'^yn yooyn n yi^yii rryjji:i:)n8n yi^yrs 
/Dn^itj'^n oa« ^n tyn to^n isDiyi o-'^nvna \V2V^ ))i 
nn^sn Dyoyii ,yiyrv"'n n •lyti'jyo yt^'-'D^ss iy:^n ^n ts 
"3iS P1181 \VD T8 .jyiiy:! t^k DT^j«fjr-T'nD iyD^n:i^«Diy pd 
iyii$ ,iy:i:nyDyn-pi^ 18D Dp-inDD yj^^Dy;^8 yn^n « tin^D 



,'|iya-i«"'?KiDKpTi: in: pn«syjnynnK t»n iy lyi^ ,inK' 15 p'^iT 
]iN piNn pyn n ps pnnxs lyr'm nyn ]<« tyoipy^iN t'n px 

■Ji'i'yrtan h laaxoy-s taxn iik iyj:uynN3 j;ivDp;«ns ynyuK pK 
1863 V2 .1842 pN ,iKS p'T pK t«'iT' « lynjnj ts ynxia pp 
iaiU'3N:j"i^ iD^i lasKtr^yryriNS yasKniym ]'>^p ins pu px t'k 
-^yty;; "lyta^'niNjjjT'^N yaj'jnxnNS n tyii ,1868 pN px ,pNnp 

n .y's«T'ij<;n« nyn ps nyiappyo 'i'tjny:y; lyn pNnyji ]<jrp 
.1876 ,pyo pK ,Bntt p>T T^a iyB^Bny;:<j iy ta^n y^yatt^ 



309 y^yirn-iyiD j;-iy''n jix ^t^r.*' n 

in D^D lynyncivDiN iv^ivj iy:^n My;:ny:y^P"i82"n^ lyjy: 
ly'noK lyi p« tot^M sttoJv n .lynn^D yroyo n ns :i:iD^ii!n 
t3n^ ,'\V2'?v)'\ PD ojiDDn nyiJ{§J8 pn ?^'?2 in^« oynjynyj 
nyi PD i:iK^n-:5<n n lyoip DDi^iy: tD»n oy j:ij>^d -iy>n 
y^fi§ lyass^Bi^ ^«t lyo lyii is ,D3n^jyj lyni^n ^n .-lyo^^msi 
■'J25<*w^'^yTy: pk D:jn?^3 lyjycy pk Dy^jy^nrns yc'^D^^KS 
oyii .yi:^^Dyj "lyn P2 lyos^p y^« isid iyD^^n:yjy^yj y:)^^ 
nyojix .D^^iD^^^j v^''^H:i^PV d«d yoMi: s ry:ijyint:^o oy 
iyjfcji:i^*^ n ivr]'''\^ w^t nv'\n'^ n ds pd di^dj^^s uvi 
iyr'ivyj:^ns: ,iyvrni!jn3 n pa D:«or n lynD^: pk ,Dj«t>jr 
''?n^)) nstD Dy^vso^:i^ yt^'^D^^i^B vr]'<'>^ nyvjsj s pk nsiiy:i 
"iyD^^nij<-p«-rmn-^yn Dyn pd ^jnyoynD^x lyi 1^2 ,toDy"i 
'i^^v^: i5$D ,o^^n-is!jyrD n^^ijyn iv lyvyiy;! y>o nsD /ryrya 
y^vsiT^^sjy^ nyrijyot^'^iD lyn "i»d n^^njy pn .jjh^u ly^sJ 

.NDij Dj^^jvi^nt: PD 
^Din iyv:«jj^N lyiiij^iyi d^: lyni^n iy:!jnyo:i' ytj'^tDPsiis 
"lyn PD iyviJDn&< oi^i .^Djr lyi pd p^d^^«3 n nn^a 
'^t3^:i» ly^^nsDiyDs^i^s lyn isd y^vsT^:s:n«i i»^jr-n>nD 
^v: lyni^n lyni^ pj< -iifc<j^y55< n^«:«ipyo nyD^yn ti>ii< ^y:; 
"i{<2 p:^nvi "ly^o s iyiiy:i r^« /iy:i:i:y£3«n viv^ y^» tD:y^ 
--.jr-i^ntD n pq oD^t^^iyn^^JD^D n .D^yii i»^jrn>ntD nyn 
-^n^ii pD iyDi$^*^y:)DnN lyiiy:! r^s; ii^: lyj^n yD^yn ,o:h 
v:^'p PN lyDijy: o^j Dy-iyoJ^x nw v^p c^^dp^^d ryn^n ,D3y-i 
ryni^n >n .lyoii^syi yt^'^D^^i^*5l 'wiH yD^^DDSK^^yry; n pa 

v^v^ lyarnv iv lynyi o:nyDyiTtn^ 8 lynpivoms ^yto^o s 
fK oi^i .y^vsT^Jsnt^ nyi i« in lyD^^tj'iv:^ iyD^oT5§"Dnnn 
rOy^vKT^j^nij y^y^vriii$i3 n pk jjio^tDtj^ n lyi^y: ^y^vysD 
••11 .lyJstDC'yasi^ mts lyiiy: i^^jnyiiya lyrn yoo^ssn n ixii 
-yno PD "tynnj^ nyoDytj'DJ^D. nyi .-iyn^^JD"'D y^nyn^x n 
tDsny: ^i^n y^^yii) ,Diy^{$DD pd m^jr yj^^oy^^s n pK,iyn 
-jyD^D n ni iyn«n ,hyt:Dyt^t3J«D pk i^disiip Dsnn in^N 
n»: in ,iyi^DK^nyDyo ^v'^'^vt^v^ n p« lyDjsD^yrv ytj'njy^ 



■^snyj r^s: i^^j in D«in ,ny^^ px lyojy^^ in^x to^nyj D«n 
n t3«t nyn^i .:iji:iyns;n nyr^Dy:^5$ nyi na lyto^ni lyi hd lyio 
i«: 0^: iyjiDy:i "in D«n D^^prtoyD lytj^^D^^J^jQ iv DD^^ny::iy:i 
"sn T^K Dv ^v:i'?V)) s PK iyi«i ,iyDD«ti^^yTy:i yiyD^y n px 
D:«^jr n i^^Qs ,tD^^v lyjy^ na D:«^jr y^s .ijyjyj lytD^^Dt^ 
ly^n ^^n lyD^sny:! i«j in tyn^n /Di^Dt^'Dann iyi pd 
PK .is^vps nyti'^D^^^Q ^v ly^nnymi iy^yj«>^n^nD lypi^toti' 
l^^pmonx IyD^tDfc§DD■DJ«^^^8T>J»n« n lynJi^n ly^sD v'?V'^ 
"DsnsiD yiy^n ^>n p^d-'^^^q ly^^^Diyi iv i^^a^ tytD^ii^D 
"sn T^ni^yD^"*^ ty:iy^D lyDQ^^^yiy:! n ^n^m^:? p« .iy:i:^^ 
-S3 lyD^^DDst^'i^^Dyj ^ 1SD in iy:i^:^^xi^Q iv jiyii ojyii 
,NQi3 DT^j^or-i^no Dyi lyv^^^sn iv hd /t«^:^P8 lyti'^D^^ 
yiy>n ^mk 8djv iyi pd di^dj^^s lyoni^ iyi i^^ds D«n 
•18Q IV iyi>^;D^» n lyjyn^n Djj^py:i d^:) DJ«i"'jr yjyj^^t^ 
-rytya isq lysnyp yDfentpini p« Dy^v«r^:8Ji« n ly^u^ii 
'vy'^ n ^v Dyijyiiy:i Dn^i in toi^n if^toJi"' n .lyoi^syi 
-»5'ss n 18D 0D8Dy:i ^n D»n px ,D^^DJi«p-Di^nD ytoyun: 
.D^yii i«'':)v-i^ntD iyi pq iyjs!:ii{^ yt^^^D 
(D^^D:i«p-Di^nto) tytD»Tiy:3^2 yruytDtj' pq :ijnjn: n 
,1867 pK 1858 \-\r]^^ n lytj^ni!^ ,nytojyv y^yntDDiu^x n pi< 
iyi I1Q :iJirj^^Ni8D iyi pn d^k^ iyrD:Dni « iy^iy:i t^« 
-^yii ,iy:iJi^D8n«Q"iyD8:y^yi y^«p»^ .:i:'i:iy^i»n ti<t^jv-i"'nD 
"y:i iy:^n .^SQ-Dn: ty^yvysD s i>i< tiyii tyQ"iiy:i ry:iy^s yD 
■••ni ,Dy^vsT^Js;:i« i«''Jvi^nD n ••n i^t yD^^:)nyiiy:i ^ lyii 
.tDiyiJinin«^ lyDjnyvj^^j oyi pa nnn:}^ oyi Djn Djytoor: 
iy:i>tDDni lyiy^ D«n :iJi;y"n«i iyi pq lyto^^v ytotj'iy n px 
■1SQ yiyi:i8 pa iyin^DSQ»''D pa oyD^D^P ^ t:«ny:i p^ntoD 
-lys lya^yn iifc< y^yito^n ty^D^^T D:!y^D lya^yii avv^^^^^v^v^ 
--.n yDD^DDni n iyn« .DJj^py:! oi^n iy ^y^ani d^o i-'^jyr 
PK pi^iiy^ tDin^Jt§n« ty:^n ya^yii ,iytDyt:^o«ip n lyiiy^ ly: 
■yj t^^ytDti^ya pk :ji:iyii8n n m) .DiyD^yv i«>:r-i^nD y^t^ 



311 j;ioy"i3"'3"i»s yiy^n ;i« «d:i'' n 

-y: ^y^2 nnyi is25 px \V2Hr\ tyoyo^oi^P yD^yryi .topy^«i9 
iy:yp w^vw '"J nn^Dr-'i? lyini lyriiS^-iy"! iv o^j lys^^n 
n ,1S34 nni^^ PK lypyinvsnx ; iyjJirr^Nn5<D-iytD^m» 
-•"ms! "lytoDyc'iDii^-i n ns ^5<d oyi pt< :jij^^o yD^^tD:y2y 
183 4S3S -infcj^ pi< ^DJS^jr-n^ntD n lyn^^Dij^a w pk nyo 
yrii^i n lynyi ."in«^ ny^y^ pd y^D^D^jp-DDjy»D{<^i^5 tyi 
-ysD PN i«tJ pyii i5yi:in:y:i ry:iy^2 lyDyto^DJ^jp y:mynn3 
-y: 0^: ,iyD^^i^ "I'o mi d^>ii mts: 'lyaj^n pi< ,iy^sD-t:M: v'?V''i 
-Dnpy piK^ iy:iJ^n i860 Dinj^ .nyoonpy v^i^vvi^ p\"5 :Dfe<n 
m ^iBiyiv^ n^y^syiJ^ ,ij^:ts^:i pk wd^'^ vy^^voi^ t:-i^D 
ny^n tD^^i^ayj^i^J w^t^n Di^no nyj«i:i^^ n p{< oinny 

*i86i -in«^ i^K ^y^3ii^"'n 



cyi IPK-my;; uxn dkit ,t:yc'DNp ■iy;n3yQiy lyctyny lyn ♦ 

"l^TJIN an*7 ,Ci'.K l2T'm D^r m ,T1N ,t:N"l"];»2K£ N I'lE "l>'i:p«1K2 

]15 d:k':t-'i'i"^!2 n lys^trNn is ,1848 px P«nyJ tajri-'i^y-^ t'« 
-'onp ]T£ iinzj;:? dj;t iin ,D'nn-i'7yn n i^ic ;jipn*nyt2iiK lyT 
"IKS tt^nxn }»:kj'£ iin *j:DnNa lytspm;*;; nn»N pc .ryi^^js-^K: 
■ipT!{ iy3''7'j::y3;'ir'Mis„ cyi ]'k i;»;:n'm:« n pr px ,1848 
,1848 ,"iy2rDvr,N: iyt:23 cyT tSNtr^yTy; ■iynvnc:"t2ty -i^n pe "■)«? 

-^«£"iND y-3''7n5T''n ]ts lys'oc "lyo^'D-T tk"i "i^n^y^fiyy n p^s'ty 
-;•::« iv:'w y27v*ii ,-iviy'iD -i;;'?'! any no n lys'ryn is ]ik ,iv;iu 
;ii2'ntrN2 ]iip c^: y;2t<n "i^n .j;'s«"i'5D:xp px pxi^y; r:;N7p 
Kxn ,1857 cD'.^nN p« ; 1857 to 1850 pe ttiip:;':::,"^ in'K ps 
,iVi2''-"i«"'7V2;*o iv^'Siyiv'? n i^'S^'Litr IS £400 t:iv*Jtr;»;''n m 
.npyno I'jiHizHi n p.s p^nto oyn tis'tity;*;: u txn 1861 px px 
ij,n i2'o iys7Natr-iK5 -pr n ttNn "inx' Dvi;^» pc '7ii ek:no px 

"]>-«£ iv:ni:n7 i;*t:ynjn;y;-nj q^t ps i^'cdio Djn cn^ pxn 
t::'T ,"nDD 12^02 tsTiiD'Tpy B^nty oy m ,iy-Kn ikjjtk?; px .t:N-i 
.U'pyiii* y'ryisySD -iNE iyt:;'t'f3Np-iyt:K;;y^yT yDOiiSKtr^Moyjj ,1825 
lye^u'DKp n ]y7yt:tyisp:,mK 1851 px inxny; tsNey;; t'k ynxiE jj 



-y:i iyD^fe?ny:Q{$ ly^^n ,i859-i860 ns nyto^ni Dyi na ^^^i^a 
DT'nD n ns iyD«:iy^yi na ty;:i^0Kn«Q yD-'^to^yDyii n»^i 
ly^n r« lyD^^ni^^-Mn n lyv^tDt^^ i^ hd .Dn«tDtj^D£)''in lyi ns 
-ni^DD^n Dyjy^ na ^no d-i^,, ."Djynip}:?"!,, oyi iy:iyp nosp 



ij;n pK ,:'7KS"ij; nnyo ta^r: ]nB> ,'i'V^SDyp ■i:;iiKDpy'?« i"in ,1858 r« 

UKH n'7j;ifij;B> .tanp^i^ytD j;B>u"iy3j; in:;? n tnn'Sj;;? ,1860 pN laxn 

.}>:ytaDupy yi:;D«in"ij;uiTN-ta'i k tayoa tDNny:i iy^«n y3^j;n /lyjKS 
-:;; T'N /'iy3«fi j;tDiu'jN:i« n ps tasKB^'jyT^rj,, n ,nT ]is yin^ 
nyn lys'ryn lif py^n ly'bjr'ijysD oyn b>d 1857 px ]i«iii?: taynjn; 
X ]iK I'T ix;;in"i2iNS is ,tDBNB''7j;Tj;;5 -i:;t3nni« pm n:;n'7i;ii3i;ty 
i^/jmiytaty nyi p«ny:; ta^'s lyT ti'a vn px ,dj;sk"i9 D^jjnon'bnNS 
lynxn ,'i'NiDDnn pN p^nxi ni ,imyt2B' t:^):"^^^ P« .tsKTiyDKi: 
]K -lysKS yjsiuiNT ps lyisNi yoMiy; ai'taDupy :jnjyciB> ia:;DD 
,"iytDDj;iJ'i2J«» ps tasNty'ryTp DJJun^'tanNS-iysNB ij;! pij ^:;'B« 
Dj?! lys'iDiy )'i ,ij?ta'nn« 9,000 ps lynirtDtyiNS ps lynntyyjinvttJiK 
l^D''7tt2^3:?n-'>ms„ Dyn px lyjjr'trnj; t'k ,"iyn«5 n ps p^iidd 
lya m ,i«ni«'7 p« .1854 p« ,"iyi:;noji^tDtr n vs "njj'bipi^s 
"''i'yn,, nyn n«s ]y;iu«TDn« D'"i:;jin t^n-iNTT ps lyDm^T V^ 1«P 
-I3KT1KS lyj'u ,1867 p« ,r'D'ONp "^y^y^ lyta^oiK pN D'nn 
]j;D'7«ny:jSK "la-tNUB'tDSMn ij;t ]is lyta^jy^yTiyaxs,, ]is ]j;;5:i^ 
n'o m ,^tyo'7 ,1852 px .1848 isiu 'by^^i^QD ,12Sn p«j n«iiy^ 
lynttynKi) "iN'^ipi'D Tnia 'Diynjnnpn,, oyn ps lu t^jonnyn 
Dyn iyi3i3v:iDini< lyaKS nyjKiiN'i' n ps tsytD'ttNp k taxn ,(1853 
]is Qiyn n ps "lyuiimx-iy^n lyjKtaoynnyii'biNn n ps DyifNis 
yB:'ii'«"iKS ]is tDSKty^yry; iy^«i«^i?K:„ lyjysK'^tynKS DKiitay lyT 
-«na iy;!n«n oyn ps lytsoxp yonij n tspyiy; tn^^K px ,"iy2«9 
TIN taytfi'Dxp Dyn B« ps ynx^snN n mi dj;t inj t^^; .oyit 
-itDiy n ,aytD'ttKp lynjNJN p«iiy;; tt"i'T'3«jnN tin ,pNiiy: ^'j^sny 
Dj?T i2N INS ."lyts'mN-^yTiNi lyjNaDpB n ps p^niaD Dyn lys 
■D'n lyT ,''rij?i n'bN ,pN-'7j;n ]'n lyDyTjr; t'n -lys^yii ,Byts'D^p 
ttijn ^DT'^^'ivTntt lyi^fTi^?'' D'^^b Bntj-D;ji^o«TiijB nytrnije 



313 ytsv-irn-iSD yny^^'r lis h]^:^^ n 

pnsi Dvsy Tfe? ,tD^n^D"iyT lyo tD»n„ ^noysTiyDSD lyj^jij^j^ 
,oyo^ci^p-iyDfe?D Dy:^^oyj^8 is iy-i:n: iv n^ ,nyii mt^y: 

lys^yn iv pyiiv oyi d^d .lyDsts n ns iynyDii^-i«iD n \v::v\2 



TK ,t22KTlKB ft ty2J?>J'*-S"^J'*^'*< '1855 ,py» t'« /DJTKB'n TK"? 

T'« lyz'jj.m ,ti?t:EKiy'7j?Ty: y2''7"r:'n£ iy;yn ep^^'Kis n^'Dm:;; « 

]KT T'n T'N 'T m ■ip:;nty ik: ivtENiy?::;:;;"]^^ n ]ie ^''^'tks 

]iK piNny;! t2"i'T':K:nK T''?;! t'k "cpy'Kis-i'yTi?; lytsExy'^yTy; 
"iK'?ipiis„ pn ]i« taanKn lytspmj;; d^t Biu2:;syi t:Nn J52':2xn 
]n'?k DK''?m TK ,1'? "I'D ];»DnnyT lytsi^i .1855 ,iyiD;'sn ikb 
■"T Dy U'3^:?n ]'« I3jrt2'f2«p dj:t ]ib n;n:;'!?'TiKB n^n lyny^ t'n 
■y^ n ,l«t2i': D«'^m n^^nB "lyts'i'K ]'u ]y;:K;y;;j'nN imk ly: 
■iiN-iKp "ij;;ii'7-'?j?;'S ]i« lyiynoi^tatr n lis pycyipyo 'i'Kiy: 
-Kp lyT .-lyni^nDin iin iysvTt2Bntt» n ]ib lynyiitriNB ]ik ,r;3 
tD'o D:K':i'-Tnta yjyT'tynNB 87 ]ib px^iy; t:!?'i2B>y: t'k eyc'O 
lyB 'r;s yn^KH n t5;;K-it2y;'in l>?2«n ya^yii oyT^^sta'O 48,000 
?i« ,i:yt2'0Np Dyn ps y';iKt:'j;K n .niKsin n iyp;n is ,t'7;c>q 
-y^CTN n .yoNTpnm ]iK yiyu"iy:y ]« lyiiy^ /D'i« ^rim oy m 
ycKi^ns yirnNt::yo«'?iN5 y;;'t:2't3 Tin ]y2"T lytspJiB ycir:'!! 
DK11 ,DKT pN /Vy^y^ oyT 112 P«iiy^ la^'cnKi ]y;ii'7n:Kn"iyt2:iK 
;:it:3n "lyn px tins' ny;'U3ni k d'jk li«iiy:i t:2Nii:Kn ]nt t'k 
ts'tt pKiiy^i t:"iniEy;Din t^k ,tytDE«B''?yTy;"i>?£ n pu'^K^y? pB 
1858 lyimis .irtamK;; tin*? ]tk di'H dnck:: .id ps e\'?^n lyi 
Vitt « iny IK pK pNny; raytinjyj ]yt:KT]y2«B lyj'u ,1867 pK 
D:K'2T'-i'nD n lyn ,1873 rn 1870 pB .tsiyetr ycoyi; n pe 
iyK!«i"iy3KB y^'^TNttiy ]iB SHKii H VH ,12' n2y;;D' *.K TT ]y2Kn 
]iK lyopKiv;:! "t iy:''T ]yttDp"i«t:tt»?3K in: ; P«iiy^ c'jySK^jinNE 
TT tsKn yD'?yn ,y''7KTiD ]K'2T-TnB nyom; nyn ]ib cs lyn 
yn: 60 m "inytt ]yn ,1891 Tin 1889 px niN"? ]'k lynnny^E'iK 
^yttK"! yn:-i't3Dnpy n p.K ,]iNiiy:5 t2"in':N;;nN iy:'»T lyKN-i-ciNttB' 
.nyT'?-3K5'D y'jy'E lyiiKiiy; lynwn px pxiiyj tti'T'^K^nKyi jyi^T 



Dr''iS"'3i"'-i^nt:) jis vtiiD'^ty^:? 314 

lyr^^-'i^tD^^v nyn Di^n ,i86o nyo pi< *"tiyi«iD ty^yii lyn 

HD aj^vn lytotj'iy nyn na ,i860 ^t^r lytoi oyi oj*njn:i nyn 

.nD»i-:yDt§D iyjj<njfc5^ nvi 
liD T^K nto^n nyn t^ ^ypiy^^n i^^ DJ^oyiyDJ''^ fj^ oy 
nynyDK^iJ^D nc T'^iDyTDQ^n t3^ytDti'y:ijyD^Tiv lyny:) is^ nnnj» 
,DyD^DJ<iP"irtoipyTpy nvi pi< .Dy^v«fj^n« ynyjy^P n na 
"••n ,::)"i^Ds:nsQ lytotj^iy lyi ?in« n«!iiy:i D^nyiny t^« D»n 
-yiDDntJ^ ,iytoD^r{i^^?D n iid iytDfe§;y^yi V2'>'^\> pnis! d^j jyj 
lyj^n v::i'?V)'\ ^nyo^ii^yt^^^ lyii^ ny:iy^-^yrv nyiyiD nyv 
ny:«ijj$^ yDDD^nDi^sj^-'S n ,t:v''&5 lyj^n mi mt^ ^yiiy: mn 
HDsn iy::r oyn na :iJi^"iJStn vdi^^^v n .Dy^v^pjj^;:^^^ ly^^D 
,tD^^ptDnyn3nyjs5^ nc ^n-tDy: oyi dj^ no lyD"'^^ lyit^^P ^. t^x 
-nsQ n nyoynn^D w hd .:ijnjn:i pn iv tDin^ayj tDJ<in Di^ii 
,l^^i:i"'-3:'*P HQ IytoQ8t^'^yTyrtyD82 ynyij^ n to^D ty:!:!!:)^ 
-i>nt3 Dy:i^^Dy:i^b* m iy^yt:ti^iv:yD8Tiv nmv: lyoi^^tj'j^n pk 
tynyj n iyray:i in jy^j^r oy lyiD^yii pk /'nytoD^yn t»''jr 
-Djynn^ n tDi^ .yiyDynpyo tJ^^Jvi^nD y^s pq tyoyns p« 
D^^P^STpiyDsnx n Iy3J1^£^'1^Q dj^h ,:!JiDnyj")ytDJi« ytsiy^ 
■B« Di^i PK ,nn«i^ tyotj^ny Dyn ^^^^i^^vB^vP ly^^J lyn pd 
,tD^ui!{§ lyi PQ lytD^D^nyn n pd \v^^'?Bm^\)V 2,000 jypm 
■jy^ 8 n«D y''vspj^:iij^ nyn tiQ lyvjsj^a n tD^ysnpii§D dj^ih 
li^^ji'i-n^nD iyj^^oy:^i</. "lyn tDi^n iyn>^^ ^^ni ,tD^^5^ iyiy:i 
,^npn;sD D1V n^tiiya iyny:iy:DMi» t^k lyD^yii /'nyt^D^yn 
-n;{$D r:yii n«!:i in os^soytypy i« :ij^^^tj' t^^t? pa t^na Ti^d 
^nx pyiis iyD^:irK i«3 ,i<Tio lyn^tn i^d m ,t^x tis^ ,DQnp 
ty::i^y: onp ni^ t^x n^o iv^v^)^ ^y^Q d^o .ly^sNa-piSQ 

**.i^^soyTpy t^^x i«j typyiDiiy i^^- 



.1862 ,r'iy» iJ^tDSi on 



315 yisy-ira-ifeiiD yny-^n ii« ymv n 

n^iiy:i ^yiii^P c'msn ."id t^k ,isgi px .i:yn yiyrnyi: 
lyDunsD v'?v^i^ n lji^jh "lyoysK^ ini^^ « nx nvDV^?^^ 
lyD^^m^D i:fe?:i<Di^J inj^^ inyv t^k lyD^yn ny:i« t^'nii^cn 
yorj^^fc^ists n .noi^i d>i iid i^^;d^o *iyoD:ynyTy::{i '',yi 
n« ,ibGi 'ri^ \vDi>'?i^v:2H i^t toi^jn iyLDD^:^c'{<D :^d toaytuoyry: 
n nos") oyi pi< DD55"iny::^ns: D«!n ;j^j:iii i^-iyDyii "vt 
,D^S!2:y"iy' '1SG4 Dni§ ."lyimDn p-s i»^jv yiD"i^^3s:Dy-D'^i< 
"lyi pD pi^iiyi Dtj^iynsn iy:;:^:j^x y^v8T^j«;j-iii V2 n t^n 
-i^n Dny^^iDD px iyDD^j''tJ'ii!D P2 iy-i:i!:2"ij<D ^^iiv n .s:d:'i'' 
Dyn PC nDJDH lyi pd tos^yn s; D^iys^^y:; inis' yD^^t:y lyn 
-jyr^^s PD DDj^c-'^yTyrDjjii^^tot^-iyDr.x 1552 yD^n:i n .no^i 
'i^n ly-iy^iD ps "ly-ni^* lyj^ui^^,, -iyi:yDP»ii lyi pk nyo'j 
pa iy:i:i^DS"nb*D n -iV ly-iyoynpyD 5>^-iyjy; viv'f w^v: \V2 
-'<'?\2^^^:'^DVi s ]^i>)'\V} niDj^n lyn t^s t^*^Dp{§D .ntoj^n Dyi 
-S!T^:^*ni^ y^5§:i$^vfc?j yonnj n P2 yt3Dfe?sn pa t^yo^DSp "lyD 
■«iK^ Dyi nytojiN ,p{<"^y3""i^i* pk ,:y::i^Dfe?n»2 n pk .oy^v 
-••D ty^yDi{$£Di« 18 I1D n^nnn n n^D tyrayj ,t:^y:v: tia w^ 

.tD^yii i{^*^Jv"T^nD nyn P2 DinytDDO 
n lytJ^M^iV :ynp s tyDi^"i2y:iDnK lynni D{^*n y^^^nyi 
nyi ny^^iv T>ni^''^o ny^^^an^ yny^n p« i5?2-'n pd D^nr^^^y^ 
ay^^iv T>^ii5'^^D p^^ oj^D iynjit:*k^-po s nyis y'iStD':i8 ny^o 
n iy^ni>*v w nn^aj^^x tD^{^i"iy:i tyni^*n D^nr^^yn n dj^ii ,nvi 
8 PD :nJD lymynna oyi oj^d'^jj^ yij^iOt^-nys "lyo^^nns: 
:i:iayi"i83 iy:^>Dy:^s lyi pa iypn«tDD\T oyn n^a *.P"i^-;«;d 



tixn ,i:nK;7yst< t:n;*2N"i .id .t:Dn'?yT t:N-i-]y2i<2 cyn ps lyivantj 
.inyry:? lyixn n^a ckit ,yiExp y;i>i?:'K n tp^ytry; ;i*?yEy; tjik 
-i'2iK n pE tcntn!? k ly^rxniy p*-Nn 'n 'n i^i^^x: * 
enn'fiy;:"^ *7«t ;Nr:-D!:>i2nx ]y;;n:it:s'-pi2 i:,*i tn ;n:ycyn oyia 
UTx'by;! DyD"i'S-n2 iy:Kn:K'? yi3D;;'i22m n ]ie ^m lynwn ,]*iyTi 
,j,niit2tr TIE "iyt:i>2i« yiyu ];»;ii:EytyN2 ly'ryn 'u t« ,iyDm 
]iE,, ,tD;KTy; 'n lyzKn /'ie-.x cyi ck r,nN„ .;«:: ]^s t:i: ]ik 



I 



y;jr ysin:! s o^^njy:iy^y; s iyny:iy:i ^«d lytotj^iy div D«n 
nyto-'^ms m Pi< in iytj^^oivj''ns lyDSiyto''^ m lytostp^iins 



IS "ijrwmK yi^TiiN t2''p3''7:j^i3 k ^jrny:i layii ,yiJit3ty"iyB lySnxs 

yiviapy'jxp psj S'^Jins Dyi ps i:r:«T5« iysjK;j'« tt ^kt ij;d 
-SN tainns «T i^iNH iNS"ni ps D'ni-'^yn n .lyjui^ijKmKSj 

,]yn2it2tr-Dt3iinnx ps UDiTi^n n^T vh Djytaoji'jyn n^T finypi!? 
n .lytsi'i-it? D^j'jyujiiN ]y*Tj;i taio ]yt3p«ii3jNp yiyiinNi n li? 
nj;n is -ix'i'p ta'i'nys'iNS ijrnxn '^t dnii ,'|y5nj«n lyntjn iytani-i« 
m nnj?a an t'n ")N£3 in QjN^tr ]:;o d«ii ,i3i^Tins n tk r]'\):'7p 
^yntsDnj'x n ps yisxr^xjinK iy:-iyn«» lyr p« .ym'^^N i« 
lynxn iD'i "iytDi>m« "ly^'bysji^N lyn ]^p ,nKtatrD«o lyom:? >? finx 
-2"ttyji « inx .^m ny lyn taioiN n iys"i«n is tann^nsj n 
t2'0 inyj3« lyts'mx "lyT tid ,;NtD-DU'»n"iK ty'7Ka-iK: lya'^BSj^ty 
i2N'L2trp"iyn nyi lyiK ,iyny;! ]ya'tt>«D n m ■Si^'? mt« ta^mtj lyi 
pn'Bis:'»K Ml ,iyny: t'n yjNis lyn ps Dsy nyn .lysx vh 
."lyts^mij y*?}? iks jNta-DtD'nnx lyai^iDSXB'j'iDy; lyaa'tDtrKi « 
-y;Dn« ^'taan lynxn ,1861 pN ^lyDNS-nn n ]is D'nn-''?yi n 
pn lyjymws is ^ns pn tayn lyiDioiK '^^j'tv W'i tk ,B3y3yi 
DOis t2': pyn tDi'^uyn ts'is-DU'inix n layii ,y"iiiiatt'-"iyB pi"? 
t^iiNr. Dyn ]is ikj ,a''p3i'7tty'npyn "lyjnoyj^K ps tDp:ia*T3KtaB> 
lycniK IS Ji^'brn w>'>f v^^V^'^ ,v^''^V^ n ps lai^p^^nys "lyn tis* 
pR lytsDJiitDDm Dyi ,iDp3iQ Dyi tD« c]nK .lyiJitatr ytaD;:y^ n 
"i«2 nyT .sii3«p lyn tain^syj "lya^'niK n lyixn ,iainBtt» oyi 
-y; tD0'i3B>Ri T'N ty3«5-ni "lyiNTJN'? n px ;«tD DwniK ly'i'NO 
ny TIN INT tsjn iin ;nia Dyjyj2iayjii« p^oy^'^N Dyn tan'? ]n«Ti 
■«p y'?yo"iNS inn pKiiy:; tsiy^y^piKS px p«iiy-3 m'^uyi -itds 
anyiDty«n n«irDtD<'niN ya^'btantrann n V2 ,]ytDp«"it3JNp yivapy*? 
ny:!'ta3nrnyji':yi'i lyn .lyiJitatr ^yiDiys-^m px 48 ]i5 Tn"?! 
-jysitatt' nytaimN n lyixn ,pi'7 D'Jis yDi«3 lyi lyjyn ,tip:is 
lyi nnn ton^'buy") ,DytaDiD-iyn2iaB' nyn p« ,iy3y;;y:3Ni T^ni 
-y;nNS in^'s lyn ta'o ti« ,;i«tt"Dt3<»i-iN ps jjiis'^yuxn -ly-sjyitsty 

.oms yTo lis ]-iNny;i iy;jMS 



317 ytDyrrnnyis yny^n pK yn^iT* n 

no "lyin^D n ns ^v:ivyr]'iv yt^'^J3^^s3 nx lynnysopy-ryiy: 
TK n^^nns^ iyn«:n "lyo^uis n jjijyii^n i«t^jr-i^no lyi 
""•n >n D«!ini?D lyjsiniK n ly^so iv i»^p D^nyDiss Wi:^: 
i^^D» li^Dy: D^Jiis; lyasn ^n .DyoD^D-iyuioc^ Dyn iy:y: ly: 
D1V T^fc< jji^ytotj' "ly^n .y^siiD nyn ns iv ny^n lyjy^ivifcJD 
^^^^2 ynjyvjy^j >niv pn \^i$>w:i ^iv'?Piv ns^P ^sd iyo:^iy 
-nt^B D3s: ns Pfcjiiyj lynntj^y^ lyrn y^^yn ,iy:jitD>''^ n iv 
^y^2 tynt^n y^^yn .rytoD^^^^vKD y^^^oonp n« lyDD^irt: 
-Di^p i? D^D iyri:y in ^«t nostP lyn rs .iviyi lyju^noyi^^a 

oji^ytDtj^ n m« i»d to»n oyiyoj^N lyopynn -^twd ^ 
lynijy: oj^n nosiTiyDStD ny:i^i3«^ iyDyijn:yr'>o nyi d«ii 
->n Di^ii ,iyi^uy;i n lytj^m^ .lyD^^msi-'n n ns nos^P div 
n lyny: iy:^n ,o^nt:tr Dyi ny^^iv n^^iiy:! t:r-i:yn^2 d^j lyj 
iii^n -iJ^DPsiDJi^P nyonn: s Diijii .oyD-isr^p ivo'^vi^^ v: 
\^ n5§Q tyD^fc<ny: to^j D«n DinyoD^j^D D:ynp nyn .tonay; 
tyoiiin^i^D iy:i^DDy:i'fe§n i^ i^DP^iDJi^P nvi lynn^iy iv n^iy 
n Di$n jji^yoti^ y^^^jny is .Diyp^noD n ns t:n« ranx 
iyni$ 4834 nx 1825 lynn^^ n na Dp^noD pk tyoijy: :ijn^:iyn 
vw^VB^ n p« rtoDyo ^^ lyiiy: Piti' iy:^n D:«:^jin^nD n 
-yn 8 -lysosP yny^n pk jjitj^^orns sts iynn^-iy iv iynn«t^ 
-r« rvDiQ ns iy:355D "iyj«iJ«t^ n ps :i:i^D{§nfc§D"iyDs:y^ 
pa nynytDt^-ii>*D or^^^tDsn in lyni^n oy '^[v:i^V)^ pk ^lynoDn 
-D^rD Djynp di^ y^v^oiByn s op^^j'y:! D«n ,nyt:^^nis 50,ooo 
DJ^n .D^Ni^ ^t^TiJii^p tj'niyi^n lyo .pjy Dyi ly^yn Dinyo 
-5<D ly^o lyi iyn« nyso^y lyrtD^n^ni:^ s lynyjyj Dt^'iyiv 
-■•^si ytj^nj^DjyDS^-isiB y»^Tpini » toin^sy^js Oi$,n nosriyD 



pnyTpE pvn n ]T£5 p«iiyj lynnir:;; i:;:'u eiynn n * 

n ps inx n«^"iy^ lynntyyj-ii'isiiK ly^'n p« ,;iiiyiKEDnK pK 

.2 .1 ,]Ni2in .n .1 ,i'?D»n .d .y ,ti«'?ti'7 .o .''trn ,TTn .ts pyn 

.1861 ,''?r ]'K ]y:'tyi^ ly^^T "t .tty:p .n .k px n'?j;'fiirB'7 



DT"':^"'iT'-T''nii J1S ytDD"'tyy:i 318 

••ITS tDjyDs^isQ p« '?H^ tyo t« ^Din^DyjD^K D^n ni< /V^vstD 
-y:i m)Vi T^N iy rs .lyoD^j^D oyn n''^yQiytoj"'fc< i^^pn-nv 
•D^un^ lyn na lyD^i^i^D n lyn^v^vpmv lyjji^iiv 
I1D »nD{§n"iy3;?§3 lyj^^ijj^^ Dyn na *iy3^3 ^«tp{^D«!is n 
ny:y^ lis vt^'^v:^ i«^:r-i^nD n q«; ly^j^st?^ 4867 V2 isoo 
y:^n lyD^D iv D^^prnys y^yto^yt n D^ny:i to^in iy:n«i .d^^v 
lyrD^u pn P5< D^vi'?'^ ny .DJ^oyiyDJ^x iy^«iP«!D«!n3 
na ryajn^Dss yjyT-^tj^n^D y^s ,K'^^:ijy ty^-'n-iyi^^n nyaj^ 
Dw pi^^iy:! oyDiinsa lyj^n "-n ni ojiiiyii^n lyD^uis nyn 
tDj^n ntDsn nyi m t-d inyt .^^^d^ 4862 m i86i t>K .no^n 
18D nyn ns y:!8nD yiyi^t^^ n lytoD^^tj' iv Di^ms tDon^iN 
.iy»n lys-t^^ yjiyr^^^ n iik iynr?n^t^ n tyti'-'iiv y^vpnoni"* 
■«PJ8^ Dyn PD \voH^ Dyn iy^}<!p^D^iB n pn typ-iyo^n i^d 
-)^i$TyTD::"itoDntDjy n lyty^ vi2 m nyjjin ^yiiisia lyn^t?^ 
v:^^ ns lyDstDto^^iii "lyn^y^sytj' n lyD^m^s yD^yti ,Dy\'j^ 
iy^j$Pi?tD«iiQ yjy ps oyiytDJ^K ly^y^^^yao lyn nyn«i AV^m'' 
Dyi rjnDDni^nDix nyi^^ti' yiD^yn ,tyopji3 n px Djy^ 
"ly^o nyi pa DjyDntoDJ^x nyn pi^ny."! t^t? hd^i lyn •'ii 4di« 
-J1K .p^to^^i^s nyj^>Dy:i^^ nyi px in lyr^^-'D^n iv ojitoDn 
yjynyry^ji^ m to^y^3tJ^y:i nto^i nyn DJ^tn Di^su'-^i? D'-iy;nj^ lyo 

-:iV0^i2 lyom: s iyD^5<ny:i3j<; nto^i nyn D«n 1862 t^x pn 
nsQ y^vsiDD:i}<tDyi d^^ ,^j^*n on^-'tj^n toj^yo p^< 3:i^osn»Q 
1X11 ,''nyDs^pt^' "lyayj iyjy:i lytos^toti^ psv n pa t^^p cyn 
tDijn 1864 pi? .'iv^^v^ Disnn lyn iyiiy:i t^k to^nn in«!:^n 
-D^ji^^jr v\2'?^. n IV y^^^ni<:3« t^x D^ytotry:i lyaj^i in j^djv n 
-■•iiv iy:i:nrnn^D ytoDim n ty:iy: iyiiy:i iyj>n yn^yii ."lyD 
•ID nyto^^nis n pd D^':5Dy n px ajn^:!yi lyi tytj' 
ni^E) vann iytDD>:^n ns:)^D tyiiy:i mn rx ly^^yii ,Pi<ttDDi^^:! 
-^nv tyanpn^Q ^i^t tD0i§-tDDi<i5i nyn rs: .Dpy^i^sis s ]v^H'?^'v:i 
m mvi -ly^iD vy^'?? i^a ryi^Qi?5 noj^n D:ijn>:!yi vy'? 
-n^Q lyn nyDi?5 tj>ni«!tj^n Dj^in ,DPy^i^iQ ryD^^nytj^^ix nyi 
-i^s Dp^^iD yD>n:i lyDmistQ ,feittDJv lyn pq iyj:iy:i n pd lyn 



31§ ytayirnnsB j;-i;"^>t jix «i::r n 

-1VB8 ynj^iB yr^n^T^u 8 dps; js^k^i^d oyi di^psd^j nyou 
-".jvn^nD n HD ,-iyi^y;i yLD"i«i35^y:Bi;j 'Diyo^uns n iin^a 
,yDfei!P "lyi p« ,iyDDs:ti'?yTyrDD^^TyrD^n:y:yj na n« djk 
-iitij^^ "lyn .iyDis>P yuyt^'iyn n na di^;?{^ioji;jp o-,yiT otsn 
IV y^^SDiByn yD^noi^DJ^^s is op^t>'yj o^n nDfcjTiyDfcjiD ny: 
ijsn D'-iyD82 HD Tt iy:ii$nvE«t t'?d2v^v hd mIIsjddispj .id 
-ijDMK ^i^T :jn^;yi n ts .^s^tJ'itjtD oyn lyv^DtJ' iv nt; .:j^p 
nvi lis lyDDJi: iv y^vsT^JSj"i« yirD«"ioD^:^Di«! in^N lyv 
oyi iiD ;:nyi:y n lyi^y; t^k lyro^Mi i^jj .ds^p nyj^'-ans; 
"D^o yoi^ny n .lyon^iDyn yLj'^D^^j^s y:iJa p^d^:?j:?9 d'dsi 
pi< p^D^?j^s iy:jynaj^n5§ iy:iyj o^yDiJ^y:! in lyniijn nyi^^j 
"ij<D px ny^^^tj' ly^^yii uyji^i^ lyojix y^vj§i^:8Ji{i5 nyi 
■ns DD^Dix -iy:i« p&< '?v)M^n lya^^n ,1862 r^n isoi ps pim^ 
y^^SD^iS ny*i isd D8"i Dyi pd yv^otJ' n lyniy:! i:^ D"m 
oyi "lyDJi^^ 4866 pj< -iyn«; ; Dpy^«i2 Di«2y"i uv: s isa 
•nyn Di^n ,p^d^i«p p« ly^y ,t:nsJ^y3S ,ivn^ pd di^d:>"'8 
■DDJi^oyi -lyi PK ::nyoD^^:isn d^o lyai^^^i^y^j^ns in toetn 
,::n^:iy-i iy^j<-iyn^^ nyn pd Dpy^«i3 nnj^ayn oyi -isd v'':i^''\ 
»y^vsD>:j< nyi px y^^^i y:ynyTy:iji$ t{§ to^ys^yj dj^sh iik 
■»T noK^D-^^yn yrtDi^^Dti' n Ti§ ,iviyn D-in^^yj Dt^jn y:3^yii 
Dsn nyi DJ^n nni^^ lym^yt oyi px *.t33yTD^L}c iy;np w'? 
PK "^i<ji^^V8:-iyDr«» Dyi t^^a lyo^uisiVD^D tDD^DiJ^yj:''^^ 
-ysi^n^^K y^8 pd lyonsDyn yt^'^Dsnpj^Dyi nj§D ^jnyiJijD nyi 

.iy:i:n^jy"i yij'^x 



]yny; lyj'n ,''?y:Kp ]in i^jinb ,i;';;nN ,]nd^tnp ,cnK;7:,*£K ,i;'^j; 



) 



Dyn ns tDnDDMi^ lyn^^DjyQV iyDi"'Dfc?!^pyi pn^Dtj^ iyi 
•j^K lyiJVD^nsn ^ tysny^DMi^ Di^n ^Dj^trty^j^Q iy:«tij«^ 
T'D .Dfj^^Jvi^nD ns lyiDjy^ y^y^^jniJ^ia n p« ov^vo 
VT'?:ir]V o'D iDnn:j^3Dyi}^P tos« D«n Disn lyi ts av^^v^ 
yiyn:is n« "i^y^syj^^ /Dyn:ij^D«!j /1«;;t^^:i p« lyDQs^^nyQnyp 
'^v^n'<^ ny^yDii!?QDi« is ty^iyj dq^^ t^« nx /DiyDtj' nn^^iiB 
tDDyi lyiiy: to^j lyaj^ d^^ii oy .iy:iJ"i;iyTi8n yj^^Dy:i^« pj< 
n IV lyDn^ayiTyiy:! pi^ yirDs^^f^:^« yvj^s:! n tyn^ni^^iriv 
tiQ tDDstJ'iynn^Q nyijy!^jy^;i lyn lyoJ^x -yDDSsn iy:«nj«^ 
^VDVB^ ly^yn n^D d^uis Dvt:)V)) n^i^ijj^ipyo lyij^Dpy^i? 
tDD8nDy:iJ^ns lynyn: ly^n^p n pd tOD^D n r^x ,iyn>ntj^8n 
'H^?VD m ; y^V!5i!D^:is nyti'nsDjyDs^nss nyi t^« n^iiyj 
Dyi ly^nxiisa mn .^ynsoyp nyiJ5<iDpy^;j§ nj^ns d'i^j^j 
^ynsDyp .p^o^^fc^B y^^: n \VDr\vm:i$. t^sriynj^Q lyi^^rs^; 
iynj<in ,Dy^vsT^JSJ-iJ$ v^v't mn :injytD^''ni8 n^i<t:{$npyD n^? 
px :iJi:y"n8n li^^jm^OD lyn ifeitQ ytDDrDD"'ii D«n DD^nnyn 
■y: Dyn pd :ijnyDynDM« tfe§ njin^DDin ,nn«^ ynjyoip n 
ns IV D^nr^^yn pd iy;iJin^v8n n Dn^^i;iyi toi^in d«ii ,ryT 

•lytD^u 
^ji^njsnsn pi< d^-'HD^''^:! n tyii ^d-'^v ny^^Dvx nyn pn 
IV TT nyiitj' T^j^ nsT yjyDijy:iJ«i p^Dy:i^8 m v^ ryry:! t'isQ 
yD^s n tiQ D^^prtoDyny:iDiN yn^j^iu n ••its ni /ly^iyDt^ni^D 
i^^£)8 /pi^iiy:! tortDDyisn t^k iyvyTyriyD^ui8"ii«-D^nn-'5'yn 
lyrDi^iny: D«n n^nn-^yn 8 lyii .Djy^i§^isa ds^p^d^d s iiq 
-ns ii$t:y:i Di^n Di^n iy iyi*i i^^s^ nyto^^nis m d^d ife§D£)« t» 
-ji$ DJi^py; li^J Dn^j? tya Di^n j:jirDDyi8n \m m T^D^n 
lyoJiK mn-p^^ 8 pd ^«q t^« nyij§ ,ri§nyjyiis!t^' n«D mn'?? 
D«n Di^n ,DDny:i div lysn tDjfc$py:i Dn^t< lyo D«in ,djiq tnyv 
pD DDp DJ^^i yDiD n iy^ni^V5§n ^j^t iy ,iy^nyDsn t^jt^py:; 
iDi^n ^v:i'?V'\'\ nyn« lytD^ms ts ,D^n ly^^-'i^v iyi iid .dh^^ 
nyn IV iyDipy:i d^:; t^t^tii^ dpsid:«ip v^t tyDj<nny:i i^^tonnns 
-ya D«n 4yvj8:irx nun-to nvi \vm'?^^t^ ^nn nyn« i:^'«m8 
^ni D^» py^i DD^iDK^sn m '?vyD'>i? pyii pji§^py;j« tDj»p 



321 vtDyirnnys ynj;''^T ji« «DJr n 

Dyi OM^ .iy^2^i< y-iynjs y:yi^^ti'"i8a nnn n^ny; D-iy;iy-i8D 
-^y3 {§ ts ,iyDipy;DMN t^« lyr^Misa iiQ ryry:! oyj^^oyj^s 
18 pn ii^p nyo^uns is ns Dj«;^py:j» iDWi -ly lyii ,n^2n 
D:i^^py::«i t^k di^jii nyo^uis is nyn ,p^^8 in nsa nny 
IM nsD nny is pn Di«t:y:i tD^j onn ,n^2iT^ya nr: n«iiyj 
lyi^Misn v^vi2^ v^^'? is /H^dsb t02« nnsi Djy^D oy .p^^s 
D3S"iny:i«;2 to^j iy:y^D ,nun-^yn oyi pd iy;:"i:i{^*TDns n ni 
-y; DJ^n nyDDn-DjymD iyj^y^j>^j< is -DDny: r-is2 \'\v^^ 
,nyutj' s nyoJiK iy;j'i:fc?TD^iK pd n:n:i i'd^k ,t:DSD n osn 
DD{$ nyo^uis IS iT'DDyis IV 5'nyDsn s lyny^ivDms 
iyt:^D PS Dyn pd nyii Dsy^'j^y^Dms ly^^ms lyjy^a 
"^yn ,DsitDD^:!SD s pd ly^^i nvi nn^ d^s: "lyn 
-«is lyi *.n>nn-^yn s lynyj p"'^s ly^sD v'?V''^ ps t^s lya 



-Nil) S"iy£Kn-cDy"i« ]K Tin DysKis N lynnmsjK es'*?!: n* 
-jTJ DKT Dnwn ,ynNt2yD yi^'o^js^K n lyny:? icirn^Ms t^n (t::KT 
iD'i t2K-ii2D'j;«o D;n tsxn ,p?t2iyfl oyi tynnxtyn ps ,1824 ps }>j;t 
ri'nn-'?:;! k ckh ry^y:? D>*jy' on'? .mm "lyn:^ p'p ]yn;':y:» 
-y; t:;iK'?p;;:K t'n ij; ]::n ,t22n;*; px lyiyn i^STiy^ i:E"i«iy;i 

D'nn^rtrn n;n i:xn 4848 p« "iy2N .nyiitr « lyciiK t:j;«^piKS 
Ci^j ,]yny;T^Dm« ,iy':N£ y'7« pN ^2x12 n nyt2D>n n lyn;*;;*;; n^y<3 

-yj m^i iyt:'i2-iK dj;t ^y£n n n:N'rj;iy \ih pxny:! tain '£;♦;::'' 15 
-y; ];'2;*Jv;DmK p'o:?;'7« pK iyJ"T iy'ry£Kn-i:Dy"i« n p« ,B2n 
ny lyn 1y^« t:nN'^tr ]ie pyTi« T'« lyts^mx lyT ]yn in: ]"iKn 
lyT .i23ny; ]'x ]y:ntr-iy ^^^ ;anyiN£finK n t2;'7REyj 120 tsxn 
nTK ,n:N7i:Kiy pN ;'t:^i;i lynp ta'j "lynw T'« vyry; D'nnyiyn 
nnx' Dp TO ny^'oiK ]is ]yr:DyiK ]yDTpy:nKS iy:^>T ]irtt"i«T tk 
-■byn ci^K ,DyTnnp-::3>in n p£ y:''N lyny;? t^n dkt px ,1867 
nj«'7j:y ]iN n'£K .i2;K'?pKn iu lynxn lynycty-iNE ny*.x,:TN^j; n ya 
]iyTi ]y2y;j;;DmN nx: i3'»!J is ta^'s ]is ]y'7j;EKn-t:DynK ly^y'i'fl 
iyoipy;"iKB taniuty k t^n isc3 pk .]ycK-it:D';N» y:yD'2-i«E ps 



-y:i i«J pn oji<tpy:i to«in lyo^ois is i^s n^iitotj' yrvj^^x n 
nnnn n iyny:iy:i o^j i^^s^ dh^k tD«n ryry:! D«n .K^^jjiiyn 
ajn^^K^Djy nyn nc •rsnyjyii^t^' nyij^ n^iiDtj' ty^ni^^^sn ii^ 
tD''j ly^ oi^n ,iyiiy:i d^j t^n m' :ijyi£D^ ^ii nyD^n nvi na 
tj'^j^jyDyj n t» ,iyny:i^^^ i«j iy» pd ^id^ .p^^ys^ i:^:i^\^Vi 
T8 ""ITS! .nin D'JiD nyD^-'iis Dyi D^ncsn d^: dj^h n^noK^ 
yiynnyD t^j^j^jyayj p« n^stj^:^''fe? tDJ«py:i dh^n iDi<;n tyo 
*.tDP«iDJ«p nvi ly^yin pd ndh lyrn^ytDy-i i^q ^«tD 



*P«/. .ryT];j» i;rta'mm^<'D^i^^"''7yi Dyn tan^ iyayi:-]yS-inp 
n pfi p«Tijr;i uQj;'?trvJD»nK 'n ps ci'byn!? lyj^u ta^xj lyia^a 
lyT p« n«nj?;i uiKBtrpi'^N I^J'^t pN ,'isi^nq i^t iin iytaj;2 
n ]yT«'?n«5 lynxn 'n tj? ,y:K'7p "lyi t^iix ,tr'j;ijy£j;j! "lyaymn 
•i«D);s«na ps e|j;ni h) ."rrnn-i'^rn oyn jnijrn'i'yo id^j tannx 
.(1863 ,.syn iyial2 Dyi /'ixaKtapysD,, p« i^t>2 
pB jj^D'OJ^p ry^y: lya'oiK-pN-D^nn-i'byi .864 y;;«is nyr * 
,triaiyi D'JMip ]i5 lyiaDnxn ry^i?^ /P"i«'7p iy:ty;! piuiN ; 1866 
,j;iD'i2Np ]y5jyTyrDcn"iN ps B^nxi lyjD'nn cyn p« ,417 la^r 

.7 BUT (1875) 
-i>nK nyunn-i« ]« laixpyj laxn ]yi3 ya'i'yn tan^ /]yi^yTy:i n 
,Bp«*itDJNp DiD'ui« Dyn lysytn inu tn*?! D'ijjjysy;? Pn lysixn 
-INS iDKn ry^yj DKT lyn ,ti''s "lyjy ps s« T^'baD'a^y:? lyttxtaiy 
iy:»amsDMN nyi« tD'onx ps tt iy;?«TE):« is nyunmjj n lytax^ 
"IK nyn ps Jinx'^nKS lyix JiJU'oy'^DKa-iKS yiy .pi"? nynt ^i? 
-IN ps iy;iNTQN "in uib's m yiyji'^x dkt lynyj lynnyn t^k ta'o 
-i«p ]iB inn « nTN a'i lynyj t'n d«t px ,rDannny2'K lyta^n 
]^n ]is ]yoijyj tt iD«n oxn ,ta3''7S k ffin« pn nny m ,t3pKita 
lyjiyn ry^y-^ DKT .ry^y^ ps p«nyj iD-in'Byj53in T'n ]in nixtsty 
aiisNtaD-Du^niK lytsDnnxi d):i ps I'noN px taoNtaty tapois cyT 
-jyi2 ly^jms ts lynyj t'« 'jy^-^asnn pn dkti ,1343 inx' ps 
lai^BDnpy iyn«n yD'?yn ,iy:ii;i3nNn-tM'b n s]nK lya^niK ii? lytr 
-Nn T]}"^)::^ cwt ps ^ai'^'^asN ytiin!? n .ns;i» lysiKntr ny*T "ins 
K)im« ]iiT taTN':"iNS "lyiyn « nyix lytt'^niN ]« nnx tk ^ido'idb^ 
.ty'^jaysy:; ]'n pyn usytyjjj'nN -ly *?nt ,a>'s nyiaoiatyNi lyi i«fi 



323 vt:vir2-iyiD vny^-'T i"i« yits^i'' •'I 

Dyi n^^.N Di^TiyDfess -lyij^^Tfes:?: nvi ns: D>^pc5<Tp-iyDDn« n 
-fe$n Dt^n -LDDnssn D:yD5$^ife$s 8 .rytyrnyD^-ms-nx-D^na-^^yD 
iyD^py:nj^D "in«t^ P^x I*K 'iV^'f iV^^ny; n ps tj? rrJV)^ 

v;'.:n TyTy; DKT j:;':'ik-ik£ ckh nys?;;!! ,1503 px ,-i;»'7;:'N-]-in;7 

PK ]-iyu tii^T^'jiiniK :::Kpy; ]y2Nn y2^;n ,-iyK;''::iK-pii:tr r,n« 

-lys'?:,*'.'. ,i3"i;nj',n"inKi ]yi::n;'!f2K cyT p£ cim^ike pn .ciik n 
ycaiiscNi y;i22 lyi^^;:? ]'n ,]nyT;j5 ]:;2Nn iiq 'v. ,-i''"^ v;^y;^ vt< 
]'.£? lytcniriKE n crKn;*; lya'.^K'iD y.Tn y;;:N7 n lyi^n ,i;*rKr 
.r;'ii2Dn:iN r--J<?3iyn n pK ■iy;:;nt2!r px CD'tttrxz nn;-o ryry:: 

n iy;ypi::N ^iy;Nn T!i D»nn-'7ya y^'^inya-.N ins azxay; ■i'7;:;'d 
-y:! tti: n^n:*mnx' lytsiny^ij'^: cyn ]i£ ;'',n:K ]in t'k ,iyc»'2-i« 
-yi nyi lyny; t'n y27yn ,;::pm-iyajiN n nyT^^N ly^yM* ly'i 
p-i«t:iy ]';2i}n dxt .]y:2i;;':i'NnN£-nytt'imN ly^y; ryTy:? C':i£ CKa'jn 
uj;t iy-::yn ly'wiiyu y3''?i:y„ pfi lycNEnNE n ]y2Kntte'y;"iya:iK 
-»^yn iyT'7i;y"i is ::!i'« lyr^Dupy DNn i^'ifyTy; n p£ ^:^?'J;c'^i• 
-snpD'.:Kf2 Diy72„ n lytrm;? lya^NnNznNE) /'lycniN p,K a^nn 
"1K2 cyn ]T£ s^'jiny; lyn ,cnn trnixtrTT ys'jyn ,(27.804 *"]yts 
-p'i:B» n .1823 px t:2''7i:2y£yiK£ ttxn ,ino nyays iy'7;a'!2 c:ycK7 
^y'ijysD T>N ,"iN'r-3:iN-py^ ]is uicncd oyn pE jji^^isbk o^mK 
piKt:B' T'K„ ,E>Mn 12JNT /'^ii*?' i*^3N '1 ttx,, .'T'r^yitsnyiOTN ]yny;! 
n r:nyr. c21n iyt:"iND y?y'E "n anxn ,]"iNny:s t23MiuD'D 
;:i;ii:Ey3'N2 cik lyr non» ,iyt:''m« pN ]ie ]Kt:y;2K ta'j ts'mij 
-y; "T "i^ni'N is'i^ik ]"k lynnms:^ ''t c;2ms cxn ,ktk vh 
lyivt lyrxa dnu n >i2 ^ke lyi t'n dkt m ,y"iyi:« ik iy;n 
■)«£ ttS'.p cy ,kt'7n ,iyn .lysNE yiyi:K '^nxs i^'D'n; k 'tn ]ik 
-»»n"iK n "lyiN ,]n tt tt2'*n p^nco n px pi? lyjjyn ri'ntstr « 
r:»nn-'?y2 lyi "t u^'txehke ,Ti'"ny2iN ]k ik: ta^oiN n lysixn lya 
-?N£-ixE ycKTpnm 2':yvi -inyT .]yt:'J2 pN t:"2iK n lyEiKTipyiix iks 
lytKiiNE iy2«n D«r. lyifVTy;; n -lyajiN ]yf2ipyj;-iNE lyji'T ]y2:u 
"IKE y;:^''f ]y:iT2'?NE"KE lytt-iyiiin "lyns ,iyjs3U':"N-iKE nyci'ziK 
'?Ka:"p lu iy:Kp ly.i'^inx n ]*,n ^ryty-s cyi !:« ::n'7 lyoip;';? 
ryiyjs DKT ^.pyu i2"iyn:yy; t:yu ^y^y^ dkt lyn^'D ,iy»n£Kn o': 



8 *.tytDp«iD:i«P"Db^ni8 yjvD^inya \vm) lyoyv^ns 10339 

Dvyiy; n^sn in D«n lyn n« .nyii loiyDynyjonx ^«r ryry; 

n .tonytoK^ nni«i3 n p« ly^jy^y^y viV2V'?r]'B\:i'<D n d^d 
-rj ,Dyn:ij^D«j n^y^ayti^ ,^«toDnn ,ii^nj«!^ na lyDsrryD^Q 
-ji^ ]^i^))Vi lyns^yjj^^s ^yoi^iQ lyj^n ,;iinny n^? ^oDstP 
ny^ pi? jjiiiyii^n iyD^^DD;5$t^j"'^Dy:i lyT i» in tyo^^tj^iv 
-yj Dnn^Jisjii!? tyt58i"iy:3i5§D yrDi« tyrn tDnyotj^ ynyn:^ nx 
-8D^:i8 nyn pn lya^yn iv ^^v'n ryD^^pmoni? oyi d^d n«iii 
y^vsDi«2:>« na Dnj^n^Dyo,, s pq n^^QDyrpy 15,000 .v'^ 
nyDJix nyDJins ty^feSQ yD^yii nytD^uis n na imay; i'isd 
**,"iyDiyD Dyi tj^mjsti'n pd didsdd pa rytDsnt^'ii^Q n 



IS mam!? lyD'byn ,ryTy:j d«t ;i3tr'a ikj5 t^n jju'ji'n-ins ij;;y;i 

-jny DNT T^N ,p^'7 i^'u pyjy^piKS ]ix -ij;!2i»m« n lypmiytD^iK 

in^K latx"? :i:u':'»NnNS ipjjj;;? lysyTp n jjnajrsjnpms pK /pyu 
-nnynns Dj?n pk 100 pa ly^xs 99 ]'k lya^mx n "ij?i'k }>^k -jNi 
/'D>m-^'?yn n psj ly^m djtt ]is j5Uiyna« lysjNj px ,^:ki2b>is ij?:j 
\V2Hn ,BDj;i3«"iB oppniDiyniK *?j;D^n« Dyi }>«"itt "ip« .(51 la'u) 
Dyn ]"ij;Dj;nsDn« u"m« n ij;Duy-3sn« ,DTn lao pK D^y^s la'i 
■BN T^syTtasnn i't lynxn lu .]yinp«-iiDiNp DB»»n-i« y:n:n nTy-' 
tannins n "lyanmK n pyD'nxs is yiNJisn^ lyT ts^o lynyjiy;: 
-jKp lysyii INS lysKntaiy pyiw n px ]ytDpK-iuj«p lyoi'^ty is 
.iaiipOKTpnj;i22n« nyiu lyn^s rajxpyj la'j taD^NOxi laxn /lytapKio 

"lyjynyTyjjK ^n lyiTJ?^ T'n lyD'byn ,'7ynsttyp iyniKDpy'7« * 
lynxn td m ,p;ny:j t'n nyo'^yn p« ,]yn« laiyiNi ]is TD^n 
p« i«'3v "ly^NtaD "iy:n^p « ptj -ly^y-ipyo nyi ,inyTyj piiy 
-'BiyD ik;;tk^;i„ Dyi tniapKnyn 1863 px laxn ,1834 px ,injjtn^;i 
]iK pn'?«JKnpyo ps iNj-iN-tssnn nyn pxny; t'n ij;3'i?yn ,'"7^3 
T« ,iyny;yjjK tanyn oy .Dnyjno ps lasNty'byTy; "iy'7x:«isj<i p'r 
nyix^TN'?; oyn ps nyn:n; nyi tr'tspKS lyny; 1858 p« t'n ^ynsoyp 

.ntsxi-iyDNS 
"y'^P'^y yDi'i'iapiiB « tayu'bwnt::::; nya'^yn ,Dni«nKi3y» nyT ** 



"lyD^^n-ii^ yoDD:yro«"".B n Iyt^'^^w \ii^wi tDi^^ipn^v iy:>n 
w.^oyt^v^rx D'l^i^ji^npyo nx D'^yasoyp n^ix .i:^^ pd 
112 nynycJJ^P st ly^mfciiD o^riyDSiD lyii^jji^?^:! lyi o«n 
-lyi IV lyDDya'o^ ^*ii .lyo^^iiD^a iv "lynyDiJ'-i^D iii>:r-n^no 
Di^n ,ny"iy2J«P n oi^ .y^^^«D^:j< "lyi ns ^y^v Dyi lyiD^n: 
LDi^n n« .i«^ '•'SiD r« ,]i^i:H'? rx n^^jiiyj tyo^fci!ny:ia« t^k 
.{<i^:v-i^nD "lyi pk y^fcjsy 15^ tD:yD^^vi?3 jyo iy>D t^nymyi 
:r.^Dfc?!Tns!£ y^ytJi^^vstJ 8 in D«n ^j^d lyot^ny div .ytDD^e^y: 
n£ 5in Dyi nMi< ,p^^5§ D^yos^nstD lyDj^jy^yn i^^jr-n^no no 
,yj«-iD lyo^^ms ife5 lyDyiBt^'fe^a iv ,y^vs!T^Jii!j-ii^ li^^j^^-i^ntD s 
;y:^n oy -lyDs^p y-iyi:^ iid yi:y^n^DD'o 112 ^^^t nyn ins 
lyj^n >n lyti^niv nyns ^lyoin^y^yi 20 ^ii -inyo tD^J lyoipy:) 
PK D:)i^^:v y^^:«:^v^J yo^nj y^s pd yoos^n t^s^in n mw: 

*.iyi:s3-isD is^jm^no 
-^^2 ly^iya lyj^n nyiyc^i^ip nyi pd iy3:i^n:i$i-n«G n 
:i:n>:yi "lyi pd "iyn^^:to^o ^m .yrDynoDDy^j^yj :n:yD:^ 
-ni3 5<; D^o .Dy^vi!tD'i3yi iycny:iv£nx n^^iiy: lytoynyj iy:^n 
-ns inyry:! in lyo oi^n ojyDi?^-i5$3 pa iyi^^:tD^D Si«iv -lyo 



-oysyn /'pry^yo Diyp''DDy^;"B:''7£„ oyi ]'n P«iiy:5 cpmyjBK 

.1863 ,-iy3 

-pyo lynjNDpy^N ,::»jn .^'tyn .tt ,'7'y; ^y»:yT ,iynK {rn-iKtrn 
]KD7TNp p'.ny ,'7y25cyp n;n:NDpy^« ,n'7y'£:K-n DN'^m ,i^KiKT 
lyT^y-s lyi'M dnh ,]yt:2Ntr7yTy; n lytrms .lycNB trniKtrn ]ik 
iy'":K;TK'7;! ,ncxn"iy2Ks nyjN*T:KViyT : lyi^y^ ly-''^ ,iyi:Knt2isE 
-^b ,iyr«£ yrsi'T'jNJiK ]ie tssKy^yiy;: -lyn^ycytr ,cy:2'0Np lyzKfi 
-y;j ■iyj3Nn;2'c«j ,t:£NB''7yTy:: 'f^iir-iyzsE ■iy!:j':"N"iNE ly'jisnyii 
"lyoymn px "lynay'nynmn tik: n ,iy3KE yt3"in':K;"iK pE cENtr^yr 
pE ]yi:Nn-iNE n ; ]yt:E«tr'?yTy; nyr:"n"iN ]tn lyrxE yt:;'j>'NiNE 
■^y;'S 11E Dy'SKTONj;nK y'TKiX'SN: n ,D"iy''rNttD ]ik ]yt:D':'trND 
iy:Ki:K'7 n ,iyij'n3i2 ,D-iy:iiD ,iyD'j lyi'^K ,iyiy'*.o oyiyno 
nyn'ry'Eyty n ,iypyn v^m^jb^n^ n oysyrtaEniy ]is cENtr'i'yTyj 

.y-iyiJK ]^H tysND ly^yr 



Its T^is n^^n:y ti« n^fe$D vyry; D«n iiyoynDnx iy:yi"t dsii 
n»iiy- iyD^8ny:iS)» iyny:ivyTy: no :iji^ds!t-i^3 yD^n:i5'»2iy 
-Siy^yn n ixii ^kdi:! DjyDS^-iyts na "lyo^v yynt:,, nyn pj; 
D^o nyi'^to^D tD:yD»^i82 yD^^nj^ns n tojj^p^n w^i^n wo 
PD Dii^D lyi piMx D:^j>>xy; in tD«n lyo .tytJ^JiNii yiy^n 
-j^ns Dn>K OD^t3ti'y:ij''>8 D«n toyn^ip .i?d nx tDpy^j^is nvi 
DyiD^t:fcN*P'ty38D nyifc^iiTs^:! lyn .DJyn^^-isQ px lyjjyin^v 
rvwi yjyj^^tj^yni^Q n lyv^otj^ i^ n«myj D-inn«D^ifc< t-'x 
-ijvn^nD y^s ns lyou: px y^vsD^^s I8 inn ^jnyoynoMx 

•i^nrjyp PD Djs 
PD n^J^iya t338nny:ij^ni§ t^k ny^^'yii ^Dpy^^nsvyry:; lyn 
-y^ n nyn« .p^iiy:! iyoijy:iji^ tD^j ^«;»j^"'P T^i^ ,joyaj<!p .no 
-"18S piQ D^^oKipnyocMN n iyrivy:i OHr\ v^^^^:^ v:nv2 
yo^D^p yjyn>^py:i s t^k 1866 pk tix ,y:s"iD nyn ^i^ix Djyo^^ 
ranx .nyn tyjyii jJitj'ii^DDnx i« lyDSo iv n^iiiy: too^toii'^i 
PK ,Ti>*D^y i^i^'? DJ^n y^D^Di^*p nyi pd oti^2 nvi p.d n:)n:i 
DJ^n ^v^'?v)) ,o?v^H^B 8 DjyD{<^i^Q p« o-in^2y;::nn .1867 
■y: lyD^s Dyi pd tyD-'^proDyiyj^ix ytDD:ny n 025<*kry:!S«t 
'^vo^''\v nyi 4867 p2 ryty: iyD^^ni«-px-D>nn-'^yn nyn .ryt 
-y: PD o'2Vi nvi ^^ik DJi^^jrn^nD n pq :^«2iy ny^rton^^B 
tynit^iv ny^n nyoyn^n^Q i^ lyQ^^iny: ^y^a DJ^n ojuy-i^^yr 

.y^v^tD^JS ly^i'nijittojyDb^^i^Q in i^' 
yDynrmsQ viV''^ p« ^tojr n d^^i .tD^-iv iyi px iyn{$ 
-ntjt i«^:v"i>ntD n DV"i:«n p« tytot^riynj^Q n dq^di^q tynt^in 
nyn o^n /y^vsD^;^ nyt^^^D^^i^ta nyirtop^ I55 ^m ov^^^v2^.:i 
-y:i iy2ny:Dni« Dp^ntoD y^rDyi:i{$ ps ::i:!"'Di^t3jy ynjy?j*Lj' 
•tD^^v ^v^v tiQ "jytoD^ji^^jr yD^S!» n P2 n^^^ Dyi ^n lyj 
T^x t5«riyD«;D nyji^nj^:^ nyi pd Dy^vp:iD db^ih n pd yj^^^ 
,Dy^vs!T^j»n« IV (D^yti^jynyip) tytj'^j:i>^v tyr^Mife§n iv ^ry^iy:! 
-"18 n IV ^n rnjin::yD«!pyn ,Dp^ntDD Din^Dy: tyn^^n v:}'?v)) 
lytj'^jj^iv n ni nts .yv^tDtj' 15§d iy::$<D ynyus pid lytD^^n 
Diyp^ntoD nyj^inji^^ iv tn^n to^j piyii iyny:iy:iDm8 lyjy^D 
iHJD ivi oi^n >Div\:i^ v^Vi^^ pD D-iyp^n*jD iv n^ix "i«: 



327 VDyrmifeiis yij?''''! ps ^isji"' >i 

iVD^Dti^tftD "IV v:^'? "lyoyiipynoiK "lyi p« t^si oyn tD^ytoL^-yj 
•D^i lyny^ n^ix oyos ,d"': "^vm nosDn i^n iyny:i ^i^r iy *v 
D«n Diji^ nJKiDtJ'DiK 18 — .i^n;^:yp nvi p« p^noD lyro 
nnyo n to^D DMDiJ'jyD^T'.v pn tosi nyi ODsizyj iyD^::\N 
n loi^n ,^y>vyeD iy^82 ^miv px .Dy^v^r^j^n^ yirDyi:}!; 
.Dy^DiPDH v:i'?v^^ IV D-in^sy; iy:ijitDDn n P2 to^^njyny^'^n^a 
8 .y^vs;T^:8:iJ^ y^^: n in8sy:i pk D^yD'j^'y:; lya^^n v:i'?V)) 
-jy^jyD"'D n px lyDJ^j-iayionx Di^n lyDsts'na n na p^ntDD 
"lyojiN -lyo^s nyn ps toin^^yj /1864 n^nj^t px ,t3ny::*^ ytj'n 
■■•^m^ n iiD jJi^nisn n -Diy^i^^'jo pa toa^t^'^yry; jjiv^olj' 
■^ys8 •'^3 D^\ijyiyn£'ivmN yD^n:i lyany^DMns D^*n lyo 
.1:83^82 ny^«:DD Dyi pd yiroipyrpy nyi >^2 px iyt:i8: 
iyDi:y::i^ ^y^2 rnny^p to^j o^^n D^Tiy^^D "iyj«i:«5' lyi 
n lysny^Dn-is idik oyi nnx p.x ,DPJi2iJ8oii' D'toisj^ys^ 
-n« n 1K1") ,iy"ijy:!y3 yv:^: ps lyD^Q-^n n P2 D28»j^"iy::y:i 
IV pn lynytn oy^v^T^^sni^ y^y^vjm^is pk ly^i^p-iss vr'^ 
iytD''"'ni8""'n nyi pd dd^^:i oyi iyo^5?ny:-:nK dj$d lyom: 8 
lyj^n D«ii iyD^^prD''n*LDtr ys^^-iyj^x n ny^jj .1834 ps pj^jr 
tD^: to^ni lyj^n ^Diy^t^oo n ^^n ^it^^p nyi pa iyDpNi"iy:iD>n8 
n pD p^noD nvi "lyn^x o^noj^ nyi m rOD:iy nrs lyiiyj 
-ivj^ns ronj o"": T>N Dy .Iy^^Dt^'JyT^^8 iyny^"'cmi^2::8t:D 
ty:y: ^idsp lytDiyo^nn^a ly^ni^n nyi pd d^dis n px rny: 
n P2 :i:i^i:8n n jjnyjy^pn^a pi^ lyrojyvi^is-inyv » 
DDny:i s ^imk tny^iv^^^s tD:8TD:y in lyni^n v:}'?V)) .lyD^-im^ 
■«^c'y;ii$D >n o^n n^y^st^t:^^ iii$ ^■infc< lyn dj^ii ,Dmn pa 
lyji^nji^^ Dyn ^^n tD^Mjyiy^iD'iv!:*,^ lyany^D^ny! o^n ^ly: 
PD n«iiy: tDjy-iy:iDnx iy:^n lytj^jyo ynyrvM n .D^Tiy^^a 
-yBD in oi^n lyDss s^•^^l^tr^ .d^i nyi P.a t:''"'prDyo nyi 
-D8T18D yrv^n n ^^n dviv^ yj^n o^d Djy3^^vy:DnN ^y^v 
inytDK^ w iyo8"iy: ^n Di^n iy ikti ,Diyp^nt:D n pa :y;:"i^ 
•lyxniynhsa yny^n nt<a ^iid d-.v pn ^o^P px 
-y pa lyajiD^^v n ps piij^^^e^ t:nnira nyD^yn nytD^a 
-i^Bi^ ypisoLT 8 ly^yDC'ivan^ Di^nna t^^^op^a t:«in ,to^>v "lyj 



"tyD8a"''n Dyi m^: .^d2v m no p^d^^«3 njn iy:iyj y>vn 
yonnj « D^y^Qtj^y:! D«;n ny lyD^yii pi< 4860 nx 1859 na ^d{<p 
■yii i§ /'P«Dtj^-tyu„ Dyi lynyjDMis lyn^nyjj^i ny o«;n ,y^i$i 
-yj ly T^K p''^8 .D^yii ii^^jvn^nD lyn ns i^ni^ tyD^^o:yD 
-j^DD iyj«n:j$^ ns ni^pn^s typj^j-i^^p i$ na i>^:id>d s lyii 
m \v^'\^^'?VB^ HQ iy::iy:i lyiyo^n si m)Vi t^« ny -ony^ 
D^^ Dn^t? -i^D lyrsy^ ,nyto^^ii nx i864 ns tit< nj^nnss pn 
tDnysDpy m d^^ .y^^n«3« ts ns Tinno^ix lyiy^ p^? -lyin^s 
-jyo^^v lyto^Q Di^n ,yD»^pyi px y^v^to^^is pd ddjip nyn i^« 
to^: n T« nT!?§ ,D^^':5D^^jynyQ ynn^npnyn o'?^ onnira t^ni 
i^"'as njijj "p^iDtj'-tyn,, Dyn ps n^: do nyry^ ytov^stj^y^iyn^j^ 
T^K iy T8 /tyn^i^:i dd-*^^ n8:i toj^ipy; iyn»n /'dd^^d^ lyi pd 
-IS! PQ :iJi:y"ns!n lyi lis "iy^n>D lyDDD^^noi^Dj^^s lyn iyiiy:i 
-ynsy") too ^j^dj^-'P Dt^sn iy ts: .t^k dpsiq lyn .Dst^p "iyt5^''2 
lyo^ms,, n ^^Mi ,y^v!?§Tos!:n^-is;Q yrtoDn v^p DT'^jyt 
tyiiy: t>x /D^ynnyna m'wa vi< iy nys^yii pd /"y^vss^vi^Ds: 
nsi:i PD lyji^nyQ yjyi^-'tj^nss pd y''Vfe?T"':s!:ii{$ v^^^dv^i st 
4867 T^n 1864 pD ?« n'-D iyj^Dy:i iHn .d^^p^^dd^i nyssup 
?iD lytDSi^y^yn n pd lyiJi^DssnstD lyDinnisD ddj^ ny D^y^-D 
•ntoDj^^ ly^n px ssdjv n lyDD-'tj^stn iv 4yDS!D nyj«nj»^ n 
PD ty^i^tpi^DJ^nD n p« .iDSTiyDSiD iy:ii^nj»^ Dyn — ,o:vd 
ny n pd tyiiDB^ iy:>Dy:i lyo i^^p cDssK^iyDiyp ^vt:i'^v'? nyn 
p« ,tDDs:nii^is:D iyn«;n iy^b*DJ« n dj^ti /ty^n^DyrD:ijnyDu 
i^iiv n toyT-^ti^iyDJiK in lyni^n oy Di^ii pi< i«!^p typ^i ^n 
-msD T^« D{^i^ ,:ji^Dstns!D ly^yvyDD s fi"'i« .ty:i:iDDn 
/^yij^n iyn«n ,:iJi^n:s!n D'nyDSD lynsmstD iv n»iiyj lyD 
•»T iy:yTi n^^nn-'DD'-ix tonyiyj Dii?:i^y5st P« t«D^i«;p ,iy^y 

P« yVSD^aS! ny3"'^D1J^11DJS!1S!DD1« lyi PD \V^'?HB v^:iv'?^ 

nyi pD tDjymyiQ ny^^?1y^JyD«l iyi nyto^sn .lyto^ntDK^nsD 
"SQ TS! /iy3«iDt^y:inyDJiK pnsDtj^ to^tn nj^nisD tyDDo-'tJ^so 
iiD lyrntoiDiy pt< lyv^Ds^iyD^ix nyi ni^iiy:i t^x„ lytD 
tD«n ny ; isit nyijs: p^p pd DDstioy:! D'-j D«tn ny .dp^^dd 
pn n»iiy3 lyj^n DP^noo ;tDDyc'y; nyijs t^^P osny: do 



329 ynyim-iyis v"^y^n lis ^ta^T* ''i 

DiyroiiDDrK is? :jvj^^v "pi^tDC'-;y^3„ pn na DJsicy: D«n -y 
"D1K lyiy^ rx tj^j pn lysiD^^nvj^nyi n^ ,iypy"nv yj^^ 1^:2 

*."Dn« DDy-13 DJ^m p^ntDD lyD^^p^^: 
^Vi n2' tD£i§t^iyin^D yroDmi^a yD'^Dnij'nDJ{§""iSD » 
Dpii^ii nyn .ron: nnyo r^s n^iiyj t^k ^Jijynsa m^Jvi^-iD 
"^'?:d'd pk ^^d /DiDD^n pK ^""D ,D:«t^:r y^«::ij^vs: yon*): pq 
]V)i'\:i^ IV lyum^D nn iyn«n ^n m 121X lyi px ^oc^tj^iyT 
HKJK^ ypi{<£2'j^ 8 •'•'T IV iyDny:iD^n5§ oj^n ,y-iy-ijs: n v:''i< 
nytD^''jj<n nyi iy:ypDJ» lypn^ii iv hd -D^nr^^yn n pa 
"i5<D nyi^ii nn D^nn-i^yn n lynj^n ,iyD"'^a"n<: n pd tSDSD 
tD^D tDvij^a in ly^i^n pn /lyoDSiir^yTyj yrtoDyo pn idjo^^k 
D:n vi< /'D:vD)?i^i,r nyi ,^yD^o lytD^s: nyn .iyD5<ii oy^^: s 
-i«D iyt:D^:^65^8D Dy"i ly^y-in iv ynj^ns iyjy:ji^yjoiK in 
,1859 pK nytD^ui^-na n lypnnitDjix iv pk 4825 p« ,nji§3 
-y:i3«i in tyo Dsn Dyn D«Dt^•J«: .n»Tiy:i lyQiJ^in^D oyoD 
"li? y^s pD "Dii^TJ^^" Dyj^"'Dy:i^8 Dyi ld^d jyvos^n lynnn 
i^^ss anjyD''^tJ'j^"'y! ,yntoDn:^K nyoD'^tD^stn s: px lyo^u 
-^^yn n pd lyjji^ri^n n iyoijy:ji^ lyni^n yD^yii ,v:'^V' n 
iy:^^i< PD lytD^mj? yDi5<stryjj^>s; n ly^yia iv ^*i3 'Q^nn 
-jyr^K lyrDjy^nnp iyi>^6J^piJ^^-in n **.Dyoi^D ^mv lyij^ 
D^o iyin«^ v^v px DjyD^^vyjDnx ^y^vysD in lyni^n nyo^o 
iy:^^D lyi^^tj^pij^^ s ."oii^-pt^^,, d'jid ininyj ly^D^ nyi 
PD iyDi^^c^y:Dnt< dh^k toj^n ly^D is /I866 t^x in D:i«^P5<n 
***inj^"' Dpyr px n^^m 24 diisi o^^ni^ iyi 
Dy ni /'DtDi«-p{^^» lyj^n ,iS65 inj^^ ps fin^i^s pk 



.18(>4 
.;:ni'Siy y^j ia"i'7KDn« p^p iyny:j is'J t»k taiK-pK*? ny*T ** 

.22 12"T ,1866 ,iJT ,i'?yi© 



DT''3y"'ir-Tnta JIB ytDD^'t^yA 330 

n ns D^nn-'^yn n tDiy2^^y:i tyni^n ly^^eiJ'^^n yDD:i^DD^^"i n 
piK^ lynijn i^d v:i'?V)) nyD^uisjyr^^^ iyny^^t^"n«D«iDD 
yn^>n n p« .i^^^p d>u lynrfi-'tJ^ n n« /DJ^onyn lyn^x 
-••ms D^»iiy:i nyD>"'m8 n no ^^^o lyo^nj s tyn«n ly^siQ 
lyj^n ^n nyn« .D^nr^^yn n ns iy:iJ'ij:n8i n ?imk lyo 
itj'in tD»n \VD iyi» .i«^jr ^ ns nyT'^:!LD^D lyiiy: nynynt::y 
-p»^« n Dan iyn« .onyp^nDD n ly^^DtJ' ^n ts ^lyny:! 
jyt^^iiv jjiayiD>^« Dnia lyDny^DMis to«n yn^^Dyn "d'di«: 
lyDyini^ iv D^nn-'^yn n no ^y^^ lyn ii<n pk ^lyo^ms n 
T8! ,inyTy:iD^'i^5 D«n oy .n«i^y:i tDD^njiyn tD^j ,dj«^jv n 
I'Din j:ipmnyD:"i>^ yoi^j^^on^ m nns '?vt:i'D ivia^ p^p 
"sn tyni^n yD^yii /D^n2-"'^yn n n«2 iyn"'^ny:i d^j t^k /rytya 
-ns,, IS n5< "nfeii^Q yrtDD"-:,, s d^s iy:>^«iSQ"i8Q n tD:38iD 
DQ^nya DDnD^x iynj<in yD^yii nx /'ist yony^yjQyi y^sioni^j 
m^ .D^nr^^yn nx nyo^-'nis n n^sj "d^^v lyD^^p^^*:! lyi,, ^^i« 
DH"^) m "?r^Mi ^yoiyQ s ns t^ns iyi T^i< d^ii. lyjsna n 
Do^tDsrsn iy^i<!T "?iM^-:ii<!D D'nyD^^ms ts pd t^ns nyi t^k 

'^yii ^lyt^jy^ yrv:^^t< n lyiiy: d^j tyj^n D^nr^^yn n 
-i^ntD lypmiyoj^x ty:iy'ii tynyi tyn^inyjjis ivt)) iv^nn yD 
,iynDDn:>^ pd y^^;sT^j;g:n}$Dn n .ryry:; r:3in dj^^jp 
n lyn^^K inya DDsnix-ib*Q lyn^^n "ddii$-p«^.. n y^^yn 
y:^^Dy:i^» p« lytDDi^-i^itQ y^y^D DDfe§nny:io"'o lyn^n ,DP>ntoD 
ns tiK D>nr"'^yn lyt^^niv ^nyrip n .D^^PD^toiipynDiX' 
"IV DDsiDsn tyaMnyjj«i idik n«!^Po*ix is n^ii^ iya«n ivi:i'>':i 
-D1K Div •lyD-'^prtD^notj^ ytosiins) ^i^ nnyn oysy d^s py^i 
ns: s iyj«npy:i DTO«^:pn^nD pd cxjik^ n iyn«n p^^:i 
-JSJsn "iiDD iy:^n d«ii^ lyDStDto^sii:! n ny^^v n^no^ix iyD^:i 
yD^yii PK ,Djj^''Jv-n^nD pd lyoyiyDJ^x n p« nH'\'\v:i lyj 



,11 .^ ps /'Dp'ntDD ST IN p'^n D':3J«pnni?B-ij;Ti»« in,, * 

,1865 ,1 UDUMN /'imyn »'?taiota-iNS„ .lysNn 



331 yi2>nr2-is5 >;"iy"*n ]i« yit^j^r n 

,iynjy:y; nx ly^^^s yo^iiy: n^x ri7]v^ nyoysij^ ly^yn i^d ^i^ 
-ns lyDi^n yD^yn ,iy:3iD^^v n ns n^iiyj tynntoiyn^K iy:^n 
yai^ns ytJ^^DSDytsD^D s: t^k d^jt ts ,pi"nj"'>8 is \v^^^ on^n 
ly^y^v v^vt tys^nriyi iv p''Dy:if'S! rx D:ij^jr-n>nD n "ivd 
Dy:^^»2y:i^st ovi rx .lyDstDo^sii:! yoJ^^sy: "i^f»toDM3{< mn 
D«"i oytn jyii^tDyD yD^yrs; o^o tD^^njy-in^ivDiK nx pynti' 
■1»s v^'"'?? n ly^rmv lyn^f'pynynjsjyta d^: im dip^^his 
n ^11 ,Dy^vsT^jfe?m$ yD^-i; yD?yT» iIk n^y^sy:^ ns w^)'?? 
v'?V''i^vr2i^? n .Diy^i^DD nx lyoD^r^^'fe^D n na iyi:s!3nytD 
^■•0 DK'^Div in t:fcjn D^DiDDD y^ynt3Dn:^x iv t3Di<triyjjy: 
-"•K nyi nn \'\hw: w^^^v: ^k d^iii .^n^syj Djypyntu Dyn 
yD^y^i ,ty:^jyD na i^n lyrryn yi tsn^DDMpy oy ts ,yy-i 
-"lyn IV nD mi^o lyni^j iytoi?'tDD^i<'n3 n«D Si^ too in ty^yto'j' 
"DJi$or-i^nD n iid DTn«iytD» nyi .ly^y^v yiy^^r lyD^^^i 
8 D^nyviyi /"tD^n r^« nc^ .to-ii^n D:ypyi^ s n«nyj t*x 
-y ns Dip^^niQ na '^rrzvi djjt i^jd to^ytD^^ nyD^yii .nyn^n^^ 
-yt2^ni>*ii ,iyD^ii /Lo:i8f'8D yoj^D yo^nj n DnyotJ^,, ,d>^v iy: 
8 iD^n "iyD^"'iiv in na nt? n:^'? ns DitDD-in tix D^-iprto 
V2'?^n ns lyny^ « nn^s yD^yii ,iy:rjyD yri^^DjyDniy:! ^n^^v 
Dt!?ii ,iyi^: n 112 y2s*To^^2 n ns nn lyr^-^stj^ nx iyny:i :n^^^ 
-DM-18 pyii Dj^ii iy:iji^rti$Y5« n ns nR r^^ivns ^n ry^n^v 
-j>nfc? pyii yiD^yii ,m!3K^D-'^yn yt^jya^^yorx n ^mk tojy^y: 
lyo^iTii y^^yii "lyn? ,iyn^n yny^n pk d^sii^ d^d lynvy: 
-yss^pt? n in ns lysnstiisi^is iy:i5p iv i^^p^^jnyn^K lyiiy: 
-ya nK vv^v: ns nyv^toc'nytD^iK n m in WD^^pmii ti« ^n 
yrcn: n lyny^y^ i«j ^n lyto^'^ii ytDvy^ n tyii ^tD^^proDyi 



nee BB»Bf'?yTy; n;^K:(<isK: np nfi ir'?KpKBK-iB n pK i»t fe^A 



,1866 ^:r PN -in di^^^p d«ii diidk^ Dyn no :iJiJn8 i^n"? 
yDMi:; y^s lytD^intDisQ iyn«in yD^yii /iyD8:iy^yi 138 ryn«n 
■snsQ m ,200,000 Dns: na Dssttj^nyn^^jitD^D s d^d ,Dj«i^:r 
in ly^f^tj^sn iv mi nv:v'?B ryD^mi$ivDnx i^y^^yti^ px \:i'?VD 
D^)) nyn ."Di«-p«^„ oyi pd ininy:i lyrijytotj' oyn iy:iy:i 
to^D Dy-n ,nynyDj«tp nyn d«i pq iy^«ipi^D«n3 n onmoti' 
-n^DDMK nyn tyti'Miv dd^idj^^p Dyi typiyo jjiiyiJiKin^^D 
Dij yD^yii IV /oypsDS n P5< lynn^Q m^jm^nD n pd :ijn 
DvyTy:iDMK iyny:i lyj^n "w^^vd yn^^D^yomy:! yD^^^y,, n 
,:nnMi nnyo pn DJi<ipy:i d**: to^in i»t v^p .d^^v nyjy^ iv 

PD Dy^DlpDH n M^ ,DpJ"l3nj«LDK^ D8^P"^yD^» Dyn PQ 1^^Q8 

nyn D^D tDi-'PSDS lyni^n yD^yii nynytDtJ'ii^Q lyto^ms n Dij 
yr^ny:iDiK yiy^n pd D^^pr^-iiiD^nfe^n n y^:iiyjy nyn^yt 
'?^'?„ v^':^^'\:i n px p^noD 8 pt^ tnyjiVDms iy3^»DD«: 
lyn n^N lyrn ofc^ii ,Dyvi^j^Tyi n .D^nn-'^yn n pd "ddijs 
^tj'jiKii Dyn Dpmy^DMK ryn«n /inj^^y:! tyDijy:ij«i nynysji^p 
tyn T8 PK .lyosn D:iJ^^t:^oij<;Q nv)^ Dyijn:iy:i ly^^r oy r» 
y^yntDDHJ^x Pk Dmn nM5< lyiiji^i^Q in p^»y:!^8 px ^i$r 
-ys yonn: n ^i^^x pyQtDjy iv y^^nnyi iyni$ hd .d-'Diddd 
-:i3^p nyD"'''Ji'' n„ lysstj^ya ^n iyn«in ^DTin-'^yn pd oy^v^iyn 
nyn^^:itD^D n lyv^Dtj^ iv "Di^no ytD"in^j»;!n« pq n»^^5§ dj^t 
PQ "tDi8-pi$^.. Dyi PQ lytD^^y: iyn«in y::^yii n^nD ryiy^ pd 
IV D^'nysisD nynyDjj^p n ^nn nyn^-'^ *D^nn-^^yn v^v^'f 



.24 tain ,1868-1867 psj ijriasKtyjirDm ^^n'Snd ]is Jii^pmta^:; "lyT 

.(.1871 ,iNnJ«^) "y;?«^ pn px lu ^y^B^,, y'?ynNj O'lyn 
ps lyaynpyD lyn ,1^13113 a^nxtyn ]i5 ynyi n ,^b'o'7 ,nyT * 
]1K ,DpinKiD SiNx yOMiJ? N„ I layu'Dxp-fyDKSj lyiNJiTt?'?;? Dyn 
ia''ptan«9e'y;jn« nyn ]•,£ iyi2TpyjDm« lyjnT ,Dtti«-pN^ inK iB'fiN 
yjKis -lyT ]ypip i!f t3:?NTy;5BK yt iyi«n ya'i'yn ,Dms yini pa 
y2yj5''N y-iyTii« lysiTsiji ton*? .D^is ]i« jinotrT p« T^iny 
o^n ,*73n pip KB': ]n'7« t:i« na t'« oy anK inyt p« oitryo 



"lyojiK ny Dijii o^o nx /'Di»i'Pi!5^» 5§ t^k dv DtiJTi ivd^oij's^ 
,r:$<'^» nyi ns "D^^Tryiy:" lyi ni< ;P^nDD j< pd im d^^k' 

p'j n iiD lyiy^ nc D^:y!?yi p-'n ns lyj^D'^t^a t^k lyD^yii 
,ni^Tiya D5>^^Dyjj^^{< r^x i^n:i^jyp dst yD^yii pk ,iyp-i*vei3 
nyn ly^-'x nyi^p^o^D n d^d lyo^noc^ iv LJyiny: -.idd di^h 
pyii tDV^t^t^y: ly^i^T lyo^uii? n d^d^d^d yjpyn pn ,y;s!i3 
".yi pt^ iyir^:njytD:ris:DD^D n Di;? ny^^i^ .d^j yD^yn i^n pk 
-^^3 "ii?2 iy2i"iE:'i« y!^5< lyj^n ,Di^no n p.d y:^?^ lyiyivj' 
'pv n pi< .pi^iiy: t^iysojyy: r^nioifc^ vo^? lyi *v y:i$iD 
.T^y: Dyn^a :i:y:i D^ny: ]V'^'?v^ tD»n n^y^sytj^ pk yirtDipy? 
,1.^70 -in{^^ PQ niD Dyn ons vi oT-tDDnpy i«!j dj^m r:sp^ei n 
y^;j<T^jfc!!:-ij$ n px iy!^^Dy:)5J<: lyj^n D:«^jr ytDoyi: n ryn 
n !>« ,"iy3i^ 18G6 pK *DT^^^y:£ni< yi:vD^'?'\z Tt toi^n 



I'D nnx I'.x ; n:Kt:!m ]yn:y'?y!:trj>nnBi!?aTK D;n lysKtr cc^yn 
IKT ,;'-.'7itr:iN i>'s:«-3 ]'« b': ip'u "iid t« ,'(y5'£y;sDnN ly^yn 
-Tix ]'N TMn ;'2y;i'K "iyT2'.« iv-^-yi:: tse'iy "ly^K is I's IV^'^^t 

1ST ,iy'?n'N n T^ni^riix? i:f ns ,]«<!: urnxiv^ *;*2Kn "t dk'.i 
cinx p;T'm:N ,"«i5tr lircDxne pN "ivt27vt:c*"iXE-c'j n px ,'tok? 
:n:vnnn£nN px .Ipy'^^rs pyn d?k iyt::Kit:N2 to dnii ,dkt 
'v. ,"2NTts p?2y:: i2T« lyijuyj k e^nx 22i:>'o ys'^jtirvsy n 
-7;»TT ,tDnKn iyii'n'?'D n ]nine t'k itrcN) ,Dy lyrn yj^yjr^ y2:t<?3 
iy?yTi ,p't2''7«3 "lyjsT^pts'j nyn ly^y^ ,(t2DK2y:! lyD^rn t:7Kn n>'2 
-:«p) ."cEJ'ipis lyT i^K n iypmiyt:3iN is ^ys "in;'T lyr'i'yn to 

.(1866 ,n'7y^£y?r ,t23nK2-pyi:,*E 

-yrpy ]« ps pNiiy;! isyts^xinKs jsn-'ytiy t^n p«''7« n * 
-yn ,iy2N5 iyn^yis:;ty n ps pxny; c'^nyiny t'« Dxn ,yn'cip 
pfi ;2nin; lyi nn jjii:;*^ lyny;; iy:''T Dy iy-i,TE-t:gnn oyo 
"iyir'£K-i;;KS't2 lyn pE iKcyipj^D ]Kiyt::;n in .yi:fKT':K."i« i^n 
-'i'Knyiy; lyec^n:: -lyn i^niy:: t'n ,i'7:;'E:N-n cn^^mi .id ,cENtr'^;-T;*2 
,]yt2Kii2-iNE iviiy:j lyi'u yzb::^^ ,]):2hs n. lytrms ."iNsv^pyc 
,Dny:'io -ivf2Nn;:^t:N'j px nymtyp-iKi -7,? ,t ]y:iEy; tt lyzKn 
yc5j'2''NiKE ,ny:iBB' '?ynNn ,1^2x0 ^yoyp ,171' '•b' ye;;':'' kike n 
-:s:y-pEv ,ny3«o ]y{rK'?E-T^?^j "lyiyirpiK' ,-iy'?Kt2D ys'niy^c^y 



df38^:'i''-T'»'»nta jib ytoD'^ti^y: 334 

rJ8^^8 n 'V\'<'<2 ivii ,"ini^^ Dy:y^ na nyn«Dp» Vi< lyoipyj 
3y^^iv nytiiya lyoyin^D tyj^n /nyiysJ^P is^Ji^n^no n m 
'iv\\^)B "lyn lie nsiiy^i DD^jnixisa t^n d«ii .yv^Djyo lyi 
,onDD n^wyn-vj pk r^in o'lyo^^ms is p« i»n«^aDpy 

♦n^y^Dyiy 

iDDnn«n tDsnyj pit?' m i3«n i'pu^'Qv^ v:i'?v)) d^d .DjyDyia 
piij' T^K Dip^^nia DST lyii njsDtJ^i:^ nyi r^N nyn«t .DDsoy; 
"i«iB v^'iv'? n p« DT^j«^jv-i^nD iy:iy:i ryiiy:i t3v^ny;Qn« 
n lyanoyj oy^^: n dj^h /Dp^noD nx "ddis-p^^,, nc in»^ 
in o«in lyD^n y^s pc .Dyso^K nyDyi:i s d^o ly^jn^Dw 
PD iJiDinytDJiK lyD^^njnj s isa ^ntj^y; » lynnnyis^ix 



"BDnijn ■ij;di'71d«jkd„ nyn pK ,1879 V2 1867 psj "lyao-'jxpNBx-iB 
y'?j;'B pK lyianniK n ta^jitsiyy;! tatt^ij?!!? ta«n ri^^*?*? n tn ,]yT'm 
nyn^j ,"iya»':2"i«"iyTi'K px Diyi^D ,ijrn»ijty n '?j;'syBD ,DDi«-pi<^ 
eo iyi"T ]yjt<-itt'o n tk ,iv-3«'7p yjnjytoB' lyiiy;? ly^''^ oy 
"isye'ttKp,, lyT Ti< ,tDSny!jnj;n n'7j?'flJ«'n ."lo .p«np taSnN!?«i 
,uyi i"in i^is'ipjjnyuB' yonn; ia«ny:j lynxn yn^iaipyTpy n p« 
-yjnyiaiTN n "iya»N ^wntajKp q\^ ]i'>p B«nj;:j la'j lP«n 'u D«n 
lyD'tfiSfKn i:r t2np;5nyniy nyn iy'^i!i Tik p« ,dk3ijt» yaiyniN 
pK»'7« DOTS pynysjKp yiatrny n .aiN-pK'? n t^k oy oxn ,-iN'7p 
Dyn TO tyaiyiy oyn pu ,nyBDyirtaa8tt P« P«ny^ iyti'i'«ny;sN t»n 
la'D ]y3«s 53 lyDN'bB'yjiK nn lyixn iyiai«T .1867 ,"int3«' ]::^^::^ 
]yj»'T DKii ^ytsmxiaD n pN .59,750 ps r2S«B>nyTi'7;iaiD « 
I« ]yDj<'?iry;i»'K tmn ?'« r^ynysi^p lyn sinK p«nyj lyDijyjJx 
pK iyE»s3n5 n "iyni« ,]'^'7y'l3JK^n ps jKn^nxs iytDJKDynyu:'N 
-'ipy;"iKS VH Y^iji^js^Hp yaopyi n .ysKnynys nyn ps iynN;!snK 
-ta'D n ]nir t^k itjT .1867 ,iynDyiaByD px ,1x130^15 px lyo 
23,580 i«3 ttKny;) taxn yi!JKT'3«:siK n pK ]y^«By:BN tDSKtriyny^;! 
]ytrm!j lyny^ W''^ "iy3«D-'?yDyp n .iy3«s 47 pN ,'iyny''7JBio 
-:^p ps iy'?^pNisNnB) .ly^nijyjpms ^yaiNS in lynxn yD^yn ,n 
.(.16 B^n ,1867 n'by^fiytr ^njaoyi pk pyiyfi 



336 ytiprnnyiB yiy^n jiw yitiiv n 

'^2 iy3i>*n y^^yiT ,y:^jy^ n nc iib:^' p^p lyj^sy: i:i2iipv: o-: 
n HE -lyin^D n m lyaytn MyD^-ia-.fc^D lyovy? oyi ;y::t;: 
nx Dfci!TDii^*LDc^ Dy-i D'D Dr:^^N-isD iy3i:?p"ie!2 lyn^yayj' 
"iyn:y:ijn-i lyi pi< D^nn-^^ya ns y^v5§>v«Dfe$ lyi^Dii;? "lyi d'd 
-ji^^ "lyn .:jomyDJi« is: \v2^d Ipj^jt jjn^jyi n t8 j:ny-iiSD 
lyoD^J^6^'»D Dyi PD yiVDipyipy n pn Dfe<TiyD5<D lyji^i 
"ii#: y^vi?D^syi yD^^DD^*j*:^^Dy: s; \:i?'\^v:> lyn^n njfcitaiyta 
D"*: o«{n y^v^Disyn n .^5<2 oyn iyD'inytD:iN iv i^y^cyj' 
lyQj^n Dijii .n lyjyn ^^v^^i^s yroniij n '•^i "inyo iyjiDy:Dnj< 
-»n n^iJi^DiK VJ^:i Dn^i lyni^n pk -ly^Jss^stn lyDyia-ietD Dti-i 
D:«'':vi^nD n ts ,yT^^"iis!3 yj^^*? iijd'J lyj^n oy ret .oytoDn 
-«n Dyi w Djy^yaiv ]V2Hr^ ^m -lyn^^ on^it^ oyi pn lyj^n 
PQ P"'DP»iB yD^^^^trnfcii n» pd ojio5<n*i«D ysistj^ 8 dd^ 
tDr^^^iDt$3 iy:^n Di^ii n oin^^sn^Dyn v^^v^^ /'WB^D'V'rD,, 
*."Dy^v8T^:y!:"is-i«D y^^ ^'^J< nsnn o^jyin px oy-i pn 



T^^Bixintiiyts^nK ,.n .n ,(";:'3yt2t2Kn„) "'nysKS-T'^o,, tie ;;n20 
-"IK rs'^yTK ]ifl j<>sy:i n ly^ynj^'SK nyix ,-iynyi n lis lyoKB n 
jr;ynt2i'2 yiyr ]>k j»'?j;isir"iyi::'n ]yny:j I>i''T j?3*?j;ti ,ij;id»i3 
,vnNiDyo y3'^:n;Mr;;! n ]"i«ny^ tin "ryta^o "ly-r c^ .lym^-^-iKC n ii? 

n pc p;syT5r;; n ]y;!'7K£Dn« p^'jkt -iyi<^::tt'o n ,*?^32 tik ik: 
-Kn lym'^p nyr^y^Eyty n dkii ,t33ND ytK^^Tyj ^i .DyisKT':K;;nK 

pytiony pK ;2n:i inyr e'jynjKinKS tt ckh ,fi3'KyjDnK ntK lyn 
,BiinnK n iiyoir iv ^ly^ts^o y3>^:nyny; n lyn ,iy!2p«-tri:2>^ 
-nyn'K lyo tajy'jB nyci^siK y!siKBiyy;!2''K .npimyj ts^: Ty-«n 
yiyi'T lyny^ "lyn'jiB iK^ttoyp v^^^bp lyinN^BDpy b»o lypyiB^ 
pK 1K^ttDyp-"iyn'?iB ys^ytK ^niysiKiiimK lynx ,^):Tj^-r\^^bv 
OK lyiKn ]y'?KB yomy;; ]<k ]ik ;nyT'^■^ yiyin pfi Diyonp n 
y:y'T''B'iKB n .ly^aunyvKs yeony tuaKT-nK-iKB lyiKnx^BDpy n 
lynxn {.h .k ,"|y^BKJ ,iyB"iyD ,iy^i'fi ,iy;iyT pB) DiK'iv lyB^'^tr 
,iyiaKisn'?^v.; ys'jyrK ikb cpiatsnKn yjnynits n lyniKiny in 
•lyi pK ;i:iisDnifi:y lysnoniK e^s n »'>» pc ly^sy'^'fi y^^yn 



. Dr:is>*^r,''-"T'^nti lis ytDD'^tyy: 336 

nyin^D n y^^yii finx ,nj«^ iyvjs:i Tiyn^K n«iiy: lyo^sin 
lyDyim^a nvi \v:v^ n)^v^'<2^v ''\v'( opmyjD^i^ wii^n 
-y:iji<i i^^?oy:i^s lyiiy:! mi t^k oy dj^ii Dyi ty:iy: nt? ^oon^yt 
ns ly^to^o yronj n&< yD^^jnyiiyj n iyj>n oh'\ t^? ^yDi: 
n:yt:t^ oy^D in lyn^^n iyj3i^D«nfe§D n .DT^j{^^:r-*i^nD 
,nynj^2 IV lyoD'jj^^jvi^nD n na Di^t^^n » d^d toruyy: 
"^itrstn n lyD-inDtrivB^^! D^^njy:iy^y:i s lyayj ""n ^i<!T lyo 155 
ns :i:iD^otJ'i5$a n .:iJ"i:!yiT5$3 nyn na u'h:)^ n ns iy:J"in 
^y^v>D«: T>x ;3iDinyDJi« i^ iyDt<D *iv y^D^D«ip '■\vt'?:':vp s 
n^nays pj< .ynyri^nD o'j^r^yp nyi pk n^iiy:! \v'\'?^^v: 
DJ«;py:i lyc oi^n .Dony uj>^Dy:i D«n 3jn^:yi n tfe? .1867 
-y:i s: pj^-ny: iy:i5^"iDy:iJ^n« i'?^2 t^n oy Dfe^^ii ,nsnyi inyt 
D^D iny:nv3i$ D3sd ^id vo^Di^? lyn lyny;! iv lopy^i^nQvyt 
yD^^jnyny^iyonx d^d in iyvi:s2 nx lyjjninytoJix v^n^i^ 
iy:iy'n pyii toD^Dy: DDisiy^ Di^sn ;jitj^-i5$2DMN n .ly^to^o 
n ns n^i^i«2 P« n«:iiy3 iy:!J^j^n lya^n dj^sii ,mn^vi y^s 
n'pv'^tivi^ PK ni^tiy:i ty:!J^:i^3 lyj^n ^n ^^d ,in«:^ inyv yovy^ 
ajiny^j^tDjy D3J<iTy:iv lyD D«tn i«j d^j .ix-ntj^nynjs iyn« 
rDr^^-'toi^n Dpynnri? D:yDynm^D n pk in lyn^in om n 



]'i'7p K ]iN i«w«'7SDpy IK i^aipyjnNS t'n oy lyn ,1861 pK 
-«B -iy3Ni:K'7 Dj?n ps ly^KpKtDNis H .tsntDD iN"ipy pK Tnnnj?ii 
-DnN ii'i'tDijjsy ni2K-i -i:?*t idkh i«t pity i'j'Sk t« ,iyT>m ntsxi lya 

iyi2p«-n'?«TU ytsD^ij; ]Tfi '?nKi: n tsn^ri^'jpnNB iu tsxn 12^ ^u n:;:y» 
1865 iyinK> n px lynx ,nnK> ly^s lyntj >m ps sin'biKS px 
■"IKS pN ^yixysD ,u<nK3 iyi3KB yiDDjr'i'tr n tax in lynxn ,1866 pK 
-lyn v5 pN iK^N^SDpy n ."in^sv iyE<i'?tr-jyT nyn la^o jjnra 
Dy m ,i:;nKny:5 tasKT-nKiKS t'k ,1866 "lynxtapN pt* ,iDni2D tiks 
lypyntmiN hd ,ui''7 ^x^ii^ ps ,iyTmyjD'nN -ijrtsysty in taxn 
n lyTK'jnKS b^r^ >m!J laxn ijrs'byn ,pnipys dkokb tyomy:: « 
-jjyt n ys'byn ^'n ,yD-i^s x ikb ts^^mKy:; taxn pK y>!JKT»2K:5nK 
.epmiDDy;; I^^kh "ij;si''?ty"jjyT n pK nysKD '?vtD3*;n 



337 yt:ivi3^ni«s y-^y^n ]i« «Ci:T» '•t 

-n tDi^n ]VD "ij^: ,nny dp^ lyDyioDn-is i«j ly^yn ^n lyii 
.•jD3:?yT -iyDyi3-ie;D n i>^2{< iy:i^^t^y:-iJ^D y^^y^Mvis y^^yr 
lyi ^MX Dvy:y"i:j<3 ly^iyj O': t^n jjiDmyoJix n -nyo iJ^;: 
-lyij ,iy3i^p-l^3 yDmy:i pd p^dpsib lypyj^onp iv:vd\:]!::h 
-TintD n I1D y:^"iD yvjst: n lyonyj^ony: oipi^ry: nj^n m 

.:j"ip"i^ii ly^n nx D:i^*^jv 

,t3>^v ^ PK ^JiDinyDJii^ nysj^ns;D:yQ5$^-i^s {§ -i^iiD iy:i2y: 

-np lytD^yn nvi p« -in^x lyjy: ni^iiyj tDvyny^anx p-ii$D*^ 
ns lyLD^oD^^n: n i"in pj^iiyj lyDfeitt^'yj T-tK lyD^yii ,d*t 
-ijipy:i iyiJS3i5§D y^^: n \v2Hr] .D:«or ytj'ni!jDtD^5< yoniyj 
-DJM1P,, ns :i:n^^tj^to:y *iyi Tin DMorrpniv lyDDJiy is \vi 

'"•J Di^n ^^iK lyni^n ,yDfe<ip pn pi< \vd)d yijytD^n5<3 pd jji^ 
tin« ,y:«n2 lyn lyjyn ytD05<sn i«i''jv-i^nD n tDrnnQiJ<sn 
■31^ .ryryj pa iJiv^tj'sn n oj^n Dssij'^yTy: isd ^i; ^y^s^ii 
-DSK^^ytyriiiiD n Tst .t^ny^pny Di^n 1825 pa yv^v: d«i ^nxn 
-i?T^:s!ni^ yD"'^vyTy:ioiK v^p ^nvD to**: jyj^n y^^ytj? d^s lytD 
-y:i s ^n iyay:i iv pi^'ny: li^oy: d^j isrp^"^ "Wih vh ,Dy^v 
-Don^yr d^s ly^iJSin n o-'^PD^^jyo n nyi«: .DitosDD lyD^^vyr 
"lfe?c S" in tDjjn 1855 i^x Dtj^ny .Dy^^;sii^*3ii^p v:'i:vdi^ 
^ nn-iaivDin iyny:y:j''^ii! "Di^iDtr tosnn "lyn p2 tDyo^c^ip 
-ji« yrD^njy:y:i„ Dyi p« ,D:i^''jr"i^ntD n y^on Dsnt^'iJ^D 
yD44 n .ini^'' Dyjy ps "rytya lytDSS^i'^yTyrDjjiv^totJ^iyt: 
rDDys^^yiy: {< Ts ^lynntj'yins^D to«n YV^Vi Dyi pd yvpyo 
-j^ns ,i«p lypyiiv y3^^vyTy:Dit< -i^d nyijn^y: tD^j t^k ys^yn 
PQ nijtD5<iDD'':iyi D1V lyvyryj ynn^x pa y^si^p s rijyny: 
PK T{< ,yoy^nvnQ n tyo^^yi ,iytD2str^yTyrD;:iv^to*^nytojiN* 
lyn ^ijT nyn^^jto^D n lytrniv D''jijyDtrnsDD^!D s pa ^^a 
-lija nyn t:s tDn^ -lytDDny:) n pn nyn D^yi:sniy!a v:v 
lyDast^'^yry; nyD>''n"i>i: v^vcv^: n pa v'?V'^ tynsn toanK^ 



DT'':y'':r-Tnta ]is j;iD:>''try: 338 

nijtD8itDD>3y"} D1V tvvyty:i yiy^n ns Dy>s«p iyny:)i;nyi^K 
■«"iDD>:iyi nvi no ^jid^dj^j^^s lyn d-id ,tDan^;y; lynt^n pk 
IV IDD8D n tymijjiny D^D-iyn v)^ in iya«n ^n is ,iho 
n^DSP lyii^ lytDyipyo d^s '■\v:i'?V)'\ >T'?:i\2'>D wiv lyj^^snsD 
T^i? iinjyDtJ'^iQ MTs •DDSEj'^yTy:! nyi na ^vi'?Vi to^smsQ 
y^s riQ y^vnj;?3 ny^n pd D^^':>D>^vyTy; n nisiiy:i d:v?^v:h 
-tDDfc^Q n Dynjn:iyj Dijtn n^DDis^; .no tyn is .ytDr^>>DS3 
-n^nto n no you lyn nn« ny toj^n 4861 t^x /lypjsnn^sij^ 
-ns yn^ytn DJi$'>Jv-n^ntD tynyjyj i^^pmonx ^v^n^Si i»^jr 
-ya lynijtn lyDQsiK'^yTyj DJiJiv^DB^iyDJiK n d«ii ,Dy>:)y^m 

-IV lyvJSJj^x 1867 px t^« ,^i^Qy3 DtD^^niyDn lyn tDJj 
-DMK T^K y^v8T>:»:n«i iv^i^^'?vovP lyi -n^iiy; oiyoyoK^ 
-si^ nymi^an^nn nyn na i^d^p Dyi iyj«^p-i8D iv iyDipy:i 
n ;£24 ns yoiD n lyo^snn^s l^^vyryjoix isd ^Ji^i^^tD 
,yDr^^^D8n y^s na JJi^i$niy3^« ivi iv ,iyn«in nyni^ iv\:i:i'>i 
DM^ Dyvj^iQ p^"? nn^Q id^j mp y^vsr^jsn^ n ts .tD'jpos'y: 
-T»nD 8 D^s ^•'m .ryryji-iyoD^tj^^yry:) D::iv^t5tJ'iyDJii< oyn 
lyn .ryty:! Dy:y^ 112 :ijptii lyi lyo^ix n tonyDSJ' m^jr 
-y: py^yn s pn n«iiiy:i iy;«ntDy:iynn8 nynDjs: t>n oyv^ns 
D^DDi^tj^n ny^tJ^to "ni^^ Dyi to^D ny^^n ny^D n ikii ,DDn 
iMfc< n:ynyj:i^ ,pdb nvi DrDyDtJ^i?! lyn^in ^r^stJ' nyi ]h 
-••n ^n i^^Di$ nnx ,Dj«:or n PQ ly^y^v n t» nsnix t» ii^: 
DW :ijnyDtJ^ srs ihi ^n tyj^n — ,'?v:''f2'^^P d^j 1825 tDjn ly: 
lynj^n mts; .lytDSstJ^^yty:! yD^^vyTy:iDix iy:>n ^n t» ,^yi:^n 
-iDyjD^iK DJi^ovn^ntD y^^3«i^vs:: vo^^i: n PD yDDi§«3 n 
-SDD lyD^^vyry:) Dyn tD'»J tyn^^n oy^vsr^jsn^ yiyn r^ Ava 
-li^iny pitj^ tyni^n ^n ts tDDstiy:i ^n in Di^n oy ry^^y^i 'DIo 
Tynj^n ^n ts /tnyty^Dns! ^^jo^ d^d in ]V2ii,r\ ^n p« ayn 
•lyDt^ip yDm:i yiy^n isq nti' ty^-'^vytyj v^P 0^: 
^y^D 8 Dsny^ tya^^n :!Jn^''K^DJy iyi ps lyiD^nix n 
.-ID n^ .DDn^yt :ijn^^^tD:y n m o:ipini yiyi^yD^nrD^n^ 
,DrDyDij^»3 POB iyi„ Di^tn ^lyrniyjj^ D»n i^^onyn pnyiyiss 



339 y'oymnss vny^^T ]-,« ^t:::^ n 

T« -15JJ ,YVW: \vo'^^vi ^ ns 38:^t^'Dn nvi "lyojix in ly^yotj' 
\v:v: Dvy "ly^n tD^i^ iy:^n lyoi^D y^s no oji^^jr-i^no n 
y^vs!T^:5<nj^ yiy^ i'pdq x2ij ly^y^v vivt ts; nx /Dip^^a^.3 
,D*iisTi p^i< ro^D ...iyQnyj"iyDJiK ^n D«!n j:^^i:8n viv' n« 
ns PJiKii Dyi t^M^ ,^yj^Dnp d^j anx) o-iyn DT^jii^:vi^ntD 
lyoyi^ w i^^:ny oj^iioy ,D?5<Djyiy^ nyo^n lyD^iy^y: Dyi 
y^^ii^^oQiK nx lyD^-'pniniDiK ]}2''?D:iV^v .'•ny^nDy: nx 
;i2 DpmnyDJiK nx DDjitin^s iy:^n d«ii jyD^r — lypyiiv 

"rv^Vi 
iy"i IV Dpmy:'iv ni^Tiy:i tDv^x t^« DTOJ^^jvi^nt: lyi 
"lijD :jn: lyiiy: t^s< oy .lyo^n vi'^i n^tx iyDnjyi:« ,tD:8ii 
-^a ly^yii '\v^'?vr^D'D V'lVf \m< D^nr^^yn n ts: ^inyrivD^ix 
y^D^Di^p VT'?y:vP n iyvi:")VDMi< j:"i:jy"itDtrj« ypiesDcr » lyD 
-«''jr"i^nD iypmiyto:ix w lyLDfcJtD-tD^sti^: ivi'^v^vi^ n nx 
lyiiB' n w:''"'^ o^n iy-i:s! nyn na •ryryr^'sirD^np V:^^^ nv: 
'^v:^i^^ yiyoy-i: n 112 nyn^y: yD^y^D^Ty:!:^^ yoyny-i^n-isis 
li^i^^o ^yDiyD s: "lya^x lyai^iDsa i^n vv^* lyni^n d«ii ,Dy^v 
"lyvjs:^ "ly^n ns D:yn n px i?^:] nt^iiy: oj^^"iyt:tJ^ dj^2 
\:):i^?Vi lynsn yD^yi^ .lyi^D^p n« iyiyt:y"ipyD-miv-'^oii< 
n^^t^yry: ^n^^v^ pk tt rn^y^yotr 0^: n^y: Dis^T ryssiDieiD 

ts^yijsnsn ly^i^p ^i^t ny ,0D:-iy iv lyny: t^n onnp -lyn 
DVT ns iy:i:^^D»n^2-iyt:s:iy^yT yto^yny^D^x n 5i>ix py^i 
i^D pyn iJ5<:^Di^:i nni^^ ly^D ly^^x .tDstTiyD^^D iy:«n:ii^ 
"lyn toij ns iy::^^oy:TisD y^yon«i2 pn px vr'^v^^'i ps *i»: 
n«i^y:> DD^^DjyDyn^D t^« oy ni oyiDi^J "i^^s .DDst^iysiyp 
t3'i8:i^yBi< ^Hr^ ^ise? -i«i:{<> pk .nyoDn n pd ^jn^-'^^^tD^y n 
-i»E) n PQ nyiycJi^P" s .lyo^^nya mi oi^n di^ii ^rysny::''^ 
-ne yn^p s lyiiy: ncxn T^i< yD^^yii nyn^ /'lyD^s ytDr:^^K 
■:« px nyin^D ^ij^d n pd ly^^i^o^nsc yD^^tojyDyii ytDi<n 
n tDi^ t3ijn 1871 T^n 1867 pD .3:i3yii^n nyi ric nmc yiy» 
ixn pD DinyDD^ro nyriDytD d^» to^yi:sny: v:nyD:«P 



I 



•D^yii i^ovi^nD nyi na lyny^ lytj'^D^^^a iy:;j8j oyi na 

^n« tyan iv iyiiy:j T^i< ^mv nyn na :iJi^iJ^n yto^j'iy n 
■j^nnsQ D^^p-^yD^D yny^n na yrjy n iy:iJiD»isn yny^n 
"i{§2 DJ«ipy:i in iyn«n >n nvy nt< ?i^>n Dyoyn ^i^ik ,yDyi 
no tD>\"?3yijny:iiv n DpiyDsn lynns V)^ ryn«n i^d .lytjs^ 
iJsmsQ lytoDo^ti'SD nyn iv "tyDD-'^^^v^D y^^^Donp,, n 
-"•n n p^? lytoonrDni^Q n no ^jitj^^D^^ns n nx 4852 pk 
PK li^Dnyn pnyiyia .id .186i tu 1859 pa d^diddd lyD^Q 
DyDD>^^y3 ^y^i^ysD tDVx lyn^tn ,y^^Du .d .y n«DyQ«i3 
PK DP:«^jr-i^nD pa lyn^^Di^a d^s lyDDjyn y^isDiyii 
nyn toyo:: DjyD8^i83 p^? lyny: t^« rrn dj^d .vov^b nyn 
n pD nijyD y^s DDsii3y:iii^Q toi^n d«iii nynyn ny:i^vj^^j< 
yaiSK^ pn Dvi:y:!Dnj? DJ§n li^DBD^inp ''i:vn .id .ly^-'^nis 
PQ lyjj^pnni n D>D ly^jnn^Qiy yj-'n m dd8ip-d^>^d"ti5< 
lynj^jn y^^y^^ ,nnsDy:i n lyD^nDtj^r^iyoj^x hd rrytyj Dyi 
•41B D'DnsiJ^yss .lytoDny:) n pt< Djj^or n Dyt^sitooy: 
lyiiya lyj^n lytJ^jyD ny^a n Di^ tos^i •••n ^wv)) iy^»p«iD 
lyjjiDSisn ytosiviQ px 3J«5> tyn^iDtj^ lyjjyim^D i^^ tD>n:j 
^^1 PK ,tDnDD mj^DjyDD px tyDD^j^^fe$D n PQ i^nrn ivi px 
y^yj^^Dya^ns ly^n t3Vi:yjD"'ix D^^nst^ t» in«! tynt^n -"n 
Dyn pK nyin^Q yny^n p« Dj^i^jm^ntD n lyjyn iv niJDijs* 
i'?\iv:i ojnyj3D"'^:«n n lyvyt^^nyn^x iv 'iv)w pn oy .onnp 
nnj? ,DT^j«>jv-i>nD pa nj^na n dj$ pa D-'-'P^ynyjiyn^x m 
nn^« p« aji;iyii8n nyn DyDD-'^^ya tyn»n >n d«iii toDjyn n 



,]«ia;ji'B»i'i) i«j"ij?ti -"^^ /iyny:« inx w^^^ ,^i^'i ^v^)}^ ]'« djn'jt* 
ps lytaD^a^D-Ds^^iyjj n^:»njyBtt^ nj^tayQtr) iNia^i'tt'i'i' ^^rnstax:; .no 



341 yi2yT3"'nn«E) y-i^'^ T^ TO^i'' '•t 

-ny IV iviiy: t^k ^\2:v lyi pd ^y^v osmh nyi ts .nynyD 
-^yii ,DiD{<t:D lyD^^vyryj oyi DT^ji^j^jvi^no rnstD lyanyii 
AVi^i^^ n ns o^^pnysn nyi nsD ""^d ,rD^o lyiiy:; r^« ny^ 
y^vist^jj<j-i«! li^^jvi^nD nyi na :iJi:ypiyji^ "lyi nsiD ^^d nfc< 

D^n3-^^yn n pyotJ^ iv lyiiyj t^k \'\v)) li^tDyj onoyj djsm dj^ii 
-^N D^^ y^D^DJ^p yD^^j^:yp n lyvuivDMs d^uis ly^n px 
'PV'i'i ^ l"in Dt^j{^''Ji''-i>nD Dyi lypmny^Jii^ iv D:yonDD 
ni^j DO DTinyj Dnsi in Dt^n fe§Djr n .ryTyrpiJjit::^ lyt: 
yi^ni^^o^s n pD >ny^DiD yuyo^iimx n pq iy^p«t^»s{^ 
nnyo n ri§ /lyr-ivnyn^K DD-is:iy:i mx D«in n "i«: .djsov 
yrijyDtJ'ji^ pj< yDiy^py:Dn« iy:^M nyn^^^to^o v\n^i^ pa o^^n 
:^DDni T^jnyiiyj-iyDn^ lyiiy: oy T^i< ,Dyi rn j§ -lya^jyo 
nj^na y-iy^n pt? sd:v n t« ,Dip^^m3 dj^i lyr^viyn^x iv 
-"•n 4ytofei!DD^^"ii: iv lyv^nji^ n lyii^ DiyDsn-p^nDD n do 
-i^nD ny^o nyn pa nynyDt^i«D yr^^n yorDDyD^i^D^n n lyj 
iy::yn3ivDnni§ ^^d^j jyiiyj t^x r^s Di$i jJi:yTi83 i«or 
■^yii 1^3 ,V'D^J2HP ^v::i''^i':v? lyi pd ^JiDinyDJix iyi ^^ik 
n .lyn^^Di^a Dsn^iyj nn Di^n DTOJ^or-n^nc nyn lyD 
nyn pia lyiiyj T'^:i^«d px y^D^oi^p "lyi pd j:"i^yDC':yo^nv 
Dsn ::noy"i n .ysDJV lyi nj<D D^^pj^DD^-n lyDoyi: nyn 
"t^p nyn pD nyT'^:D"'D d^s lyn-'-'^pivD^ix lyoi^^K^^n \:i^r]Vi 
,ly*k^•:yD lijj ,iyDDn:i$ yn>^n pa nynyDtJ^ni^D r^^"? do v'o^d 
,t>;ife<>^Dife?SD^x jyrn >n is .lyDnyj:^: ^2i^pv: oi^n lya yD^'yii 
-QMi? pnw D^^v yvniP s t:ii^n v::'?v^'\ .^"i^"ii< D^^^ni "i^d d^o 
"Dy^^B li^DDi^p,, Dyn pq ^vvi:i'<i Dsnn d^^ y^yDtr pn lyny^y: 
-y:D"'ii< i^^cs Di^*n Ts^s nyn -lyiiyvni^D Dyn d^s; diij^p 
lyo^DtJ'^n lyjyii px ,D^nn-''^yn n pd lynyDtJ^n^^D ryoj^^t^' 






•ya mn V'^o^'dh? n .o'D^^n'yj d"-: n^^; ij/d ldj^h lytD^mj? 
n nQ lyn^n n ns i^^^yisMn nyii D^yDtJ'j;:iJ5;o5§nv Don^i 

-Donrx nyDMi:i s 112 nynyoi^'-i^Q Dyn nx ,DjyD«^isB ni: 
DSDijD nD Di;?ii ,^^^t:jj$ lyirops lyn ojiDnyjiytoJiK ny^yn 
18 DiyDmsQ Dn-tj^ djjh /lyDsnyn n px iyDijy:i D^^n irn 
p^^8 nyj'»''K T8 ^D^n^Dy:! dj^h ny D:n .y^D^D^tp lyi px dii$ 
^viv' nj^na y:^n nsD li^DDnx ly^^^p rjyii nnyr iy Dyii 
"lyi n^i« pi^Tiy: Dn-iKy^D^ix on^n t^k di^qj^-'S ^vt'p^vd 
'O'D D'?^ pyii DD^ctr^i ^j$T DD^jJ5^jr"i>nD 8 Tfe§ /:ijn^jy*i 
^ijT nyiD^uns is ts PJ8iy:i nyn lyn^i ,y^D^Disp nyi ns n^^:i 
n tD^o ^D'o^Vi tD^j ni§: tD}^n nyj^^^D-'Di^ip iyD^^r:yp s pn 
DJj$py: Di^n \vd dj^ii ,yDDDyn DJ^n .oy^^n^-iD y^y^v'-sj^ 
lyp^^ ty^«T D^nr^^yn n nx nyto^^nns n ts /lyiiy:) t^« t'^y^s 
IV pyii D^yt^tJ'yjiv ty^^t yr^^yii nynytot^ij^a yrvj^^i< iv 
-yj tDDsoya t^k ny^-'^ms n pd D^n lyn nsD .y^D^DJ^P ivi 
m^vB ivi PN ^insiiD^ix nyD^^P>^3 p« lyai^p nnyt s n^tii 
iy:i»-ipy:i imn D«tn stojr n .monyn pnynyiD .id pd 
lytDDO^^Jvn^nD n pd nynyD^n«Q tyii^n iv ,D^:n^i^iy n 
*.nyii D^yiay^D^N ly^yii nny lyii ^uiyn t>n w^h^ v:^'?v'\) 



tn*?! p?B»m« yin^N BSj;jj;"i:?Nn tt': njrnN tsxn ni2:t n * 

D'3B T^K P«"ny^ IjrsiKnjTJJ yoyia lyT ]is tafix ])}i'>if dnti ,"ik^ 
]^i*i'« ]yD>>n 'n t« ,i^n:7:j T'k oyin^s j?tr'aD'3«'2T-Tnra n 

T^« ,mnD yB»>tDD3N'3ii-n'nt2 n ^j?;ii''K"i«5 ix tsDjrs'ixia n d'7« 
."ID pB tDpy'tjiBTJ^ry; « piKnjr; ain^pis 1867 ps taonnyn px 

T>K PK ,«Q3V Ijn IKS IpKMyjJ BJlJj'j^r^lNS pK INtaEDNIp nj^H 

■jn « ps p« nn^N ps ]n«n:;;. ijroijyjiiN p'DipDn ipy^jy^ « ixj 
T'K Bpy^KiB nyn .]»«-^^yi px ,DTntD ps ;?2i'70HTnKs-]yt2K;y'7 
"lyiDDp^rj nyn ps nnnjK px lai^CK^nKs ]^« pxny:? tsDK-inyjj'ns* 
lj?^jnyn«5 iKm'-Tnta n iks d^k^ k d'jk tD3j?nj?;i tsxn tix ,i?'DyD 
iKn ,n'7yisyB' pN ii^DytQsnn ,1868 inN' pN ijr'?n»n yomy;! ]'n 



343 v^n^'^'^^s yn^n p« «t2:r n 

in lyni^n VDipyii ,Tvn nfc< monyn iiivn n iymjy:inya^K lyn 
DD^Dti'Sia oi^n ^02v n lyoyii ,rDn$<:i^ys8 d^o lyoyi-i^a tD2«: 
o^na lyi .iyDy-iy^:^K v\n''i< Pk iy:jivn n lyjnxnxiv^^n 
.:n'^Dc> nnyr pi^Tiy; iyn^^py:D^iK t^t? ^jin^^Dn^D nyi ns 
lyiiy:! t^j< yDyiJ^n-ii<D vw^t m ^02V lyi ns P''0^^«9 n 
•t$P "lyi na nyi^^:o^Q n n^ D^^posTpnynD^K n lyn-iv iv 
n w rstT:y:iy:i tk ,iyDDS!tj'^yTyr"ifc<D yoMi: n nn« yo^o 
-D^ix n 3'D wo'?^ Dyn na lyni^p-iKD y:^tDi«t y:^SiyvD'iN 
,nny nyot^iy lyi iyiiy:i t^t? lyD^yii ^rDist^^yss r,D iy:ji:i^r 
"i',fc<ii^2 yiynyij n lyD^iitj^ivsi^ lyjsitDyj^^a ^y^D iyn«n 
>*DD Dyi na nyoyipyo ^i?iyjy: Dyi .DJiijor n lyjyj ly^^^t: 
,y^vs:T^:^:i«t pn T5< ,iy:>^viyn^K iv lyjji^yj t^k njfc?nnj§D iy^ 
PK to^yn p^^jvi^ntD nyi pk y^m n tyiiy;; isn t^n v:i'?v^\ 
D^o tDrDDyiJ'SD too D^N^in in Ds^n .tyvjj^ra pd ^dd^jm 
lynyjy^yB^ i^^DyroBnn in cjjn n i«ij ,Dp^nDD iv ly^^yna^'tx 
iyr,y:i t^k iy .DDi§5^^yTyrD:jnyDni5<D s PQ d^^21» nyi d^d 
-2ij y:n:ytDty^"iQ n ly^^not^^iviyoJix pisd:?' yjs^ nyi pk 
iy3:i^iJ5§mfe$Q n pn* :iJ8'n^ iyi«t DOo^My: pd tD^Mjyryn 
"ly iy t2J^n lyi^^^tD^n n pd tyoi^j pn .y^V5<T^Js;:n«i pn pa 
PS in^Dj^^s: Dyi iy:y: d^: iDii< Dit^n lyj^n ^n Tfc§ ,l2'^v'?? 
-p^Dtr PD ny^D^D Dyi njj^^DnK n^^j oii^sopy oyi ,iy:^iJ'«o 
-jiD:j'-Dt:^''3-)s yD^^jnyiiy: n iv:i''\^ ]vd''2'-\^ iy:y: ,tD^^Disi 
-ytuia n .lyj-iy^ pa ijiroayc'^n ly^na iyi nyni^ ,;yi 
--i^no pn DrtDDysst^ Dii^n iy "ly^^yn nnx ,y^vn»9 v'?^\2:vr2 
d:^'^^ n PQ yastiant? n t^k oy ife? ,iyny: t^k dt^js^jv 
PN pi^ tyt3D^tD:^•5$n ^ lyuytDtJ'DiN y^s iyD:iiK lyto^smvanx 
]iv)) 03^n:iy.i lyjijp y^^yii ,iyiJiD:^"Do^^n"i8 ytDo^oti'sa 
Vi'^py'piVD 8 iyny:i ^i^i d«ii ^yoiD sts ty^Dt§TDn:iv nnn 
T^ns-inyTyi $< lyD^oc^^n iv li^'-jr lyn ps i^^:tD^Q lyiy 
riijTiyj lysny: t^k ly^^yii .iy^$< D^^^ni .tD^^nis pn tinK 
lyrn^ynyn pK lyo^innya in D«in o^itD lybm oyi nny d^^ 
'1 px ; iy::^vy:yii8a yoniy: d^d D:n ,t:i8:i^ys8 ni y>j^^ 



DT''iy"':r-T'ntD {IS yt3D''t5^y:i 344 

-Dj:^^^DtJ^nyD:iK y5'i5J«i^^»J iyny;i y>r^ lyoK^ny px lyj^n 
nyn Pi^ii< pmj^^s iy:i^Djyp 8 tDDsny; iya«n lyDQstj'^yTy:! 

nrs ni^iiy:i D"in^Dy:i too t^« D>nn-»^yn n riD o^n n 
-j>i^ >n TT D«n Dy ,no« •lyo'^^nns n ns tD^n n ni di: 
■i^p nyi iy:i>"'viyn^>? iv ,nijyD D'DiSJ^yas r«nD /tynyjy:i 
pn^tDtj' lyj^n DJ«;^jr ytoDroDyo n iid yrj^^j? ?« ,y^D^D 
->yii n:y:"i^K nyoJix lyt^P^ntDJ^p-mo n« to^uis-p^Dtj' iy:iy; 
px •lyj^tJ'^D lyjyj i^^ds: ly^^D yoniy;; px nx ,yoifc^D lyD 
-y: tDD5§»y3 lyj^n oy t» rp^iiy^ jyimsn t^k ly^sa v^vi:^ 
nyi nn .nyny^ pd ^n«;v n iyvy:yn:^n iv oyn^is pi^ii 
,D-iytDD"'^D-Mn n pd tDastj'^yty:! ly^i^iDjy^ lyn na y^jiyjy 
n PK o:h'2v y-iyo^y n pq p^d^^«iq D:j^vyjyi:i«n n t^n 
PN ; D:n:nyni^D px \'\i},))Vi D:3»"iny:iD^n8 pnstDtj^ tyDj§Q-'n 
-m:>^8 yt^nyj^yj yoDinyo n nny^piyi t«p dpsq nyi oh 
"S^P yiy^yn pk y^y^^D n lytj'^^^^ DT^j^^jr-TinD ty:iyn lyp 
D^: lyni^n D^nn-'^yn n lynij o«d iv dj^^h pn i»j wo 
-iotrj>^8 DyoD iy2«n ^n .oyp^^DS v^V''^ pn tyi^^py:iiyn^N 
.DT^:)«''ir-n^nD pa s^^jns iyvJi?t:i Dyn iyjy:i D^yDK^y:i in :i^d 
-^si Dyi D^^P^DDn^^nlp ny:iJ$Q s d^o o^^niyini lyn^n >n 
■i^i3 iynj<in pn /'i^d3« ly^ynnpirx,, ps tDjyo^:iis tyo 
y^v»T^:s:n« ny^yntoDnj^N t^n oy lyD^yii iy:iy:i DT'DoyD 
■15§D IV nyD"'^m8 n pd tyn^iD y^^? .iyD>ui« v^V'>'t nvD 
"srotD^^nis n n"'^i:iyi pn ^jir^^^Dsi yiVDPy^J^tP n ty:i3^^ 
-ins ytortDDyiNno^N,, d^n ti^ny:! Di^pNtoN ty:^n ty:j^:in 
^nj^v n ."D^nn-'^yi o'?^ ]vt:i:ivi viV'''^ lis lyjJirD^NiiJ 
zynDDnrN pq :i:iD^N'inND yvjsa n ^DDn ^ii nyjiny^n^D 
Diyny^,, yD^y^i hnt dniviq d5'n tDiy^piy D^nn-'^yn n lyn^sin 
p^p tyD^yii pN ,v^v N ; P''^n n-'nn-^yn nvi i^^D-'^t^o^N 
lyni^n to^: tyjj^p nyo-'UiN n y^N m lyrj^ni pn nv ny-i:N 
■Djyv n iy;iya ts^ytoti'ya nnyo n^^j in lyn^in ^n /'nyi p^p 
nnytyi yuyt^-'n^n d^d oy^vspjN^iN y^sJ^^VNJ yom^^si 



yrtD^fcj yt3^yijny3B« n ty:ya nyn^^K .\vd^? v^V'^ r« .y^ic 
DJijpyj "n iy3«n iyDnnDnj< yr^ys^v viv't dj^i^ Mynrp 
yroni^ n lyc'^oDnjiv ny^n lyni^ .n^-ifcjjyN iv lyrjit^D tt 
Myoeto-D^^ii^^: ns P^tD^^i^s v^^v ly^n iin lyo^^'^'nyQ^iyp yj^^rp 
■y::i^ pk D3fc?D lyijyD^nrtD^ni ny^n pn lyiJ^^meiD n o^rs 
-:i>* opi^iiy: p-u<t}:r lynijn d^j ^{^t dj^i ^n ,DioD^n lyo^yss?: 
nyn iv tDin^Dy: i:i>*n .dip^^3^,s i'dmn i>v'\i^' ^ lysi^tiKiv 
sinx lyoijy: iv ny^n Dsn li^onyn pnynyia .id lyii ,n^S!D 
lynyin D^nr'-^yn n di^ii to^oiyi .nymsiD r^np lycistj' » 
-:s!3"i5<2 VD')']^ n ^^N Dyp5!!tD5< y-iy^n t:!^y^vy: i^^DytDsnn 
''] \V2Hn /iyD55"i"iy3»D y:^Dii;j yDyi:njyj >': n ni< lyi 
T^N Dv '^^:v lyn hd ojyn n pj< Dpyin o^y^stj'y; tj^^DPstc 
nyi Ti$ ,iy:^^vnyn^K iv /D"i5<:^y25$ nx w'?^ i^d :m; lynyj 
r.D ::•l2^?t^• n nx lyto^si iroipyrpy y^j^io^yv n na di^2:^^5< 
■yr^n lyDi^n ,iyDD«t^'^yTyr^^D n rx ^jij^^o lyD^^ojysy ly; 
yirDy"i:» "inyo n hd nyto^^ms n iyt:^{§nivpniv iyi«!-itD 
tyji^p ly^nyrnp y^^pi;?^ n iin yo^yo^aists n dsit /tytDstD 
iJiv^Dc^nyoj^x "lyrD^njy^y: 112 y^vsJ^noj^p nyn .\r]v:^2 
rvj{<iw nyi^ IV Di^Pi<tD{§ t^^yt^'fc!:n lyiiyj t*k ,iy^y^vist3 tD^o 
Ij^^jr-i^no "wi rx lyt^':yD y-iyrv^n n nr: lytoysK' nn«^ 
y^v"iyr« IV Din^D D«n tsi /oyt^s^inj^a lyni^n yD^yn ,tD^yii 
nx lyiJitDti^-Dto^^mj? fV)'? iiD lyjync n pn to^^":>r2y3Di^j nx 
-"i«2 lyj^n Di^ii ,iyT^>"ns3 n .iy:ji::nfei!3 Do^^an^ ynyoya 
rx lyiy^'y: nyii ^n lyii ,1868 nx 1867 px ns:iiy:j o:v'?v:i 
P2 nMn:i^ oyi lyr^^ii My;jn^D^5 yiyt:y3ti^ ris toD^^ Dyn 
"•D^P n nsQ i^^:iyoDii< lyi^y: t^5< dv pk 'r:ynjyt3 "lyi £:i^* 
n PD iyi:fei!m»D n px t5< ,di^c> div ly^p iv t:^j nyj«^D 
^y^D ^ PD lye^tD in i^d ^n iyn«n Diy^^^oD pk ;yoD^rK^fe?o 
yD^yii ,D:«t^:v n lyi-'^x .DT^ji^^jvi^nD ryirDyi^^ "lyrjyn 
f'yj^v n ^^n lyocMiK^^yTyri^c v^'^i D^st ryn^^nynyn^x iy:>n 
•lynDDnyx ny-if'y^cyc» n P£ -iyi» lyDsto 
•"i»D DTin-^^yn n ryn^jn ,dpjis nvi r^^ njy^siDDin 
-"^tDB^nyoiiK D^tft y^si ly^n p« iyi:i5nn8D-i«>:r n oj«5'P 



DT'»i8'»i1^"Tntt lis ytfiD^'Si^j;: 346 

-lit tytDiysDpy-D^jnyDmstD yDDyn:i n .lytDSsti^^yTy: d:i:iv 
-"isa lyDDO^tJ'SD lyi d^j t» ^lyr^^iistn iv n«"ny:i lycny:! lyj 
lyDiPDi!?: WHP \v'?v^^ nJsm^D ly^^^DD nyi do nx njsa 
ly^yii Dns ^nn' i«s s t^x ts nt< 'Dmn yn^yopsii yiy^n 
8 T^K ;ji^ij»m»D yvji§:i yrt^i n .n^to«ip:fc§n lynn ^n 
■Dpy ^n« lyr^^nsD in i«p tyo i':>')) ^11 ,T^ni«;n ny'D^n 
•D-'nyj Dyjyj^^N ^v'^} ns Bi^ lyoyio -"n lyii ,nny tyoiyQ 
8 T8 ,iysn;i$2 iyn«n lypyio .id do nx mD^y^:^a .id do 
"-lyDJii^ lyD^^jnyny: s iv i>^jny do -ii^:i t^k i^ovn^nD 
-^noiK i^ iy3^KDnt< mo^ i«p n ^^ni ,D2«tj'^yTyrD;j'iv^D»' 
-D^^v y^yvysD :injy:iy^s>ns i'?vi ly^Dsir w dd^jd yD^fyJy■^: 
;yi"i /iy:!SiD^''n n :n:nyDynjn«!D nyii^ ,tyjji^ni^vs«{ y;>^^ni 
lyni^ .^D^J ns2 oy iyD^{§n lyi^^jD^D yDDinyD n ifc^j 
D^i^^i iyD-iysDpy"D:j"nyDni«D n t^s yji§^PJ}$ n i^^qj? lyii 
na niyD » lyny^ mx oy t^« .DrDDynsn ty^:»:i:^t< iy^iy:i 
nyjfc?''D^D«p n .p^dp^d t^Tj^ iyi:yn5<!vj« D^nr''^yn n 
-D"'ifc< i5§ p« DQy^'tJ^yjj^ns; ^n ^i^n lyD t« ,D^n>Dy:i lyni^n 
rs^ix DTOi^ovi^nD na iJipin^ lyn ty:yi"i do ojit^^i^a 
D^^'^rD^n lytj^^DyDsnfei! lyn iy:iyii i«j n^i§DtJ^^"'i«ii d'p^j^q 
lyni^n lyanriyD^un^ yoniy; di§ii /DyDD^D n^rs oyn na 

.iyn>^i"n;:iD^ix nn n^a 
IV ,y^D^D»P nyn ?id yn5$:iQnK db^ih n t^x y^^inyi 
IV ini^iiy:i iyny:iy:nyn^« .nin^vn ^vi'?V'Zsv^ n lyDinyDJix 
-«in iy::i3inyDJii< v^^dih oyDyii /"lytj'i^iDDMj^,, y^yvysD 
-i:snisQ n lyn^'-i^ D^^pDSTpiyDDnx lyjoyii tyr^vy:i ryi 
-lyDJiK n Di§n Dti^iyiv -DD^t^iysnyp Da^in nyn n2 ry:iji^ 
fK 1867 >jr pK lynj^ ,Dy>o joyii i»:i DDsnny:iDnn^ :ijiin 
ns mi ly^^^D^D^m oyn iib n»iiy: Dtj^^nnyn^^ "os^ d«!t 
yD^yii .lyni^P lyD^^^ti' n no lyn^^^D^D y-iy-ofe? nfc< nym^ni 
;n yD^yii iv ,DjyDynm5§Q yi^ni yn>o fe§ Dpy^y:l3n^5 w^nn 
lyn ne D^n«v»n ^i^n \vt2 v:i'?V)) ns!B tik Dvyny:iQ^ix tyni^n 
T^ ,iyT>'ny3DnK nn i^nn d^-^v lyvnip « nfe$B .ni^p ns yo^itp 
■ya nwiiya lyon^iiy; lyj-^n d^ii My;i:'i:in^i6j'8n yii^^pDix y^« 



•pyii Drt::)y-i^a ly^yn ,p"'oy:^B; pk Dro«^:v-i^nD ly: 
n iiD ^yiDDrc-iy^D ts /DyDDne:3 lynt^n -iyti'-i«iDDM« n nyaii 
lyiiy: lyj^n ^lyjesD '^vl'?v'^v\:^ n px i^^as: ,Dy^v8P:»r,« 
lyj^n D:y::yin-iy:D yriiiji n t^ ni< Myosto-D^iiiiij na ^nc 
lyni^n iik 4b59 nni*^ pfc< ni>my: iyj:y;:5<n D?^^o:yDD-iny'D 
n iNTi /DiJ^Di^' yiyi:5§ y:^i':^^K n .isi o^n :Diyny:2^iN 
-tD^feSiiJ n lyjni^DiVDMN :i^omj "isd lyjicy: o«in y^D'^Dijip 
lj$>:r -lyDStD ^yrv n inii nyDDyt^'OJSiD lyiiy: t^« .lyjiso 
DJs^pyj D>: Di^n lyo -iyn« ,D:yDy^3-is!D y^y^D iy::y;;^3 ::{^n 
lyiiy: ^n px iy:^n lyD^sD y-iyijs tj$ ,iyT^''ii»3 vy? lyrsy; 
nytJ'-ii^D yrtoDnDMX y^5$ iis2 \'\i^^)v:i ^h'?? t'k oy .t:'^^o",t{2 
lyi iv py^T iyanc^y:)iv o^j tyji^p lyop^ y^yrnnp n Tij; 
lyiiy: tJ^^DPi?D lyj^n ^n .yv:^:i si d^{$ :ji:iyii^a i^j^jvi^nt: 
,\v:i^^ yDiyiJ^iTyjEj^ px y^i^-i: yD^yT{< pk nyn^^^^nya^N ;{< 
ytj^nj^nista n 'lv^v^^ ""^n pyD-i^^tr n pj< lyiDssD ^y:^v n n*, 
"155 n lyii /tyD^^v y:y^ pd iy::^fe!:ny: ii^*: im lyai^n D^:n:rD 
lyo^^y: lyni^n pk ryry: riyonx D^n^cy: in iyn«in nyo^^z 

* ^"-jsn^o pD pm Dyi r^c 

lytDD-'Ji^^jr-T'no n ps nv nyi lyD^yii d^^d oS^any lyi 
->stj>y:;3{^ in D{^n .yo^ci^p lyn i^d n^^ny:! ojy^yni^i: t^k 
— Db*^p ly-ijyj^iyn oyi iv^ jji^yot^ -iyoiyijyy:i "lyn pk to^y: 
nyi w ni^iiy: lynntj^yjiv i^^pmonx T^i< Dtifii o:nyijy ;» 



-Kin ]>n nyT .DT>:K':"i'-Tnt: ps s^!i:n5 c:<n isjn'^ti'^xE ;'nt:i?2 

nnxB'tin .itt ]ie y-ntrNin n inx m ; (.lyta^n 16 ,1867 lKn:N7) 
16 ,1867 ^i^i:^*?) /'yoyiB yD'J^:» n px lymNnn .nc„ iiyij^-^xp 

.(.U'ti^n 



'^v:i^'?y^vp lyi nn n«ny:i lyjixiiyj t^k d^ii ^DT^jyt^jr-i^nD 

Dyn pyjy^pnsD "lyi^ij nyoynji^s nuns do toyii,, ,Diy^p 
DPSD s D^s; lyDnyjjj^ >n loyii li^j /DJi^or n na di^dj^--^ 
-Djy "lyrDyDvyty:! s isq o^^pri-'^jyo y^nD s ^n lyny; n« 
,y^D^a{<tp lyn no o^nisa ly^y^v^Q}^ lyi Di$n ^iTi$ ^.''^Ji^pni 
■DMii? MTi§ \V2i^n nT>jj$or-n>nD na D^i^Jitj^ n ly^^yii ^i^j^ 
-^^w d'?h)^ oi^)^ ,y^!;«i:yD{§py-i v^i) \VD^^r\\D:v do ,DPipy; 
-i^nD nyrvJ^^K ly^^yii -i:y:ii^N ns y:!^^ n DDis^y:! "lyi 
iyD^5§ny:Dnx do Di^iiDy lynyj rx o^^m ^DDnsa nyi .li^or 
iy:^>«-ij$s-i^nD n t;;? ^DyDQ^nsin ^^n avd)'?;^ v^i^'pp mjs nx 
,iyvo ytj^>Dii^jj;?!py y'n?ox v^p ly^pna do lyD^m^ n iyjj<:p 
lyDJiK ^n ^J!?T lyD Ti$ ,iy:iyiiDDy-]:i2 D-mjyDj^pyi d^^h nx 
YV^v:^ Dfcji DJ^iii ,Dyi DJ^DtJ'JJ^ .nM^^«;:iy^ iy:iJijjnsn yoniy:; 
■D^^vytyjoiK nyj^^Dyj^s nyi na iyDoyjDM-ii§ D«tn 1825 tiQ 
lyj^iQ D^D lyDOiiSQ in lynj^n d^nsii ,iyj^^N-i«D n rn^n Vi'>^? 
-i^py-i nyj{^^D^D{!?p n lya^sn avi2)d^ dd^ui^ iyn« rn^ na 
IV lyDii^^nyDJij^ pn do inyn ^i^it p'-i^i^Q p-ip ts /DinjyD 
DJ^Ti ,yr"iT8 "lyoMN ,^yij^n Dyi tyvyjyij^n -1^2 ty:iJi:i^}$DisD 
D«iTi ,iyD8D tnyjsn iv,. ^y^v Dyi d^d Dyi:n:iy; in iyn«in 
"18 IV iyj«nvB«! in -iyi« /'dp^idji^p ns inn s iv nn^D 
n iyn« .i^tnya lyDD^Dtj^sn T^i< oy \v:i'?v\) » d^d lyD^n 



>'i ,1869 ,1^1^ |j?id8 Dyn /'D»>»i3„ n ns "byp^tanrtan'b * 

i«fi iytD«nia:rJD>nK va ,n«iapNmiNp lyDm;? « ps inu « ,1^; i^ra 
lyn^K 11T DK1T D^T iin TK ,i3ni;'bpni; taxn px ,D:»jti:ii-T'ni3 n 
nytt^'m« n ]ib iyiDpKi«3 oyn cinx Di'beinN tyjimjrti'^nNn « onK 
-yn 1!? t2«i2tyiK ,t2iniN ps lyiaoKp n ppy^pixs is nr ijrpnm 
n T^N -ij?tDjrsB» (.1869 ^lytaxnyn D't22j?ttN'?iN9 DnnxDixn) .nr pj;^ 
n„ ^ita'ta riyisiiN p^J^^J;JJ ispmy:; lynxjis yjii:n« taio ynyi 

.(lytanT 64 ,1870 



349 ■ yiDV"T3'»ni«B viy^n 11« «DiT» n 

,y^vfe?T^:sni^ nyi hd yD5<p nyi isd nt5^ lyD^^vyryj ^ iy:np 
-10KDD DjyDyn ,DJ«t^:r yD^yrj? iv i«j ]'\iiW} oy'?'^^^2 vt< 
.irm ,iyD2n:rij>'D D::ivyjyiJj<3 r^D ^na lyiiy^ iy:>n oy lytD 
,iyrtj^y:a ns iMiny; nyi ns -iyi« "iy:-iy^ ns jr.vy:y-i:s:a n 

Di^n y^D^Dj^p lyi fin^ D^nn-''^y3 n ns di^d:^''8 lyi -lytD 
-Mife$n w Ji^*T2i^ ly^y^vysD oyi rx lyTniy^Dms; nytD^^ii is: in 
,Dy^v^T^Js::ni^ yrns iv y^vsitDD^iyi ns y:y^nri3 n iy:>^ 
PN DP^noD lyv^otJ^ IV ^n lyan^iy iyo*iD5<DD vivt d«i^ 

.iyD5?D yiy-138 
D^^proyD D'y^D^ot^p iyi ns DS!t:^"iTyi -iyi t^k y^^nnyi 
i^-iE^ lyny: t:o dh'-^? rfc< t^k oy .-iyivDs:yj s "i«J lyny: 
-lyo^niv lyi no .lyDpy^J^jiBvyTy: yD^^u^^a no p:ixii p^p 
-ji^ t:''j oyii i{$^jr-i^nD vp t{$ n«^p lyiiyj t^k ,-iyn«: D^n 
.]y:iji:jns3 yjyjj^^tJ'ymsQ n n^ix "y^vsr^^stjy^,, p^p ly^nyj 
t2^D Tn^3 Dvyjy-i:b*3 D^J in ryni^n rnr px p^onyn lya^: 
DyD^i^^^a Dyi ps iy:iy!^{^ii^D yD'-^inycy: v'?^ lyaii^iiDni^? 
"lyD^ii^ ■int< T^j^ lyD^yii ,DDn$<2 oyDni^rD ly^n .tD3n{§2 
-y:cnt5 Di^n i^y^st^tD^^ pq ^imx Dyi pa pj^iiy: lynn-j'yj 
n PD tD^-iprTi^^DDnD n lyvsr ycistr pi< v'i'^ii^ pk tDpyi 
-jij lyDnDK^ yj^^Dy:i^8 Pi< tD«tn pk ^oytoni^^sD lyi pd mvy 
lyvyryj yr^sjipiv y^t? ys^yii ^inx ^lys^vjns n DjyD^''vy:i 
-yn{^2 D{<:n Dyoni^^j^D n .onay: pn lysi^i Djj^^^r y^i^n 
iyt:pi?"itDJ«:p dd^"'2"is: y:i:n lyvyiy:! y^y^vysD y^^ t5§ ,iyj«^c' 
-jns Dyi PD Djn:i Tsmx ^Djytoij'iy ,nyii D2s;;^•yJ^i^ ly^yir 
n^^vyTy:i!:")K pn t2^: ^i^t lyD^^nis i^ pd dp» p^p ts ^b^v 
"lyi:^ ii$ lyii "i^ix "i^^vyTy:nix t^x jdps lyn^ynyi lyi^^D 
-ist2 S! pD D^D p^p ^j^T ^D^yo-iniv px ; Dn^x Dny:s!3 :^':y^ 
a^"ii< ,iyDy-i3n^D '■\v'^vy^''\P ^ d^^ nyii o^ynt^^n tD>j p^x 
lyj^yvj-i^x Ife? lyii ,iy3yi3i5<2 si lyiiya do tD^'tjii dxd yDf'yrn 
"D^iK m n>>*iiy:i iyny;y:i^v ij^j T^^< oyi iv .s«i oy 'oito ^2^2 
,-iD P2 pi^iiy; o^uisy:!Dnx t^5< dh)) :i2)'\v'??'\v y^^^in^i: 



y^y^Q n na iyrniy:iDMis i^t D«;n oy "••n .DT^jj^-'jvi^nD tiD 
Dm;i o^D lyj^n .y^D^oi^p nyi ns2 nny n ns iy:iJi:i«irDnK 
yiyoyij s i«: .n{:?"nyj Dn^>Di«2 n^^ Diy^Piy d''<\^w^v^ 
'»! m)Vi iti'Dx T^« :i:i;yii»n li^^jr-n^no lyi "ife$D oDjyn 
-Dn« yjyi^^tj'i^D n ns ^ji^d^^di^q yD^^in"'QD>'iN ni< v^h'?p 
IV nD ,DiyiJ^Dyj in wnnn om >{o^2vdi^vd^) ly^jnyoyn 
•lys^vnss yto:yD^^vy:j{^ lynnx n d^d ryry;i d^^i n^jj^Disn 
mvy n lyj^n oy i"'^v^3 m ,'?v'b^'>'2 I'-ii^'?^ ^ vd lya^n «t 
tD«n sd:v n .3Ji:iyiis!n lytD^ui^ lyi -ii§D lyonysDpy no 
DTT^^fe$:y^ njyDtJ'^iD ty^j^t DJ{<i"'jr n t» ,D"iyi«iDy:i toi§ny; 
•j^K yro^njyjy:! y^^^jnyiiy: n m idik lyn^yiDyi ?inx nyii 
■y^ 8T8 T8 iiyDnj^n d^j lynj^n ^n .tyJ>•'^^1$$D D^Jiv^Dt^nyo 
n na i:^ni8Q Dyi ^n^Bv:^ r^ D^yDSJ^y: tD^i^ii y^v^r^^K; 
n^^;tD^» lyD^yii ijy:iT'j< na nyn iv D:ii^^py:j}<t tyDD^j^s^^sD 
n»D lyni;? "lynypD,, nfe?D n«iiy:i iyDi<i^EJ^y:!Dn« to^^ii d^^i^ 
n .ifeHQ Dyi n2 nyD^u-ii$ n na lyoynyDr^ n lyriyt^ 
■n:st:tj' lytj^^t^D^ji^^Jv-n^nD Dyn 115 ,D^^"^05§Tp-ini yvj^j 
n« lyoyiyoj^x m^jvi^nD na :i:nrm5§D lyn ns .dpjiq 
-8;y^ yrn^n n .rii^iiy:i DytDD>jii$2 d^j^^i ,:iJiv"'D^iyojit? 
oyj^^Dyj^y: rny^Jix DJi?>jr-i>nD n D^ytDtJ^y:i t3^«ni y^vst^^ 
-yj lynjytotj^ nyn nyt::it< lyQij^inytDJix >n D^«"n n« ^ryryj 
lyDpi^-nyjonx lyj-^n ^n .ly^jitJ'^Qj^n^ y^^^toDny:! na instD 
t5D>^: ly^n tDM^ yiD^yii riyo^pi^^n^ n n« ryry:) oyn r^iiD 
"lifi: lyrn ni? tyi^ya ^j^o V?^ lyj^n ty^^"'Diixn{<!2 yiy^n riK 
-n:sn yiropy^^p n nx ly^y^v n iv ti'nyj:iy:i nt< iDyis dv^k 
njy:ii^i< ts /in;siQy:i n .Dy>vfe$T'':s:ni^-iSD n pd iy:iji^ 
n»Q ^••n iy:ifcj^pivj«i dd«d n lynt^n tDyii ny^^^D^D lyD^yii 
l"in ^n ly^-enp nx lyajn.T'Q-Dyvi^iQ iin jn^^n ^n lyQ^tr 
y^vstPJsnj^ n lyBy^K^j-in^ nyi^i ,iyDyv«i3 no nit^vin n 
stDiv n .pi^iiy:! n«^P inyr r^K .Dyvj<iis DJ$ip:^n s px 
^n lyniiftn nyny^D^i yiy^n jyii lyjNtot^'ifcita i^^n d«i-i d^h 
y^v8r^i$3y^ ytn^n t« ,iyTniy;:« rya^^n nx y:!^^ n tony^piy 



li^Dnyn n^: oi^n ,D^'pr"iyn:;' n oi^ lyi^^Divonx hd .D:yn 

o^yD'kT'yj ^j^T ii^^jr-T^nD n t» m5<>b lyj^^p oyi iy;j^:?*^y:-{55£: 

i«j iyDDfc?t^'>yTy: Dj:'iv^Dt^"iyD:i« iid ryry; oyi lyL^jiN 'nvv. 

n3j: iy:y: yp»p "in^x iyv^tj'{<n iv :^dmj t^n oy ^y^Dm fi'-iS* 

-vyry: in^K o^^v lyj^a^ynyi pk DnjyLD^^r;:« ^^yim^^ p.n 

V'? nn^N* iy:yj lyannDnx d^j \h? lyo Dtjjn .y>:y^^*nns y^^? 

-i^no ^ lyii .y^v^")J!?2n«P ^ lyjyj ^n -DDny: pk y:{<^p 

lynyocni^D d^s: pj^iiy: lyn^^pyjD^K tD^i^n nytDo^esa ;{^*':r 

yD^^in^DDMK V2'?v^^ lyo^i^ii .yo^oj^p lyi px D:«^:r n pd 

ni^"nyj D^^aiytyjonx d^j ryry; div DDjyon:yoi< yop^^ry; p.x 

lypy^v^ci^ lyrDD^n « Pd ^^^d ^ piJ^iiy: ::o ly^^j^ii ^'t pn 

,tD^M^nQ i«^jr-n>nD pd i«^5 iy:njyt:5J^^«D lyi .D3n«2 

T^x ^tD^'-mysy^D^-iX ryni^n n:^nD y:^n d^o i«Dne;n lyD^yn 

Ds-i:ii^ns "^y:^•^D'^i^s lyi n^tny: in«i^ lynn ytDDpyj n nsti: 

nipipiytt ^ p^ii^^^to T>N Dy pn .iyDDOi^^:v-"!^nD n p£ 

nyn ts .p^d^^jijb ^^dissb lytr^^jjy lyi pd ^s2iv iyir':i^-i^K 

T^K Di^m ,y^V5<D^:{§ n pk DS!i:)«i"i2 oyi pd :j'io^^aistD^ii< n 

nyi 1^: tDjyo^^-iss p^k pk dh^x i^£ ni^iiyj tDin^Ey::^? 

-ni<n VB^ii: s PD D""'ans: yD^^D^^^onx n lyiiy: t^n nvi:^ 

•^'D '^^ ,YV^v:i s p« \^i^))Vi DiysiypnytD i^^n:y *iy t^k ,]v'^^p 

*.Dyj'asp ly^rtDsinyDJ^p s pd ,inyr ry^yii 



"k:p k iDKHj;;! D:^'t:D-inj;o ts«n ya^yn ,"nt2K-ii;i2»^ yDni;: k y;tnv';: 

rx ]y;!ii;;i<TDMK-nnj? ps ly'jKnyeKo-iyDNO ts'o ,pr3nK2 ??>* 
-i!iD''.N ]"i«ny^ ttO'tstrxn iy:'u D«n ,iy3uij?t::iK n .i^'^n'^m^ 

pKnyj t2;;»'7i,»j!nK5 iy:'u jra^yn ,p;t2DnK2 y"i;n:iTK3 c'^v'^ir:*; 
iy;iyn Dy<vNt?2iKc:'N-'iyi:'^n^yv:''N lyoKO n .i::;'eK'?"iKS i'"^Ntr 
DKV. ,Dy'^*KT':»;"iK~;«e n ]ie ivts^'p^^c^'iD yiyn^K ]ik op^ntiD 

'ijTi Tints n„ pK ,(]>*CT 24G ,1869 ,iki:k'?) Tnxs j?i eoKp pfi 



I 



Df»:i5'»ir-T''ntD J1S ytDD'^B^y:; 352 

nyn Pk lyoijy; in n^ix t:«:n s:t:jr n Di^ii .:iji:iyii8n "lyn 
D^: T^K ,y^D^D«tP "lyn^^rjyp nyi iid lyjjivn n ns d>>v 
Di'Dyiyoj^xn^D lyj^n di^ii n .ty;ijnyDE^ in{$ lyjj^jy^Dnn 
rr]i<:? m Dvn\:):i'i< vy^:vnvB no lyoi^nD^T^np n px 
tyty^ ly^i^P ,iy:iJi:iyn^n dp^«d ns mn:: py^i^ lyony: y^^yi^ 
-"•ntrj^n yD^^nn^DD^iK "p^tDt^^-iy^n,, nvi ns nytoy^n n ^in^ 
"PJ<:Dt:ny'3„ lyi .Dy^^f«Jo^D o'-iytD^s t^mj^K^n ns iyj:)n 
DjytDi^D Dj^yo px ny"iyDj«;p i«!^jr-i>nD 5$ lyann^Q dj^h 
-Jin iya^55 iyoipy: iyj>n ov '■\v^'?v)) iv 4867 nyo pk .^»n 
PN* lyDSiTiyD^D /lyj^^xnsD y^y^vriii^is pd iyD8:iy^y-i oiyi 
1t^'cx D»n iiiDJv n .lyni^pn^D iyj«nj«^ viv^v^P n pa 
^ o^D ii!?t: iv lyDj^n iv in njy:«TDjy /O^yu^nyj ji^p tD^j 
-Dn&< D'iyD$§G nyoJi^ iyD^8ny:i3«i onyii dj^ii ^jji^o^hsd 
v^'?V'\'\ ,yDynj>3i»£ y^y^^jm^^isi yiy^n P2 y^y^D nyn« .ddm 
-yD:J:f;p iy"i iv iympy:i lyj^n ,iyiiyj imn o>j nsi t^"'P iyn«n 
P2 y:s!^ ny^fe?D-i«!j D^j 8 px lyjiay: in ryn^in pk <nyi 
lyjj^ui^:^ n D^^^n:) o^d ly:!:^^ iv ya^is s pfc< lya^ynto^D 
siDJr iy-i IV D^M^nto ly^n pq iy:!i$TS{$ in ty^«iT ^n jy^sis 
lyo^^ny^jj^ toj^n nyiysjJ^tP n -to^riy^SiD iyj«!ij»^ div pk 
DDsini&<is2 n D«;n ,y^nyjy D'-iyosa pjsi s pj< ,;i«d ly^D 



,'7tro^ ,{]j?t3'>T 232 ,1876 ,;nininj;) di^dko aiynNi pu /'dj« 

lynxn ys^yn (1870 ,i«n3«'7) "ainn« ]yjyn„ ,p")i,m D'JNtaiyiNnu 

ps /'i3::n''tti«s DJ«>iP DTnts,, : i^jNO-iyn is tanjrn t>n p"ij?ii 
1!? ni ipy^Q,, ;(p;u'n 16 ,1870 ,npiDDytyi3:Ko) iNiiy^xp .b .n 
^*7'n pmyifi ps /'D3N':i> OTno pe m'^i:? n i^f ^iid n i:;3nd 

,(iytt>n 16 ,1868 ^iNiiN*?) 



353 ytavirn-i«s py^M ji« yii:iJi"^ n 

-lySy^vysD "lyi 5i>ij< ri:ypip o^: -i«j .lyjjivn n iyjni<iiNA* 
,::yt:^c«p Dyi lyayjyj va^n 'Vi^D^'W^. lyn D^jn ,r:yrD«i5 
-S3 yt oi^n -ly Di^ii d'd wpvio^v t^2^?vi too "i^o lya^n 
Ts ,iviyi Din^2y:j oi^n d'^^^j^p yiyi ]}:^'??-o'>: 8 -loii^DayK^ 
n nx ; y^D^Di^P lyi hd lyo^^tj'DnK i^fc$3 dh^k ^»t \vt2 
PN lyn^^ay^ t^« ajian^^tonss isori^no nyi ns jjnn^DJ« 

.8o:r lyi nx rDiSJ^yss pd t::yn n 
T^K ,Dy:nt:rx yD^^jynys n nx n«jp lyi lyonK lynfcj 
nyn nc p^tD^^yis lyi ^v y^vni^si^ v^''?^r\v is lyny: i^ik 
lyny: too ij^'j lyj-in lytDDO^ori^ntD yoso yD>n:i n .sojr 
roMJ T^« Dy^vsT>:s:ni^ v^vt isd ts .PJSiyj div tDinypsa 
y^y^£ lyiiy: lyj-in oy .didsdd "lyD^^vyry;! "iyD:yp*iy:» is 
Dy^vsTosJ^i^ y^yvjMi^ns n rs 'pv^'iVBO /yoossn y:yinsD"iy 
0^0 lyiynDWDiK lyi^y: lyj^n yD^yii ,b^o nyto^y nvi ns 
nsDiyn n^^pmons ,iyin^D "iyj«njs^ n na :ji^i:sn lyn 
n nyjoyii Di^ii» .y^vsr^^s^y^ iy:y: iy^iy:i lyj^n ^n ^^^n 
lyD^yii "i:yn^K rs ^YV^Vi To^d rnoiv \V2i$n ly^yii "lyo^^nis 
TnjytD rijyor lyjy^D /'pn ^m nsD oyii 'ivdvi r^s ^yDit^D 
iy^i£ s lyjisy: D«n p:sny: "lyi ^j;? .lyoDo^ov yo^s n 
DS"i"iy3S2 "lyoDyc'DJSD "lyn dj^ii ^oyi^ji^p Tsnx pmoMx 
"1^3 nyi DS11 Dyn^t^P oyi tins ps ,1868 ps ly^ny^j^^s t:sn 
Yi^^o "Wii^ .1869 PS lyDnnsD tDsn tDSTiyDSD nyDsn^rn 
PS Dyi:i:sP Td^s lyiiy: i^yryiiis do t^s sdjv n Dsn ,Dyi 
-p2v lyn PD ,pyp I^st^'^ i:^nD "ly^n in Di^n ^lyoDytj'toJSD 
-yiiS3 IV iy3y:y:r^s /y^vsros^n^ "iyD^^3nsjyT^^s "iyi:s^:i:y 
■D^s Di^n yD^yii ,y^vi^sTyn s iyonyjw:s lyos^y^yi n lyj 
-ijsn n IV PS p^D^^ss "lyi iv lymtD^v lyruytoc^^ia Dpmy: 
W2 -lyDSD ytDrj^^sisD n pd nynysji^P "lyi pd ly^Ji^ 
-"iS2 D^s ,^yii^n PS nyns nnyn n iy3sn ,i869 pd Dy"i;JSP 
-^yii /Dy^vi^t^tyi yn^n s onn''Dy:i3'Tn',st3Jv nyi pa nynyo'j' 
.iy:s^:in«D D'Jsonsn pnyiyiD .no lyD^snojy lynsn ys 



fill? TJ jyijyn i5^ opv)) ii^^jm^nD nyi lyosnw pisdcj^ 
"«' p« .D"p;^D3y-ij;;) iy;inp ix pvo'D s d?s lyooeip-D^DtJ' 
yiJTjyn n lywni^ d'j tDy^i i«t p\^/ ;-iy on^nc^ ib(>7 ij$ij 
jy^^^Diw 'i'ii m "lyD'uns n no nuyo n lyjypnyj^s ix lyospp 
lys^D nyo^uiis n iis .inyu^^s ly^yn ^n ru ritj'r o'>d ^n 
.DD8D y^j'^D^ip^B yD^:?pnni « o^vn V2v:i'>'i^ :iiv'>'>i r« pns 
-•n D^D lyiynaiv jyiiy; oi^^i^ pa lyj^n yj^yn »iyDD^J8''jr 
ryjJiitp M'?^D^^t$3 ns iyD>«ny:ipni^ m iya«n n« DJ«^jr yiy 
DJijn iy;iJi;iyn8a v^^o-'^i^B pd jjiD^^npnij; -iy>n om ix inyr 
-y;i ?^« i\)iii n dj;?; ni oyi i«j o^tj'in liss s ."DD»iay:i >n 
n iyny;iy:; 1867 pa wvi^^B DiJ^ayn lyn D«n ,n«Tiy:i lyny: 
nynn^D l^^jvn^no n .DiyoK^ n p« DDyvD^DtJ^ nyt:^ui» 
jy^iJDM« i'?^2 iyDijy;i nn tyn«n pk oisiiy:! d^j ;ij8^ tyn»n 
nyDJi« .8DJi> n .iy:;i<inpy;i iy:i«n ^n d»ii ,nD oy^^: oyi 
yD;i^:^^«n8D n pa nynysj^P lyn ps i>v^\'^ lyDyiipsn oyi 
-^yii p« ns^iPT^f s 4868 '>'?v vi^ /iyny:iy;iDMi8 D«n ,iy:3^D 
o^^pa^Djn^ nyn ?im« liij iyDD^:«^jr-n^nD n lyi^ni ^n mo 
lyny^ ^i^ik iyn^«i^DM« pn ,'^v'?nv\\ o'?^ m nnDD>;yn i^ 
lyiiyj ;yj^n ^n lya^yii p« ,y;i^iQ lyi yjon pm {§ D5$injfe§p 
-J8J riyn^« lyosriyj^D n .Dn^DynyDJ^xnyts i^^DytDS^in 
-y:i "i^D pN ;>y^S£5'^u iy^>T D^^^iQy;::^^: iya«n ij^ lyv 
pi^iiy: lyDijyjj^ t^i< sdjv "lyi pa p-'DPSD-^nsii n tj$ ,\vi'b 
-••^n^nD lyiiy;; lyj-^n v:i'?v)'\ /Dy^i*»T^js:ni$ yD^yrs pa i^^dsj 
-iy^8iD:yv -iyn .i«''Vp^ ny^^D^^^s nyny^ pd "iyjjy:i y^yjjj 
D'T'D^is pisDtJ^ D«n ,^^D^ nyny^iDi^^tDtj' n pa toyD^»«p 
ty^n^i^ yjyn^-'tJ'nsD n px lyo^otJ^ iv ")yn^^:iD^D ''i lytj^Miv 
■i^no n lyv^DtJ^ ly^yii yD^yi^ .tyDsnnJsp v:i^v\^ isq i«j 

.iy:ijnyi^D \i^^:v 
WD^^VT] }:>'<iiv^B .n» D«n i869 in«i^ jid n^^njj^ Dins; 
lytD^^nDjy ^i$>r] nyD^yii ,tDpy^«;i3 lyD^^ijn: » D^m^y^Dnx 
nyT .DDnsn DoyDnsj^D pn pd Dy^v^ijyD^pyiTytyj y^s: 



n Tin D:yD5<^"ie;s pn n^iiy: 0Di<i2y::^n8 t^k Dpy^yne 
-j^i5 D'ji2 lyt^D^K^-ii^D n tj'D^D UN 'Tiir nx »^yijiQ pyn 
o«n D^na-^^yn n no Pi^iiy:) d-i^"?j<08 pisd^ lyj^n cpy^ 
-^nymy^o yrj>^fc< lyt^^niv yv^t^K^ yo^-ny: s iy:iKiiyj i»i ny 
■y: Dv^t^t^'■)yD:•l^< pisidij' t^x pn nyi^^io'D D0jyD8^-i«B yo 
o^^v lyjy^ !iD ijn^jy"! y^^iyn^^ n .o:y>D5§^i83 nyo^^x n»ii 
r^s 1«: lyj^^T D:yDS^"iss ns nyi^^:io^D yDoinyo n hk 
nc lys^vjns o:n: n iv tj^ny::y:i oo^toc^y: m^v: np^DK^n 
IV pi^iiyj t:i:yiiy:j« iy:^n ly^D^D y^5< n« DT^jfcj^:m>nD 
-i^'?^Vi2V m^Vi Vi< fe$o:r n lyay * opy^iiJiB Dyi Iyp^:3;^'■^y^ 
-•■^to y^^ nc .DD^D yK^^D^^«!Q yo in^x ly^n^s lyr^^ iv lyo 
ns •nyi^^:t:^Q ^mn pm &< I'lH^'w:^ Dn^NyiD^-,« T^t< i:s;^ ns w"? 
-y:-ii^D T^x y^vstiDDJiiSDyi lyo^^ans yoMij 8 .tD:yDK^"i8B 
lynyin tnr nx i^^yiJiD \^vt\ n iKn ,^«:n nyoyrpy pk lyoip 
ni< D:yD«^"i8B oyi iy:ij^'nv iv nym \V2^r\ »t ts .oiy^piy 
18 IV Dpy^i^ns lyDD^msD Dyi lyonyj w oriyDD^j^D d»t 
■D^ix i^^jyDDix nyo^^ii p« oy t8 onjynyn^^x .:i:^d^dij'B» 
-in^8 iy3y:yiD^ix jjn^^yi n D«in ,y:8"iD lyi no in lynymiv 
nc :j"iTy^n«D lyo^niv 8 iv DD^DtJ^yjiv toj^n nx t:D8i^iy::y: 
oyii Dyrn^P nyn t8 ,tJ^^:i:ytDt^n8D nyi d^d .CDpy^^iB oyi 
8 .Dpyi^ns Dyjyr^x 18 iy:imn:>n8 "lyoyBt?^ ")n«> s d^d 
-^y; lij^jvi^no n rc^i^ii^D lyv^ij^sn iv ryryj lyr^^^no^^v 
,y^DyD lyi na niD n^^^ ns^iy:i tyDoy::» i^j ^^k t>n "lyn 



(1870 ,"|Kn3«'7) ''r;D«^P lyunmtj n is siynn,, y:nr ]ik ♦ 
-jn lyi nc p^^^bHB ynoo n n«^p ^nyt y^D>n ixDysKiB o-in^itr 

iyoi:;'jBnN nK ^t; n Jinyi:Dn;«n k -ikb dkii oid ,BTim,,3 
IHK pK t:2Ko ]n^ iyT^'7y;n;3iK t:ik e«n uyisi'jtjnBnj ytrnKj n 



■«s nn^K iiD :iyn ivDtJ'-iy oyn iyji«iiy:i tOfc§ny:i oi^n sdjv n 

iD^j ptj'n p^P jjn^iyi n D«n y^oyo lytDDpyj lyi ^o 
-in iyiDD^j«^jr-n>nD n lyn^ .:i»nv nn^« tyo^sn iv Di§ny:i 
l«j n« 4yD«^^J^^» I8t n lyt^^ 1^ orijy;i tyiiy; too tyj 



-y<3 asttypKn "i^'biyia^n tin Bpyxns lyji'^'mta'^!? nyn idn * 
-iyDi;nK ia«n nya'^yn ,Djn'yp 'jimn ps dtin^ n« Ti«n px pK:i 

Dyn iy;jyji tapyin t^n ,'[yta^t2NaD ytotrjmy-so'.N yiy^u iyny;;snK 
;:ii''D P'T on'? .yoioNp nys^'bjiijyp lyT ps uanxi ayranKi^fs 
n IS ]yny;;"iyta3i« mtn iu "^kt ^yo t« ,iynyjj jj'tan: ta^Jix; vi^ 
ajt^tyNi lynns nnx' « b^d "i«i iyi"T lyoxp yiyu '?'m ,DiKoii 
]i« nii; iy:jyiT YV^^^ dnt ipn^yoK i:: ry^y-^/. « ps p«ny;i 

T^;yD tasKoyjj mn ny "lynx ,y3'i'yTK d'7« D:i<':r eint* iy:tMifNn 
"lynK lyiyni-s n«s nismc n I'.s nyny''?;ui?3 ps ;!:i^'<ia"nNiKS n 
cpD''?;jyD n ,:;iioy:"iyr2JiN "lymemtj' lyi ps nyn^yj lysKDixs 
-Ki iN'iT* TntD ytpnyaynniNS iy:y:j YV^V^ dkt tax ly^jyn-iSiN 
yoTB nyi ps lytaxpNinK n ]nyTy;;:''« tatr-iyis lyn^n yuox 
'Mii? ]^s tin^n«s px lyj'u ya'ryTi ,yiiNBa«p ]in «pD«"i ,iy'yty 
.DiKi3T ytaDyn:j n ps ys^'^uy ps iyi2NpKin« n lyny; nnn 
"1KB p«nyj tDSKiny^iKB '^nb nyoMiy:; n va ;:n^i«b lyn einx 
(p'y'?DiKp inxtrn lyo) ,12>'S nyiy* ]ib nyDD'jioT'tsD^^ oyT 
■iyB«3n«B-B'?y; iy;^KB"i«B i«p ]«'iT n tn ,tD-iy'7p-iy cxn nyD'jyn 
l'^*?; INT T'N DysNis "ly'^y^'onp k .^jioyjny^^iN ymBrntr n d^h 
-IKS K iy:ypi33N iN^^r -iy-iyM?3"'?yj^!j lyi ps p^nyj Din'syj-iNS 
lyn ]1B tDDN^yjDnx taxny; in mn ivd^^^^i ,iyi20NNn lytrnyayin 
TIN ■iyiD;N'?py:;:K nyi tn ,iyTiy: t^n uNis^nyn lyn .yivmpyrpy 
-y; pN ta^iniN );^);\'i^ dynn Dpyt n pNiiy; tastyD'TNS 1868 pN 
-y; tDni»3s'7pyn piKuty t'n oyuKis ■>yD'n;'?NB-iy lyn idn .D':jiiyB 
-yj ttsi:y;jDnN iden vt< iy px ,u^yii ]^'>:v T^nta lyn pn pnti 
n iy*iMi'7K;y'7 ts'i "inyc ]MtJ» siint lyo tn ,TnnKn « obti pKi? 
p.E nyny;tsNn ynyiiN pN iNDnxn pmy-iB .no m lyntj .D3koi» 
in: ry^y: D":iu ^yoNn unh ,iyTmy;3N ;i>u3n lynNn Nisiv nyn 



857 ytayiraiyiB yiy^n ]ih 8D31'< n 

nc "lycD^j^D lyiiy: leti t^« "lyj^yn ,nynyais ti«^ lyoysti') 
t3>D T^« "lyD^yii 4b7i p« opy^ isjis vytyj 8 D^njy:iy ,nyrfc< 
n .D!?yu i^uvi^nD nyi nc ms^^'iVi lyiy^y: "lys^^N o^nj 
n v:i'?v^) .lytoPJiB y^j? lyayaivDi^*: D^n: lyiiyj t^« :jn^:yi 
tD^nn Ml ,ii^^:r-i^nD p\*? .onyii^Dyj ^y^vysD D»n »D:r 
D35<ioy:a D^ytryj t:^: inyo va^n ,pn d^j ly^i^r ly^y^v vm^i^ 
viv ."!?ynjj<n Dyi Diyoc^,, m tJ^^i tn^a i^^vyryiDix d^k \'^v'\^ 
3M« n^T nntoD^:yi w tODyn Dt^i lynp DDisny: t:«n i«>ji> 
D1V inBtj'-iyini PN iyiiy:i d^j i»j lyj^n lyDiDj^oD yin^x 
vmn v:i'?V)) /y^^j<iDD^:iyi n t^n i^^d^^^ ni< -ryry: ^sj^onp 
"83 MT8 lyn^yri^^jr n nsD n:^^ lyjnjyo'^^iD » lynyjyj 
Dy^v8T^:8:ii^ n n^ D^poy y^^^iyj^N n ts ,n«iiiyi oo^DtJ^ 
D^3 y^v^noD^jyi n ^ji^t lyo nx 'Pyii Dinn^^n o': ty^^r 
.lyoyt^i^nB DD^ny: ^n iy:y:i "nn^^ iy:«p i^ iyviJD^ii< lyji^p 
-)8D ::n^:y"i n on^p^os r^^vn lyn^n D"'nr'»5'yn n 
ps iy:jnyii^2 v^^ ij^^dp^d .lojj^ryj iya«n ••n ni ,iyny:3J^j 
oi^n Dp:isi:s:D:i' "lycD^^a*'.^ Dyi pd nyai^ *.DJi;j^:v-i>nt3 n 
D8ny:i "d:{$^jv nn^^j§:y^ i^ "lyDn^'j'D iy:njyt:^^iD» lyn 
-sn TT ^n ]V2i$^n /0py^«"i3 "lyi nya,, .iv'?nv^ ly^Dj-iy m 
DSSK^ ,:y:^''t<-ii<2 nyo^u-ij?; lyjy: iy:^yTy3 n ^ono t^k ,tD:«^p 
"-lytD^^ms iy:y: rytyrfis^iDK^ lyus i^? oii^ -ly^n n^x iy 



V'jmis yi'^p nyn>* *7p'onp ]y;*?«&"iN5 i:t tD''pD''?;yD k ]yny::yj 
t:'ip2''7V>My:DiK n ttextrpBH ts': oy i:«n oyn lyonN p« ,];nn'i3 

-yi i'?!2"2ttnKB„ ]'>H /"?'n ik'^t' T^'its,, "lyi 'byp'taiK D'^KOnKn 

-D'i'tTKD Dyn pe tsDniy-;i^s oyn px ,1869 ,''7T jyol D;n ,''ik'u 

.1868 ,ny-oysyT ,KyTy; D'':nu "ryDW"! iy;yn ^i«nii<£ ]yB 

n ]ifi jJii'jtsKTiKB lynyi'? nyn ]is t:Dn«n oyn ,'?b'o^ ,enyT * 
"j^yty; Dyn iyjy:j lyi'tiDvcKis is iyir>'N'CKD« D'lynn-nyBD'io 
.1871 ,pvc 11 ps /'pNr2B'-:y<a„ ]m ,Bpyn<iB 



""ivD^^K pyiiv Dyi D^D ,;:irtDDy^8n nn^ ,P«jitj^8ntDD ,d^d 
"SD lyi^tJ' ^«T nyo^u-i^ iy-i{^ D^nn-^^ya finx :ij»nv s \vTi< 
lyjyj lyvyiyj yto^s n na lyonyn y^s n d« .pyii D2«-ltDt^' 
/'lytj'sinDD,, /'nyotj',, /"lyrtDoy^^n,, ,ni ,tyj^^^<i83 lyD^uifcn 
inj$ nH^^v:i tDviJsn lyj^n nyD^^ii mt5§ m "«tid si lyDisTiJi^,, 
-BJ^ nnvD ^^: oj^vyjyijsn iyi« :ijny^piy ly^^yii i^vn^i^ 
-'B„) Dyp^noD ns nytDiy n lyonyjisD na "lyD^un^ lyn^n 
-8D n "iyDJi5< ni^iiy:! iyD{!?^ij'y;j>''is i^^pnon^ fN .("lyt^yp 
"18S iyi:yD5<DDi« nvi pk nyD£^' iyn«t lyrooy^sn ns lyanj 
nyni^ ,t^k oy lyoy^i "iy;^«;DD«j i:8J8:i«ij» ryjiypojs D«in 
-iyi« n''T DJ^syj iy iki^ "lyvy^s n "lyvyrsn,, px "lyDM,, 
,1859 ns ryry:i d«i ."nyt:ny v^^v^^ iv in pytDjynyjiyi,, 
lyi^myn^N yrj^^nyna dj^i DiM>^5$:iy^ i^^pmoMi^ D«in d«ii 
-pni:!^ r^« Dy^v«!T^j«:n{$ lyD^ui^ \i$ in lyo^^ti^ivj^i lyt^jyo 
,T'^:iy» "inyt rn iv lyrniy^Dnx Dnn dv *.n»iiy:i lyanyj 



ny2'?yn ,1859 I'n P«Tiy^ lyaioy;:^ t'n ryr^;; -lyi^mp k * 

lyTmyn'N yDi'jTnB dnt imn m ,]yi:iaB>-Dtsnn-i{< n ps ■ly^K 
,iani-i« n ly'jyiatyisBK ,]j;jiJipptriN nynx lyjiinx-nKn ]nK ,ynyiJ>j 

■i«n ,iyixt3J:;t2Np lynx oyiDipon inx pKny:: lyonyj!:^ va ^yTy;? 
"\yn« ,iyjjni^tytD:y-Dt33nj?;i j?jinD^NOKi yomy; ny^'ris t'^j'^q' 
".ynynD-fisB' n .iD:NpKnDiN t'n j^yry:? oyn ps j:inytae'U2y n 
!a'» uxn p« iNiD IS taittiyi ]p«n o'bNny; ta^: taxn y>i?NTi :«;")*< 
yu^'^np DbH K!py'«ns nyn ps nj^nn'SJN n QijrD'^iiNn dt«pind 
pu p« r::^:::i oyi taiKfiiyn I'i'KiNipyD lyiJKDpy'i'K .DypoN^'i'P 
,nv ]ya28 Dyn ,}»yTymyt3i'mN px D^nn-'^yn Dyn iy;iyn yiyi 
Dn'« p3Nn N P«iiy^ lyoijy^ax t'n ry^y-s lyn t« ,u;i«T px ,1875 
nnnn yny^n tyT^msnyniN iytaio"i« lynn^ny i!? na ,yiyn3« ]tk 
] yawls'? IT yn n t« pn ,Dy'SKTO«jnK iyta»o'iK px -^^ ]yD''i'tt»nji< 
D'?nKirta ]is ymtyNin yisiKpKnoiK i« .y^^^^fii iny; ]yiiy; iy:»'T 
"1^ n pN lytsD^jNiJVTinta n is siynn,, lyoxi I'ta^o ,]«a'nmttD 
-Ki VH T31K ta^m m ,;iiny'7p"iy y:'!j:iix n tai;; ,"iyDN^p nyo"! 
lyi^tn "lyttDn yomy;?,, .ry^y^ oyi PJ^ .uiONtsB'BN ny-r iy;iyn ,tt:8P 



359 ytsyirnnys yiy^^r r'« «t:3r n 

PK :^nn inyotj' ly^yn ;yoDot^^:r""i^nD ^mw lyii ly^y-ia-isD 
^n jyD^yiT ^^n .n^nn-^ya oyi ns pnn»2 lyi iy:ypD:st dk: 
oyi lyjyi^ lyi^yo ^v idi« ly^^^iynD s pinx hd ,iyp^nDD 
/opj<2 Dyi D^D DJi^PStn D^J I'j'DK lyj^n dj^jit nyo^uis n 
^.yD^yii /'n^"i3S!nfe?9 -lyDm,, lyi ts ^dmis im ^nyt oy 
lyiiy; d^j t^k /iii^iiy: Dn^pst:^ pi^dk^ nT{§ ona no n2 T^fc< 
pn .ryry: d'j^x iyj:'nyi:y t^k oy y^^yn ly^j^a iv iD^y^vy: 
y: ;yDn5<iiJ«! ,iy:i:iniij-n ,iyD«Dt:^fei:ii:i pd D«3-ife$2 ly^^n^ 
PK lyoijyjjyDsnv v)'?2 Dsn ,nytDti^ p« lyrtDoy^sn ^ki^.d 
-ujj^tojy DDny:; y3yivtj'"ii?s n toi^c'TJsns J^Dyo-DJJiJii^ 
-yi^jm^no n yD^yii nyoJix ,iy-in«^ yjy^JSj-isiD n pd iy::n 
lynyi i^t r^n t^« rvw:^ d«t iyn«i .lytD^^y: winn iyt:D^j 
n ^i< ,yi>^3 ; lyDi^jnstJ'iynni toDJ^ in tD«n pk i^^poik 



lyn TT ]y;'3''K"iKB ^s ttsyn k iy:i«n iycmt< n tk ,t3iy'pDB'y;; 
lyny; i't lyn ik: ,i:D'^n dxt) n^nn-'^yn ]^^p ike ks'j ]ytt'>mK 'u 
-11T iyt2''2"i« iyD'?yn cm^ ,;:';trct2DnN ytr^KE ktk .(;ny^ onn 
lyjjy'js D'nn-''?yn n nyi ,!y't2;iyi3y; ]'k p«nyj ia:?yTyjj'n« lya 
iny? lysnyjD'nK exn ,t2'7Nnyj ly^^n 'u ]yn ]yj'jM«i«e iu 
»'T lyj^'T ,T'7:ny'ny; m iik ry^N*? n pyi'j^o i!i Dy^j^cye y'ry^s 
"iy'?KiKisNj lyn \^£ yivtsipyTpy n .B"13 ]'£n»< ]y;'^ jya^^nya 

lysiip K ::dk21n£ iyn«n i'd pK lantsD ]Nt:jj>2K pK ;:2i3n«n 
nTK m ,nyt:2n n iiy'^piiisnN ,nmty i^o pE tspy^KiSTyTyj! 
...nynyj^y^y^ 't lis lytssnjK n ]iy'?piy is taS-iyEnxs lynxn 'u 
-:n DNDKB ,niKr2m n^yn i!i iz^ns yiyT:iN ta^ytttry^iKE nxn i'k 
■"lyDiNp ■ly^i'jny ]h pN ly'^wpvixi 'ms ,Di'n PiyrNirTi px noKp 
»iT lyn ]yoKTis cmxy; t:^; VJ^^n >'t ,jmn'ipiyo ,pK ,"ik'^kti 
lyjyj qf3Kp pyniy « ik: .-[kt "lyuDyiy;; k ike cn^oy; tt iy2«n 
T10 lynKn ,inHi' t\i^s nyiK iy>B i^cixs ly'^Niyn^'? "lyom; lyi 
PE T^nB "lyDM"); nyn i!? ,cpy'Nn5 Dyii'*?p lyriiN lain'syjiDnn 
-KpHK") lytiDytyciKD n p.E om-ixE ms ]in lyox^p "lyta^'niK n 
'^'yn pK tt'Nm pE tyD^KiB n px iy;jn.'iiyi23y n "iyn« ."ly^ 
pfi Doyp'B BS'iy^i B': taxn ry^yj nyn tk ,]yTni«3 lyixn 1867 pK 

.iy;:u'?Kfii8B 



na nyDDMpy vd^d lyi iy;iy:i iyny:i t^n d«ti ,t3pJi3ij»toti^ 
TK iyD^8ny:i d^^n tD«n DpjiaiJSDtJ^ lyn nx /DT^:«^:m^nio 
•nv^ iyn«n lynyjosi yny^n nx lyo^nns n •lyij^iitj'nKQ 
liK Pi^^P 8 ns iy:i^«D n isd Dsiny: ^no DonDij? d^j lyi 
-P82 iyt:^»ii yD^yii ^yDDnti^n^D ns nn^s^^^s-iyn^ii DyjyDt^ 
-yjji^-l^^jnyny: y^si DjyDyinisD v'^v^'^nn? isq DDsoy; ^^d 
T^K DIJ11 o:n^^K>tDjy t» .iyj^^i<i8Q"is2 na tyi^DyD v2V^Vj 
\vv))^2 n«^p D«n /D^*-^ iy:y^ nsQ niP n^iiy: iynyjy:iDMi8 
nn82y:i n dmu ^i^ ij-'na yny^n nx nynn^D li^^jm^nD n 
p^noD nyom: s iyD«iay:D^iN D«n /1867 ^i^r p« .tyny:) t>« 
iy:^n D^nr-'to n na "wbv^ n hk nyi^otj^ "lyji^ijj^^ iiq 
ynyn:8 nx Dpxiytj' ,D^Km *.n»iiy:i m\:iVP'Bv:i pi^ldk^ nnyr 



Dajr^ty "inyr laiyn p'Dyj5^« ]'n ty^yp'S^/ : ISin tj;ii:;j5'?N£ dj^t 
eii2«p lyT lyn ,p'nuD n p« -iks -j'^jnjrnj?:? laoip oy .lyjKtDtrixs 
,nyn ]'k i^'r^nyny: tanyiatrKn sio«p "lyi .]ynnny;ij« ]iw i»t tD«n 
-M-itsD n p« ,-iywn-iN pyi:N ly^'ip is laair nnn-'i'yi "lyn dku 
-a^D y^K IK ,-i'^i^tD«j /lyrayn ^u •lyTN'biyT ii? ta^a dkt lysn nyp 
tasK inyT .'n ]« ijtdi'jb'jk iu ]y^NT nyia^'niN yiynj« n tk ,iy^ 
"IK lyjiyin pN ijk'? lyiJJN^ inyn'K lytojy^K oinn-^'byi n lyp'ty 
»»T lyn ,iyoTpy; laij ^Koa^'p lya'i'Kn yD'^yn ,ia^m ]ib lycn 
1<'72nynyj ly'bm nyiain-iK .p^ntaD n ^k tanyj Dy th ,'iyD'm 
-pynN T'rinynyj? la-iyn "lyta^oiK ]h .onnn yiy? lyjsnytr ta'j 
-nnp n nyta^n-iK yioyns n iny'bpiyT t!J inii nyi ^inx ta^yBtryj 
lyayin is bij yjyDipy;iN-<i3 n lyiayn pK onyp^niaD n ps oyT 

.]K lanyjj dku ,pn-itaD oyn 
,-iyDyn '?yis t'k oy ikj ,t3:'ttDyiKn jai'^naxn nt« t^« inj ta^a,, 
rCnnyj ]iN nyT'K n'^ia^ysy P^ ''«^y^ py^i l^tsyjj "rKT dkt tjj 
yiaDy^ty lyoipiNSj ]yTiQ ,D''nyjj ]'n iNiay^ lanyn dkt lyn nnxn 
ya'jyTK lyita lyia^mN n tk ,ia': 'jys'ms p^*:) t'k Dy .]y:ai^n:Nn 
la^n lauK-pN'? lyn m lapJis ,D»nn ^'i'yn n ]yj?:ms n hd lyoxt 

/'"lytann-iK , n ]j;;i:ms is pyns oyi 
-"IM1 yiyiJK taxn pK lysia yiyiaK inx ia:ayni lytayp'S Dtjn,, 
'S ,TT lyonnyT is ta'ipsi^jiyo k Diyp^niao n au Dy : iy:i3ip 



361 ynyir^-iys vny^n ]i« »dj'i"» n 

DO ,n«iiy3 toji^^pyjjy: n^^^j ty:^n isor "lyn n£3 ytsossn 
-Dv'?^2 yD^^-^-i^ii "iyi«i iyo^r:t2^fc§n: yD^^jyrnyB ]r[Vi^2 n»D 
-••SDJi^p ns lyDyimsiD lyoD^oti^saoiK nvi nsta n»: /iy:jirD 
,(^yiiDisn3 ini^^ lyoysc^ nx ^i^j^'isa) nytD^n nyi .y^vsi 
-yt3 yDr:^^K"i5<2 8 nn^^ Doyp^B n lyii T5< ^lyo^sny: o«n 
-r^n ^n m^ i^'28 "::irDDy^83.. r« n^iK^ ^n lyj^n /to^^pro 
ynyDDj^D yiy^n d^o D^>PD^^Dnyjy:iJe:Di« D£«t^'"l8D i«: lyn 
^Sii^v lyD^n: » PK D^\ijyTyiij« "ly^n d^d t^i^i lyis 4yp^5'3 
"lyn^K nx ,DyrD nyiis lyoj^tD yr^u y:^>p njyny:i<n do 
1^ in iyjo^^Nn5<D lyt^jyo ynynnyD nyii;? ^mv lyn tk ,D5nn 
"isiD ijyroDy^fciin "lyitj Dnyjy::ii! do t^k dsii /Oysy li^D 
•vyTyj iyjy:i iy3y"i3i5<£ 5< D^Diyi ^n lynyjsa ,i»nys -iyiJ5§js! 
nyn^^:iD^D n ni< lyi^oii^ n na yDD5§sn n DJsn DDnyj d«t 
nyna n nnosjnis isc in^n :n^it5^ lyjiDyj DyD^o»p no 
lyi D^iK TS! ,nj^i^y:i "i«t^P t^n oy nx ,D^^"5rDyD ^vp'b v^'^ 
-yj3i$ MTs; t:i:i^?Vi Di^n Yv^v:i yv^^T-SD^yip nytj^^DDst^y 
yDDyn:^D ViV i«p i^t /lyD^nDK^ mov-i^no pi< nyii Dijyn 
T^K Dyvi^is D'o^s^m .lyDynmsD » ]iv)) D>>pj^DyD p^ncD 
SDJr nyn liD nyi^^:iD^D n .iyrvr^« lyi lyiiyj do n^"i« 



j.»2,,^^^^j^„j2,j pg ^,y ]j;B'n"iKS IS ]iK ,t2Kn p>nBD nyi jj^Ksny 
pfl D;*t:D^D "lyT tan's cyT nyonK .ys'taty-p'ntao ikb iy;3nynK& 
DHT n« p'niiD ]'£5nK D» 'pDKTpiyD5n« j;2»'?t:iy£y n lytayp'B 
]1B :sinn>£EnK lyi cinK :sjipim yi:yt2'n«2 k psD « ^hk bkh 
,TT cnyt:tr"iKD ,]yj''T lyp'nisD Dj«n nycniK n .Diyp^nBD n 

-y n lis ttONTiNS ]ij;n ]yiy2yo ytr^cKnexsoTK n m nr^ ,ikb 
lyiayp'B .iyi2D''7B y'jKiK'SKi ]T5 pr pyayn « iv^kh y3*?yn ,y;'j 
ye^M'S y'?K i^^^nx ,nytsnni« n pa cu'ts^yiKi lin; oyi s]n« laiyn 
"<<n iyi:''nnx n .t:DNTiK5 ]'\):^^ ly^J^^iyittiriK ]ik ly^^u^coy^Kn 
lyaxniND ts>: ly^xT lytaKtan'^Kiu t« ,t2JiK'?iKB bo 'jKOi'^p lyn 
,]KCEOK"ip niyn ]ifl ,"yiD^OKp-}>yTy; "lyts^onK n„ enyt) .inyu 
]iB tsyoiDKp iy«'nKB:yDK'i'"iKB ps i23''?B:yByiKB ]ik lytsiiy;:^ 



^ DT'»i^'':T«-T'nD ]is yD:D''C'y:t 362 

"WJ^nfci! m'>'>\ nyto^uns lyn /ts^^v n Dp:yny3 di:i i«j lynt^n 
iny:iDMi8 na idps I'Ditj'S nyn i«d tj^^jjjysy; pk nt^iiyj Dvyi 
•lyp^nDD IV 1SDS« iy::fei!Dj>>x oyn i^q iy-i» p^noD p« 
^yp^HDD IV Di^Jis^s lyD T8 j:nto n r^i^n t^k ,tj'^Dp«2 
,i2ii< lyoDD^^Dyn Dyi ^nx n«iiy:i i«toyj t^x D»n lyii i^^as 
tyD^yn nsD ,DP»-DjjipyiK^ji5 d^s nj^iiy; to^^i^i?:' ldd^ 
■8P8^3 lyQy^pJij Di^i lyD ^^i^n i85i i^k .ntssitot^ s ddip oy 
18 D^8 DD^iDsn ,nyii lyanyjo^ns joyn p>nt:D » rsi ,iyD 
^'^nsvytyj lyn •D^nn-'^yn n pimk t^iio s ryaisii ns dp8 
pmyiQ ryDijyjJ^ to^j i«j too tD»n jjn^yi nyi no Dpy^ 
Di^i^ ayvyryj ^sJ^onp y^s lysmvpniv Dpy^^na D'j^^onyn 
tDj^n ly li^j ,nyD"'Ui8 tyjy:i to^y^vyj '?V'>'^vbd tynyj lyj^n 
n« rDinnstnoix iy:ijn>''ti^Djy DODnyj v'?^ iyT«^y:nyn"'« 
lyD toi^n ,yDii$D iy:3''^tD^^i:^^>? is; pj^ ••n jn:in^DJ>^8 lyn^ii 
•lyD^Tpnm iJ^j iyDj5D ^n D^j^iiy:! D^onyn 
jjiDsnntiin "lyn i»d DJn:i lyoniy:! i$ ty.iyj Dnsn t^x oy 
£DJfe$n p^K tD^D oj^n ::noy"i n t8 .lyDDo^iJor-i^nD n pq 
.DJsn nyijsi "lyn d^d lynyjy^ tD«in n di^ii ,DJ<n iy»ijy:iiv 
nytDDMpy n ts .ny^Piyn iv D»ny:i d-i^ tyvu p^*? t:«n oy 
Yv^v:i ^sj^onp lyn lyii ri^^vyry: t^« Dy^v;spj«:ii«n!SQ pd 
■yj y^8 tyt:«imfe§2 D«in iy t« ^nsnyj iy;nvy:iD''ix >n» pn 
tyni^tn Dy^vs:T08:i« n yD^yii 4yi}$toyo y^^^nynQ yD^^jnyi^ 
tyni^n r^s ni nnya -ty^y^v v^V't tys^nnyn iv D"]jyiiy:iJi^ 
18 T8 ;PJ8iy3 Dyn lyQiJ^msD pj^v to^D lyDDo^op-i^nto n 
,Dy lyiD ^n mi /ly^yini^s ny^yrnnp 8 tyD>^n ^sr dps 
-••jr yny^T pis tyoyiytDJ^x n pk it^^y:! Diyii oy lyn iyn{$ 
yiyiJ8 lyii lyDynmsQ t>^"5 do T>^^ w^ ^v:i''2'?v\^v'^ nyn ,dj« 
■•»n:nyn w nD 4«:Dy: Dnyii oy mi iyni$ ,Dy lyiD lyji^nys 
.y^vspjs^iJ^ Di«D iyiJ8 lyny^ pq ly^y^v n lyD 
nyn PK iynnnyj2n8 in Di^n :iJiDDnDjy iid diid:?' « 
-8n yrnnD"i5< lyD^snyjSi^ Di$n 8d:i'' n .D^yii r»ovi^nD 
y^8 tyn«;n yD^yii nynyrD^n yD^^vyrya v^v^t d-^d lyjJiDsn 
lyDDD^^nysya oyi di$ ninD y^8 d^d tys^ypsD iv lyDsiyj 



-np n lyjy: n^oDyot^nB iv ly^KD iyj«nj«> n n2 ::i?D«:r 

.no^ \ivo'''\2 « iiD DjyD5§>-iK3 Dyi n^PSO« iv tdmj ly^iyj 
n Di^n ^yjM p« D»T anjyaijjn •Di^oii' Dsnn n -.yi^^x 
-oyc'OJsa n 112 ^y^stj'^^a oyi lyjpiiDiv::^!^: lyo^f^ij'ya kdjv 
m ,iyo9 UK 1868 pD lyobn-iyDiSD -lyosnjj^Di^a nx ly-iyD 
*.Dy"i;j«P i^^Jvn^nD ly^sj^^vs: s iy-:n-iji;D 



n ]is i^DpNnv-SD'nK t>k ,;:i;yn«n "i>n ps ta^rj'^xp iy'?j;DiNEDiK 

-••'.sTKn piir lynnn n>o .iynt2«Tij;DNS n ]'n i>':«!:tri::y .-t::ya 

ys'jyn ,r;T;'j"iyu^'n"iN ]iN-Dinn-''?j;n Dyn ij;;yn ,1804 pK ,ikt 
n in« m ,ni:KTiy2KB nyn^j^TN'?; cyi p.s p«ny; lycmKc vh 
-yv oyn pe ]i«ny: lysmxc t'« dku ,pyij;c:Kp pyj^tsysBf 
]y'?D'D yDO::c«irj''oy; lyoyjis:^ ,1867 pN nc»j"i-iyD»E lyi^yiB 
piKny; oyi lye Bnyip oyn "iyn« .Dairp^'i' ps tt ]y:i^!rt(2 is 
,iy;«i£ y'rs ly'riisniKB n pyiyB:«p ya^'i'-inyi k pnisiti:^^ 

B3<'?i2:yBpKE tt<<n "lyo^yn ,nt:i<i-tj?3«E ij;tiks'?kd ]ih "lyiycoyiyn 
-"IKS yrnu "lyDOp'*?;? t'n ij;3'?yn) ,iK'?ip"i'!? k ,1863 ,SnBK ]»k 
,'»K0 ps "?K2*niyT nyi3'o-iK"]yT"K,, DyT p^ p^ny; K:3'?K!:yEy 
.1868 ]'K ,-iyt:Dytrt::ND ]'k Dyi;!:Kp k lysny; exn dkti (,1868 
ya'i'yTi ,'iyt:«:5j:'?yT 34 lyny; n:yTyi"i:N lyj'u Dp;:Kp cyi ?,>•.« 
inyifZK ts^a iDipJin ,t2yr2BnnKn lynxn "t ni ,]ys:¥it:nKS u*iKn 
lyaopyj D;n ps i:iK-D;ji'??3«TnNB nyT .]yt:D':«':viin:2 njyf.!: 
-y'jyT n p« ,DNn;iiiDTn px pu i!f p^ny; eo'tstrKi t^k dp;:kp 
Dyi ps p«ny-3 lysniKB t:''S nytia^isirNi "lyi px iy:''T iyt:i<;; 
T'K lys^yn ,cyi;:Kp "lyu'mtf lyn .nuNTiyr^E nyo»n;:'!2ii2 
-yn 48 p.B lyiKtttrxn t'n ,1869 ,t:Di;nK ]•>» ]^i}^v;:i lyti'rKnyjssK 
Ml ,t:Kny:; lyixn ys'ryii ,Dy':iNT'2K;iK ynyiJUNn 40 ]^i: ]yt:«;:y'? 
-y"t :iny;p',r^ i:'2 ny2K ."lyiy^'b^is'O 250,000 ,t2yt:5nnKn i:Nn lyo 
lynyj ■r2yTyn:K U'-^'t iyD;nj::Kp yj^oyA'i'N n si'ik dnv, ,eim 

,;V!:«;y'?yT 34 n lytrms .upTpj;;oiK t:<: nxj n? f\i:H Ktt:i» lyj 



-y: DjyDynyjD^K tddh fi? oy ^>^ii .1871 y^vd i^k ty^DSt 
t}pyi$"i3 nyDC'j^iiy:iDiK "lyn oyii d^^v lyjy^ iv ts .n^iii 
-18D iyn«n iyt28:iy^yn n .DJyo8^i83 pk nyii di^dipdh 
n pinx DypsDS D^D to^^^ ny>n iiQ ^^^to iyDDyi:i oyn lyoi: 
i^sn piK^ t:j$n oy n^ .Dpy^^iQ oyi iiq iyD8n;i8n83-^sr»np 
-i^tDpy^i^nB iyvJ8:i Dyn iyjy:i Wpv^d^ m iy^«t ^n ,iytD^8ny:i 
jyonyjivj^ \^^wi DD^toii^«n ^no^ lyn^ t^k oy .ryryj lyD 
-«3ii$ nyD^uis Din^^sjy^ lyrj^yii /Dpy«i3 ns ^^■'t: nv:iV'' 
1-12 ^itD lyom nyi ts rninD y^^ iy:ijyiD:j'ivj« m .Dy^vsr: 
Dp^tJ'y: Pi^ y^SDiQyn ^ .pyii lyon^^nsD ^»t Dpy^^ia Dyi 



"]i^p-im TIN Dy*i;i:Np lyiytaDytytaiKD nyi uinNnyjjio iyn«n Dxn 
-lyDMN ,tD«;iy*i'yT •iy;j'SJ''N p'p i:;nj;;; t3'3 taiNtatytaann ijrn pu 
"ipxTiN^ n ]iB lynjrtatrnNS lyiJia "lyn^^n « .nymaNS tyTTiNtyn 

i;'n nynx ,'?ynN^n irTTixtyn .-id px ny;i« lyi^y^ IV^'^t 'u ]j;{r 
"iy;;*TN Tn tsNn ,j;'D'aNp ajyax^iKe n ao^tae>Nn axn Dp;ijNp "lyT 

nyn is pKUpipixp y;itDMJi2iN in D'b« ,DnN t2T»m oy m ,Q2Nita 
-yjs KiNn DyiJiNp "lytaopyi n^T .ipiNmNS-*iNfi n ps ppys^Np 
ipNT^N^ n lyiN ,1870 pN ,iNniH'7 ]in pj;u ^yta'rNnyjiaK rs'bNT 
-"i!fj''N Dyi:ijNp Dyn anty j;;;itani n lyoijy:? ts'i iy^«n nyin^fi 
-''NIKS IS ,inyTj;:j ly^^n td m ,;iii2n3 pxuy: t'« oy to ,iysn 
ps ry^y^ lytaTiapy^NiB Dyn lycaypNi is na ,mnD y^N lyji^j 
lyiiyj tyiBpN£3 VH ,1871 pyo ps oyiJiNp ipNnjN'? nyn .1871 
-Nn :iuyn»j3 nyn ps nyin's yroN n lys'^yn pN ,nytDt2»"iy lyT 
-«n \Hi T'K yD'byu ,y»Di?3Np-tDiy?3«'7-iKS n ]in ,iaj'^nt2«n t»t lyn 
T^osNB'j'iajrjj tanmxy; tm^ijns mn yD^yn px ,'['iNuy:j isD'tatr 
"lyiy ps uiN Dyi iy!3Ui«s T^Tax: uNtn ,rjyiysjN*p D'tanxji'bySN u'Q 
-i«3 ]iN ,1872 ps DyijjjNp nyn .;i:iTn^snN ]''t in3 r^y"iys:Np 
iyn«n ya'jyii ,iyiDNjy'ryT 77 lis pxuyj iyta'7»<ny;i2N t<« ,D«n-3:it3 
-jNp "lyfi ytatyny n ]is lyiaanNn .lyiy'^jitaia 375,000 lyiDN-itaiNS 
n tasyniQNniN dnii) ]tn ,"pNaB'-iyin„ pK lysn ]yD tio lyoyn:; 
n p« (DNnj;j»tDNJ px DxnjiJ'DTi ,iyaDyiya:ND ps lyoyi^iNp 
nyn taxn ,iyia»ni px 1873 ps .a^'s lyjy ps iy;?jiQtis y^xpx^ 
•ly^^i'i'n^snn^fi n pi: lyaan^i yaiunwaiN iyny;y;DMn« oyi^a^p 



366 ytayirnnss yiy^^r ;*.« 80:1 



1 •(• 



Dt^n Dyi:ji^*p -iy-i nx nyayjvyryj n iv n«iiy: iDP^tj^y: iy:^n 

'21^: \]nv' "iy:^nst ly^D iis3 2'?^n dik iy:jivM n lyoi^^K^y: 

n n3 ^ni^iiy:! tDiy^piy i^^pmoMK isn t^« dv "•11 .:ijo^d 

iD^c iM inyr iv ijy^iJ^ dvi lynyjs^,, iy:«p ;y^«T iyt}fci!:y^yT 

c: iu< ::'n^:iyi n d^: lyns ."D:yDfei!^is:s ns nyi^^io^o 

"n^ntD n ns iytDD:i; w iDJMjy; lyiiy: lyj^n tDjyoi<^-i»s lyi 

-:^« m "nyiiPJ^P y^nD» y:y^ iyvyjy"i;fe<n isc n« djs'':v 

liD n:iDK n lyiiy: :j»^ ^iist iy:^n v^'pv^'i >^vi:^r\ ly^ynMin 

iD:»pyj Dfc^n lyo d«ti .y^oy^j^P yoDyi; n .D^nn-^^yn n 

nyn o^^''toy::''''8 ^ist opy^ynsvyry: lyi ts ^yiiy: t^k .]];y^? 

yjytDDMpy n nM^^8:iy^ w ryry:) oisn ts nrj? ,D^p^n ^miv p« 

-^«::'Dnp n nyn ^lyunsiD tnyotj' ^«t Dy^v{<!T^j{<n«:-iet2 na 

nyp-itfiD ^«T ,t:"'^prt:ytD ly^n iyvyjyn:»3 djjii My£{<"i:i5$is:s 

DajnyoynonK rytyi ^^ronp,, nyiJiT5<2 s pk pyn t^iys 

-B« ii:yi lyny:! t'-k y^Dyv3«p ytj'nyij^jsj^ n d« ."opy^ijis 

lynj^n V2'?v)') ,v:':v' n iid y^y^D v^'^hbh nyi iid lyn^viv 

ns "iJ^n£ D^» 1M t:^yD'^y:DM-ist ly^n^ii v:''dv:'?^ n pn 

n« Tvn Di<Di^D ."ID lyj^n yoytnyi Ds^in nyi pk .DJ»"':r n 

y^i£ n tinx njynyDtJ^stn ,V''?^ t^yoD lyjiiitoti^y: «i^y"i:'iD .id 

y"iynj$< v:i'^ov ^mkiuj^ nx ; ryjjnyi^D y:^'^DD^:«^jv"i^nD 

8 V2 lys^yn iv Dri:yj m^vi \vy( nyn^^:o^D tD:yD{<^i«:s 

■y:D"in Dpy^i^iB n£ :jny5'ii5D yD^-^i^v n t^k nt^^: ryo^iiy: 

o3^Dy:D"in n^j lyj-in lysiDtr yiyi^i? n j'-D^DK^J^^yt ry:iJi<: 

Dini^^ "iii^ Tifcjin Dyi px .y^vni^ai^ nyoDJiy i^ in^ ]^H'^'\vi 

DDbiDyj nyi:yntDtJ^ lij: ;yt:yp^s lyjy; lyoant^'n^s n lyj^n 

^iT^ pi^iiy: r^x i^n^ 5$ inn "iy^i<D^n Pi< ]vo^r]„ .n«iiy: 

oi^ P« .yo^D ^ pQ "ly^^Qstn pt5 lyo^n,, ^i^ tj'nyDyimsts 

lyDpy^i^iB ■'^iiv n iyi''''T yDii^D iyn:y^yDt^':ynn2'ivDiJ< nyi 

Div iy:^n Dy^v^T^:^:ni^n«£ -vyTy:! d^s ni$iiy:i iyDi:y;:i^ 

-5<D :n:yDtJ^^is pk ytD:ypny:i* T'i^'iv^vi Pi^iiy^ 5>«d lyct^^iy 

'vyry: n iy:^n D^n iyi:s: lyi p2 ny3 ' ; iyj>^«-is2 yov^r 

-''i'\ n^^pmoMK D^^'^rDyo m'':vi^ntD n^^x rytDi^DieiD V2'^ 



I 



.n«i"ny: 
-5'iTyi iyi Di;? T^K iyt:D^3«>:v-i^nto n na iy:M^< n pk 

n .ajiDonDjy ytoonyDU n lyDnyjonis ^Hr\ :i2)v:v^ lyn 
-j^n ,Dii?j^ysi8 n« W?^ ^'y^vyso .iyijsnnfe?2 n 112 \^vi:iV^PVo 
-as iyiiy:i i>^jynys ^n t^x lyD^yi^ ,^y^v Dyi toD^n^iyi lya 
■jyjy: nsD Dy^vKT^JUJ::ii{§ yonn; n -tyvisn dw lytDDtojyni^: 
ny^n nn n«^iy:i onnyjis^ix iy:>n v:i'?V)'\ .^^^i lyro^n 
ly^i^npy;! ^i$» IyDt^ny div dv^x lyn^n ,D28tJ^:n^P nx i^ny: 
-■11$ ynyoyi:! ^n«iv yDMiy:i j§ .nt?^ lyD^^vyry:! ly^njyotj'^iD 5§ 
-y: iJ;?^jr-T'nD oyn to^D tovuj^in i^sn in lynj^n DyvfejfJb" 
D^D :iJs^PJ^^s t^i< lyo^D^DD yny^n tomtDD^jyn tyn»n n« ryr 
-j«p n tD«n ,1871 lyn^yDsyD t^x nt< * ; lytDsntj'i^D y:^n 
-3t^2 n tD^^Diy n:ya«n„ ^y^j^D yDr^^^xiss n ns nynys 
nyDvy^ "lyn ^11 /'n«iiy:i D-in^J5§:ii« t^n n yn^y^i ift§D ,ryD 
.oT^^^yjs^iN ^yDi»2 in ,tDiy^piy ^j$p«id«ii3 

DQi«iy:i M^: OHr\ yD^yii ,yasiQ D^n^tj^ yiyt^^nn n 
yivD5§tDjyTyiyayi inyo » LDiyii^Dy:i D«n .pyii ryDDJ^Dy:iDnK 
iDi^n ,::ijypiyji^ ^vy'^'^v^v:i isd fi»fe$p Dyi px .y^V8Pjfe$jiij 
-anx n tDi^D^ytyisyi ^nvr2 ^inyty: lyn^in td m ,m:v n 
lyni^ .:i:i3y^is!3 yvjsj n lyi-i^x lyt^D-'j^^ji^-i^nD y^iny^py; 
n Di^n "t3py^«is D;iJnyDynDnN ryry: ^i^ronp,, oyi iin 
y^s lis ini^toyD n s^^p lyD^^DDnns ife? D^js^iyi iiin-i^yi 
n PQ ninD yi:yDPsii n .tytD^^v y^i? pq Dy>v5<!T"»:s:ii«-iSD 
-'•a n p« nyrsti'-^y^isi iin iynyi:i^y5'nnp ps Dy^vsT^Js:ii» 
in t:{$n Dv ly^^y^T d^d .Dt^j^^jvi^ntD pc ^jiD^nnonx yD 
iyn«n oin^vn iy^y^viyo«tp pd yi^nya yjy^ to^yrD^^vy^onK 
piD :i:i^pMiDjy ts iv Din^sya t3>^v lyoniyj isi pa tin^'isa px 






367 vi2yir2-i«2 py^n jis yits:v •>1 

-y^ji^p "lyi iiD jjif^^sMt^ n .yivtoipyTpy ny"ivtofc§DjyTy-ia 
n ; iy2{^ "i:^y2 DiiJ-i lyiijjr'yj Di^n ;y-iJs:3i^D n p,d nyi 
iyD^:y:~iy2'N rx j:i:yTijj:3 li^ov-i^nto lyi na osfcst^iyin^D 
"iiia T^N yDipyii ,y^D^Di^p lyt^'nj^tojyDin^iijB -lyi ns nJSTiyj 
Dyn ns nyo I'J< Dy-::i^*p i«t^:v-i>nD oyi 112 m^Jiiy: dd^o;;' 
Dr!'^^L:s!3 in lyai^n oy ny^^yii pi^ hn ,nni^^ lyniynnc 
"iftsrij;: yoDrDDni n no lyin^D Ds^in y^noD^i^^osn y^s 
.rriiJ^is nyi 112 n« Dii^toLj^ Dsnn "lyn n2 oy^vsT 

,nyii iy2ny:pn'iv ^i^t "::p5< D;:nyDy3D^*.N YV^v:i >i§j^onp„ 
112 yas;:2nK t:s^in n lyny:! "inj^^ -iy^2 yoDpyj n pk t^k 
y3y-]«.it>n5§2 y^s 112 n^i^"i5<:2 pK .to^yii iJ^^jm^ntD "lyi 
ruyoii' iynn^2 t«^:r-T'ntD n lyni^n ^lyinij^ y:y'' n2 iy2?ofe?p 
fe? n2 pyii "li* "ivjs : ^y^v lyoo^Dt^^D Dyn lyri pn i:i^nv: 
IV ::'nyDt^♦ j<! d'?^ ij^j do oDi^Tj^n lyn^n ^n ly^^yn ^ryry: 
-Ji2:ni?n-D0^^aisi y-iyoyn ly^^i^yj iv iy:jin^D«;n yiy^n y^st 
-iy"i:in n *i55!2 :ji:n>^^^n yjmniD',fc< is o"?^ iMt< ii^: 4y:i 
lyni^n ^n y^^yii /niDx^D-^^ya yDjyr^yD:^x nyijyr^iD nyc 
y^vfe?DOS nyn Dij P2 v\:i2'i^v:i yv:«; n .tD-i^Djyry-isy"! 
nj^^ns!2 n:yi:'^'^i2 ]V2^r] lyo^^p yijy^nyn n m /DT^mi 
::s^ tD"": ]V2^r] v:i^v')) ,m2j<^o-'^y2 n d^o jjnnn^n yiy 
iy:^n iSTi n2 lyvyty: n .DDyr^nj^Ti lynni^iny in pmv 
D^s tojyDS!^"is:B P2 p,« ::iioyi iyi P2 iii^nyj DDii!itDyi3 
.Dy^3i^n2 iyt:^« nyn n2 :ijit^^^ VD'iV'? \m< ynjyDtj'^^.2 » 
li^^toB'D^iip njyn .id ni ,"JDiy^piy lynjj lyni^n lyto^n n„ 
->^T 1871 112 lyvyty:! n n2 a^^pini yrv:^^« n Ti§» ,i« Dt^ni 
n2 iy^y^v-is2 n oiy^piy lyn^n ^n DJ^n dj^i .lyiiyj lyj 
-^12 pyti'iyj T^x p^nt^D t? .i^^vyry^Dii^ oo d^s Dp^noD 
DViJStn I'w^'i Di^ii ly^D^D n nnx it^j n^^vyry: njyoK^ 
-D-.K lyiiy: ^n lyj^n ,n^an-^yn oyi lypyitrivji^ d'^v'^v: lyrn 
yD^^vyry: » inyji§n w y^v{$mD«ip » n« ,ty^o^D vy'^'^v^v^i 
■:i^p y^yronp s lyiiy: T^i< ly^o^s y^^^vyry^oiK iin oe^tD 



DT^:y'':T'-"i^mD pD ytaD-'tyy: 368 

ryoyiytDrfc^ n pn \ii^))v: i«tDy:i t^k dj^ii hj^t yny> lyat^ ,i^^ 
nytDDn n iyn«n nrj? -lyDyin-isD s lyny:; t^x rP^noD s pa 
T^K j:n^^B^tojy y>o yny> px ,DiD8tDD-DD^^n oy-i oiytDtj^iv 
nyD«i *."iynni$2y: v: t2'?vt>'''\)D:v onn P5< nyD^"-!! r^s! pyiis 
IV T^3 ,D:8TtD:y iVi''^D2v IM D«:n ,Dyrnsp d'j^j^ddis^: .-id 
lytDD^tD^itn IV /1874 pK ,iy^8Dy: r^fc^ ny lyii Djyo^^D oyi 
-ynoMK ryiy: ^^ronp,, Dyn nvi^v iv D^^PD^^:iyD n i^^ss 
-»niv lyi ii^j y^vsDisyn p^x mn cDonQiK ."DPii! Djjnyo 
PK D"i8BK^yi:^''8 pyii lyto^o-i^ t» ,?iniii!i lyrniyjjyi lyo 
^11 jytDsiD yD>^iynD yD^yris n^^Q ryTy:i Dyi d^^ ti^o^jycy:! 
jynn tyj^n i87i px .d5§:i pk lytD^uii? is; iv lyi^n iny:iiv 
iy:ii^T nsD t^i^n t^'^jjijycy: px ni^i^y:) oi^sEj'y:i:>"«5§ ly^-ia 
-'18Q tyj^n lytj'jyD yr^nyvDiN .ly^ynrp^ntoD s iv "n«n„ 
nyny> DyoD .-lyDnyii v^:iv'?^ lyviJ^n nsD tn«iiy:i dsk^d 
iny^ IV too nyD''''ni8 ty:yii»n iv lytoD-'j^i^Jvi^nD pq DntJ^ 
nv'^ Dyi DM^ ;t:j^n ,DP^nt:D tyo i^^n q«k^ 8 p« lytD^^ms 
•lyQi^iD^ D^mi§-yiy"iit^ iv pk :j'^j:i:yDy:) iv Din^ay; ryryj 
T^K i:8tDti^iv Dyi LDi^ PD D^^PJ^DDyiy^Qix yD^^:iy-iDiyoix n 
lyo tDijn D^nr"'^yn n d^^ii ,DyT nn ni^iiy:! '^V'w'?? ii$J 
yvni$iitj^» n tyijyii«ivj« tD>^'^>nQ ynjyt^K^^ia n onn^iy 
iy:iy^D ""n y^^yii inn /'iy;:n''ntj'^n lyDP^n^D,, m "wdo^'? 
.jjirDcytj'^n lynp iv -lytD^-'in^ ytD5j':niy:iQ"ii< tytyi^iyn to^i 
-sn PD yoni^D nyi t2« n^D nn^^vi dj^^ig-i^q tD>: r^x nyj^^p 
n^D D': 5'i^oj^^"? T^x nun-^yn v^p j:nyDt^' nyij^ lyroDy^ 
lyiiyj DK^noi^D t^i^ lyD^yii .ryTy:i Dyn ton^ n«"ny:i to^^^Diix 
-y: iy:^n D^nr-'^yn n ^y^)? .Dmv yn^u lyjy: i^mjynj^ 
-lit iyiD^^nni§ n ps ty^i^p^^n n nyn ,n''t3}<tp^«!i iv ••ns ryii 
•p^^iya DpmiyDJix ^^v^^i^q nyn pd ly: 



.1875 ,"iyno:?KiByD ,yt2'»Kp lajyoN'jnKS Dp^JKp HJ^^t 



869 yi2yirai»fi pv^n ]i« ymr n 

n ct^ Tin pi^uy: DDj^mN-iyiD t^k d^sjii .jji^^nD^K n 

-Ts: iy:fcji:{^^ n lyn 4872 lyaoyvyi p« ,Dy3 nyoyi: k pk 
n .K^-jjiycyj D^^in 12 iv ntiJnyj 0BtJ'D'is:D lyj^n lyv^M 
"y^^i'i^-i^sDjj^p. PK n^itj' ^ms^^^v: lyjiDy; lyj^n yDi^^^py::^ 
,Dyi nn D^nn ^^ya yiy^n lyj^ooy^sa ivm iypy"i*^ivj«t 
lyn ns inyji^i'pyTiK ro^^v^^^^j iD^n:iy:iv in lyai^n ^n d»ii 
T^« ,Dyia "lyDDn-ny;^ Dyn iiQ fiijiDt^'nop: n oj^ .D^un» 
,Djn: Dyn ^mk lyos^p yijy^-iyn n na n^^iiyj D:n^>Difc5D 
-T5<: n lyiT yu^^oyj lyi isd im^v: 8 lyiiyj o^«n oy ts 
PD nyoD^r^o lyi pk ; p^ntoD px iny^oMife? ly^-in iv^^^n 
ytDu yD^yii ijyn^x nym^^DM^ D:i«Tyj3«i nn ot^n nyj^K 
o*": lyni^n lyin^s ii?'':v n *-iyD^o"i8 yi02i^"iDt^'{<n n i^d 
nyDJiK p\'5 lyn p<tp ryry: oyi dm^ t^ /inypivj^^s^ o^nyDij^D 
.nyD^unsi ivi:^ l^ ^v^i^ iyv^^n-Tfc§;i » lyc'niv lyDsiD d^j i^^sj^ 
pyn oDJ^ntoK^i^n \VD \nP P^noD s iv in iyD^n:iv lyjD n^K 
-yry^v^T-SDJi^p lyD^^ny^Piyoix p« lyt^'^t^Dfeii^y oyi/, d^i^ 
-:5<3 nyn t5§ ^pi^ny: "li;?^'? t^k ,tj'^::i:ysyj D^dn 12 d^d "Kyr 
-i^K pr: pyii t:yD3^:nstD P^P DT^ji^t^jvi^nD pd nyiiyj nyv 
iyDny:nis*D in oyii yD^y"ii ,D^nr''^ya ysn:i "lyD^yii n:y3 
"lyD^D lyjj^ijfc^^ lyi -ryry: oyi pd ddso n iyijyTixiv:» 
-^n ")V„ 2:i^o{<p^D-iyoy;:y^yi 8 lysny:) an^i oi^n Dfe?T 
-ST^j»:ni?-ii§2 y^8 PD y:JS!^ yD^^vyiy:) v^'^'^\> n lyoDsiD 
ostTD lyovy^ nvi pd o^o^nyi d^s ,ytDD^^3 yiyn pk oy^v 
nyo^niv nyi ^i^: ytD'-n p-'x ."-iyv^^n-T»:i ny:i^i:i^5' n nyn^x 
iyi^^;tD^D n^2 PK i^n^jyi "lyi nj^D p«iiy; t::y^ynsD t^k 
"1? nyi lyanpm^ -i{<d ajijyiij^n n px ; t::yDSi^ifei!S p.a 
"jsinsD m toiijn isii p2 "^py: D;jnyDynDnj< ryry: ^sro 



ni D^rns^j: p^uy:? tt>nEKn st-d-^^-biid "i^rnK iy:»M 'u * 



y5>8 pa pyii 1^ i^DS jJi:ijynDtJ':« ^v:voh'?^^^v is pk d^vt 

rynMnyjji* in mr] y^viiJD^:!^? ytJ'^D^^«;3 8 t^ lyn tyo^yt 
-y:i T^K nx iy:iJi:iJn«n y;^DDr:ioi5^ ifesnj^^tj^ y^^yr^ -iyDJi« 
y^snyn^^ n .^tid lyD^nj^j^sny is lif ^yjs^ ^i?s nj^iiy:! tDnn^-: 
yi^u HD oyonj^^j^D n mi ,iyinfc$^ yjy^ 112 y^^siDD^j^Diy 
pa DK'-iynj^n ri^vo^'?)^ tyiiy:i t^x ,tojyDi§^ij$3 px ly^-'Disa 
is^s lyD^rpiMi iy-iy> i>^ lyDJSpnnisiQ n pa 0D5$:i'-iyj:iy;i lyi 
DyDU n .lyD^uis n i'^d lyjji^njsnii^D yirtDpy^}<:p pi: 
lyDny^DMis d^j lyaj^n y^D^c^tp lytj^nsDjyDsi^isia lyn ps 
nyD^yii 4't«i^ .-id ^>n d^: pi< Tona ."id ^u d^j y>DS2D'»D i^^p 
-n8^:i .nD A^v^^i^ pq lyDD^j^D D^i§ tD;^i$sy:i3{^j dh^k toi^n 
T8 /lynyaivn D:sTDjy in 1872 px oj^n ny^Dyia lyi ,pi^DD 
-tDjy m DJ^n iy px ryty:! dj^i nyDynivonx rtD^j t^k oy 
pin^nsD t^« pi< ; v:v Dyi iyD::fe§iD8i 1^ D:i^Ty:3« lyi^t^ 
-y3 D-tj y^D^Df^p y^i^nsDjyDs^-iss n o^tn y^oyo '•\V2V'> pq 
^i^T Di^ii ,DjyDi§^n«3 PQ n^^JD^D iy:!^vj^^x p^p jyj^ay:! dj»p 
-•Dnp,, Dyi iyD"ni^;pniv Dpy^j^ns « iy:iJ<t^t^'iviJ^D ly^^^nu^''^ 

/'DPS D:i:nyDynDMfc^ ryry^ ^sj 
ny^n Dnyny;Dn« d>j nyn« iyn«n lyin^D i^^jvn^nD n 
nyDJix pisot^' lyj^n ^^yi^^n ti« '^vn^ /^''y:i .ly^s .ld^ui^ 
"81 nynyi:i:y^nMP n tiQ iynytDt^-i«D n pd n^iiyj dv^dj^ 
PK i^i^ji^ipyD lyiJSDpy^s .nyD^^nis^yr^^s m lyra^-^y^i 
-jyD y:i^nyQ i^^jnyiiy:nyDMX lyiiy:! p^5s lyj^n ,vvp in^^^n 
-^B Vi^t:)^iv? nynjytno in lyorn tDsny:; iyn«n pt< Avi^ 
m*^ y^V8D^;is n .lyiDjy:; y^yntoonj^x y^s pk iyp''D^^ 
-j^^K n PD :)JiD^^to3yQyisD iyi nn Diyps^Qy:iiyiJSJSJ: in 
-pini rv^v^i Dy^^j Dyi lyDJiix .ty:iJi:i^«tDis2 n P2 tyo''M^y^ 
lynntJ'yj lyj^n "lytDD^ji^^iir-i^nD is2 iyt:)Dnt^':n^2„ vr:i^\ 
n -li^Dnyn pniyiQ p^^ i^^dbd^hp njyn .id pa n^iiy:) 
P« 4873 t>fc< ,ny^^ i^fc< 4872 pN» ,Dsn;rD{^:) px tyDyi:iJi^p 



.1873 ,iytsB^.y Dyn n»ni«' /'pKiatr-iyin,, mu siynn » nyr 



371 y^yir^i^D yiyn ji« yDai"* n 

\V2^n m ly^^D DVT iytD^fe$ny:DMK \V2Hn 4874 px n^y^sytj^ 
,D:yDK?"u<3 n2 "iyio;o^D n iy;yj >i^D"nK is; iy;isioyjD^n^ 
■i^P yt>'nKLDjyDK?n5<2 n Dpyusn^^a ODy^tJ' lyaj^n yjpyn 
nyi 1^ Di^n ly^n^n yj^^Dyj>8 n pd o^^if n m mt^ .y^D^D 
yj^^D^ipi^s yoMij yn^u n^iK pm nyi m t:{>*n ,Divo:vni!2 
■■•n iyD8nnj{<P i:^ iy;s"iD o^d lyoD^^ .DPiSDt>n5<;D ly^^oisa 
■yj o^yDt^'yjDMii? lyj^n oy yo^yii pk /Psiiyj D^n;y:iv ly: 
*ii^:?p r^K oy n« nyo^ui^ n pd iyj:nyi«iD-ryryj n nt^^i 
yv^DtJ' n iy;np tD^J oyi^ Dsnnjfcsp p^-? ts .\''\ii')'\Vi \22^DVi 
■1^ PM 0'} ly^yi^ DiyDDJy yj^n anx DJfc^^jr-n^no n pd 

•ijy^yoi^'jynynD 
lyD-isi Dyii p^D^^i^s lyt^'^^jjy nyn na "lypn^soD^i "lyn 
lyi pD ^sDDin lyoyois^nyDiK lyn ""^ /yjsia n pyrojy 
lyo^py: o>j t^n i874 pd ^n^ii nyn pk ^^diss ny^fc<ny3^^ 
■ij^:r-i^ntD n pd ODs:tJ'iyj:iy:i nyirops iyi ay^^iv inyo 
nyn PD "iyj:iy; ytj'^DJSopyD n d«i"i oyi mn "lyn^^x ,iyDD^j 
-^^ny;pmv y\ lyni^n (lyoD^Dii^Djyipji^j n) yDi^"5"DDSfes*D*j^ 
■tj^jvn^nD n m Dr;?n .to^^v "lyjy^ pk i^i; .lyo^Di^' pd lyo 
y:y^ pk .opjis lyoDsyn div lynMmyi y^^5$^iD y^^'^oD^j 
--iSD '?v:^ y>v»T^J5§n» -iyny> dj^h nn^ViTD^yusn pd lyinij^ 
-J8 n nyD^u"is-iynni n •tDD^ii'-iyn^^JD^D in^N Diyoyia 
iyni;?n ,^y^vyDD lyo^uns'^^oDpyo n pk lyo^^niKmD^^pn 
8TS! nnx y^vi<T^j«:-i« nyn ii$ iyD«^Ji'y;:» t>MijyD5§D m 
n^nD lyi .1834 pd ns^yj nyi oji^Diyi dj^h dj^ii .idik 
pi^i^yj iyD^i$ny;5i^ t^« nyD^yii n^y^DytJ' pk oi^ijJi^P iJs^:r 
ly T8 ,DyDsnn«3 oi^n 4874 pd lySisn yj^^oy^^j? n my 
lyti^^iiv nyo^^ans yDnn^j»:nj^ 1,100,000 oi^DjyTyiDy-i oi^n 
IS nyayn^jy^nnp m^^^o ^yonyD s lyiiy; lyj^n oy V^^^VV' 
-n:» uyrno o-iyi:in 8 m "lyD^^ms^^yiisa Si«^ yD^^:ny 
^11 ,iyT^>ii Dyi:!Ji^p oyi pd iy^i?p{>*D{$iD n .lyD^-'msnio^^.p 
D^s oyD PK ::'nyD*3-iy pd Si^Dy: nyn lyiiy: t^k oy pi^-^-c* 
-"•uis n PD iyj:nyii^D n iv ODstJ'iyjjya nyi pd DstD^^ryi 
Diij>^ ;^jy^^ 1^: D^'V ny:y^ pd nyin^D v^^^V2''? n ivo lyo 



Dr'»ilJ5''J1''"T''''^^ ps V^^'^^V^ 372 

D^s lyD^snyjJi^ iD^-iiuyDniDiK '•\V'>''\ Vi< ^n iyn»n nynytDt^^ 
■jj^^ tDi^tDtj' "lyn na Dsjsti^^yTyj "ly^^nyn^^ lyn ns nytoynpyo 
lyn iyiiy:i i85i d:)^ t^k lyD^yii ^hd^dd oi^d lyn oyn i»n 
PK Dy^vfe?T^j»ai« D^r)n-»^yn y^yi^ti^nsD tiQ lyoosj^n db^ih 
«:it5^ lytoDiyDU nyn lyny:) t>k iik /iyD8a"iyT^''8 nx "pt^»D n 
D^s^ii Dv Di$ii ly^yo^nyiE) in iyj«p n^o .Dt^j^s^jr-n^nD n^ 
>niv n HD yj^^K lyii jj^d w oj^^t Dso^ityn lyi tyi^ya 
D^D ly^nsTi n r« dmisi tD^i^ii ly^^tonss ytj^^D^^«3 yDni:i 
--.^yrn^K^ ns y^v^nynys nyi ns nyr^^^sn^ oyn ,di«^ .id 
-nsB y^siyn^^ n nyn nx .lyoossn tDs^in nn^x d^s ,D^n3 

"18 n IV Dnyny:i'iv ?^^\2^ tt lytDsnnJSP yivDinyoji^p n 
lyn^vivpmv oyoD-'^DiSQ nn tyn^jn n« iy:iJnynJ5D lytD^^i 

•ryiy:! lyoDsnisQ oyi 
Di^n oji&j^snnyn^j^ p^p tDO t^« tynjytotj^oix n lyDJix 
-5>8npniv in iyD"i«i oji^ovn^nD n ts .p:8iy:i nytD5>8 lyn 
-:i^ Di^tj'Djy DyT di« pn tyt^Ji^iioy^is^ t^^^n ^p^d^^jijb na lyo 
-D^:«^jr-i^nD n -i^^^^ps vi^''0''?hb yDnn^J8:iiJ$ is nn^Qiv 
-onx tD^D tn^i D^ytDtj'yajynynQi!^ d^: inx nn iyn>$n tyo 
pi? ly^^Diss yti'^tD^^i^s yDnn''3s::n« n nnx pm s tyn^x 
iy:i^n lyDsmj^iip -lytD^^ms yr:jynQ«o^8< .Djyo8^i83 
PK Di^n .i^^^aiv ly^^DisQ yi^n ty:iy:i n^^iiy:! to5'ytotj'y:D"'n» 
a^nyitDK^ ny^o nyn ps Di^toso^D nyDoninpnyo nyn lyiiyj 
.y^vstDjytynsyn nytD^^nns nsQ yr^ n .p^d^^«q ny^^^nns iv 
-jyj^DJ^na pa n^^^yrtosnn pi^iiya D^yDSj^y^jy^st^v Pi« yD^yii 
ly^inyiiny iv o^^nnsy: :ij«^ iynn«^ DJ$n /tyoD^j^^jr-n^ntD vo 
-B^D^i^ n pt< .;D:yD85'n«a ps n^^:itD^D d^s ny^^uns isj 
,1870 pK 1869 pi? ny^ns t^nn^itj'n ria tyniDsnnjsP yr;ijyn 
-:^^fc? IS! p« *.^n^Dy:!D^D iyn:iytD^>n8n 8 ty2ny:iDMni$ tyn^n 






tD8nn:fc<p iyt:m 8 r^« 4873 p« ,tj'tD^ii:ni p« ^nsi^r^yv 
,D8^p nvD^^ais PD yv^tDtj^ "in nin ,ni!?iiyj ts^yDc^y^DniK 
T8 /lyiiy:) r^« Losto^ny-i lyi nx ly^^tD^ss vo'\ii vi''2 \v:vi 
n iy:i«i^yj t:t^n ^osinjsP nyirosmyDJSP nyi mn .no 

yiy^n ni< nyo^^ans yD"in^:8J"it;? n i^d^o ly^^yii pk 
-yo n tDij lyDijyjD^K lynytn nynyrosn yonyiiDjy^nt3i{<!3 
.^yp^Di^D^^^ iyi:yj^«D Dyn pq lyo^inyn nn lyo li^p ^d^^p^d 
PK ,v''?D'2 .D .y nsDyDiijis pd nsiiya lyanc^y: pk -^vD^vy^ 
-j^^K lytDoynj oyi t^snyj ifc?i tDjjjn nyn^yi^ /'P^Dii'-iy^a,, Dyi 
DDDyn T^K ^ns^^ ^DMijnj nyn pd DSD^iryn lyn,, : di^q 
,Di^^ D1V lyoipy: ^no^ t^n lyo^^ms lyn .ijy^ytosj'jynynDi^ 



lyT .lyncKinrsp "y:':iynBi<DiK„ pfi o<'p,3'Dyopyiis nyn ly; 
,1875 ,iyial3 oyn ngnnys ps "pn^v ]•;;•> 2 „ pn ^y^'triy t^k «iyn2 

:bji^5B m tt oTy? iy px 

.1871 ,iyi2l9 "iKn^ys ,i«:mK 
-iy lyuy:! is'i o^'t in'x SnKinK — tnyjiiij .no lyny"? p'0„ 
DKn lyD'BB' n ta^D "p'K tk i''7iB«njj ]y;ynt2Dyn:iB ,Tn;?i<fi 
miH T« ,t:T'niKi dki ^'m ,p'?KnntaiND p« iy;nsyj! eijn IiTk 
pK ,'P'K B'D i'B"iK3 ny'?K'iy2'^ lyT ] ifl i2j?t2n«'«D H tcKHyji exn 
]y':n'£y;j yiy'C'7N3 ps D«o yi^royi; k lyenyjomK taxn ih'k tk 
-K3KD IS n:,n2 lynxn ly^xnyno n t« ,-ik^p t'n oy .onKtoty pK 
;n:y^^it2 tsu ,iy:Kp ''t m ;:n7 ntK ^zhd yty'tt^'J'KB n ]Tt»'?k3 
-ycznK n •i^r'^KpnKn n t:>D yuDijio dkt p,n« nn'K t3»D tu 
-KinyD:i<p n lysn^ny ^u dku ,ia'DiyT la^ynyj ^naytaonKB iy:''T 
]'.s 7n'£y;i D^n ly;*?*??!^ n na ,BiyDK'7iKB p« lyoipni'nK yivn 
B': ,p<i2 Dy iy:Kp in .ly^xiyn'^ n niJD esKtyiyn lys'^D'^tyonx 
T'K p'B^'jKB DoyonniK DyT .pip d'7« B»:i:ns ]iip jm^y^jyii 
DKT ly^T pK ,c£Kir"ij?nyi2«riKB "lyjy^^'K ly^T e;n« inyotrijs is 
]nyn is tt'rnynyj y"irc«inyD:«p n lynn'riy is ,»': 'U B;3'^y;j 
]nyn is^yeiyy; eyn BytanK'WD y'jKiyn''? n T^n ttiyoK'biKB Dix 
lyt'Kiyni'? n ,1'^ enytttyn^s ^ly'jyii ikt pk ,inKBy; "lycDiny \n pn 
-<»2iK yD'?cy iynM*7"iy pK iyD'0K"iBf2«p lyswD is lymBis pu 

.tDiyotj^n^B pH lynyotr'HjB nya 



I 



DP3j5''ir-Tma jis y^::^^v^ S74 

-jiK m lytot^'iynn^ is lytj'mv ^11 ^srs iny2y:iD'i« f^ i«d 
Dvy pN T^i< yi^u iiD Dyt:^^8iiP n .p^ctj^-^^D lyoK^iytD 
lyijyvnsTDitoD^n oyi ns iy:iJi^^^to2«i lyj^n ^n .yn^ytn 
n nnnsn di^ii .lyjisiD y^j'nj^Djyojs^nsB y^s pn pk ,dis^p 
-js n yj^^i< pns ^n ly^y^atj' nyD'-^ms n ps lyoyiyDrx 
tyo Ts .DiyDt^'y:!Dix px tj^^osoytoD^D nrs D^vn n p« ynyn 
^j^DJ^^p lyry^ lyo^^nis t« /lypjyn ^n 4yi^i^:i DJ»py:i to^«ii 
PS lynJitDtJ^ v\:i)iv'? n ...ynyn p^-? pyn m /J:id^^v p^*:) d^j 
PD ^82Dnn Dyn d^d DjyD^^vy:iDnx in lyn^sn y^oyo nyn 
^y>a iyiiy:i iyj>n iyD^"»ni8 n y^^yn px ,iytDpy^«i3 ^^iiv 
.no yD^yii D-tD ,iyvyTy:i y^s i^x ^11 ,tDi''DyiyDJ^Nii$2 ^nvt2 
— DOS pN pns T^N iy Djn DDnnsn in D«in p«ddis^j 
-J1D .no PK ,Dpy^i^is-y^i^8n''SDj»p o'di^pi^h .id p>d i^k 
•v\:i\n ."ID DDyiDsnjj^ d«;^"i .Dpy^«i3-iy"TJio£J'"i^^: o'h'?vi 
■yDynons YV^v:i ^SJ^Dnp,, oyn tysnivpni^ Dpy^is d'h'? 
iyDijy:ijj$ DDnonx v^p Dsny:i d^jij^:i iy D«n /'dps D:ijn 
t^« lyDpy^^is y^s n d» pd ^ssdih oyn isa mv)) iv 

...l^^DIJ^IIDJSISD DinyDD^J^D 0^1 

tyj:iD^^v y^snyn^^ nss tj'ns:) Ditj'a t^>? ^sq Dyi i^k,, 
...DiyD iyD^^p^^iDii< rs d^s '?r\m iJ'Dnun:! n ly^^^psn iv 
T^K lyDn^n .tj^Dnijnj px lyiiy:; d^j myD p**? i«j pk oy 
•Vi Di:i ii^:i DJ^n yD^yn n^ya px tyi^y:i '"•••disq yDm s,. 
t'nnn .id ^ni< Dppya o^n y^^yii px /^ni n dj^ii ddij^ii 
l^N .DDS{^nyj:y:i iy{j'^i<"'^DnsBDis d^d ty'j>^DtJ^iy:!:)» .id pn 
-M1J '■w^v Vi^ lyt^nisn nn Dy^i ^>dis3 yom sts ts .'^i^n 
,5>nsii nyj>^Dy:i5's nyijyDip lyn i^s "ijs^:ijy t^i< t:iiH^^ lyo 
PD DjyDs^iss s t^n ^^^r tianyi DSD^nyn lyn i^^ss lyn 
lyij^n nyD^^ms n ii« ^nnnj^ m \V2i$,n pd r^s .onn 650 
":«p ynn«^-|ynn s ts /D^-'pj^DDyiy: ?infc? :ijs^ nrs D-isiiyj 
IV nfc?:iiv ny^^Dti^o s ni lyt^niDns Dyii j:n^:iy"i yirDsmyo 
TDnj T^K D«T nn« nymoni? '■\V'<''\ pd ^dh-id lyom; oyi 
."ly:!^^!^^ yny^n nn^DW^in :iJiD^nym«D d^s 



375 yDyirnn^D yiy^n ]i« »t::"i*' n 

-iN-a .TD ly^i 4S74 HD Dy-i;:i^p oyi t>3 v:i'?v^ii o'?^ d:» 
-•>s: n nyD^^m^-iynnj n it? ^lytDDnsiia oji^py: D^n ddimh 
tyoiD u!:^D'j'fc?3 lyai^n Dy>visT^Js:)"iJ!J y"iyi:st p,n "lyo^'-m^-iyr 
-y:^^ yoDpy: n ••n .mtosinnj^p yij^n^*j:yo«^ni<5 letD i^yj 
"iyt}5<in:e;p-"iyD^u"ife$» 13 ni lyrjyii tD"": iy:^n ly^n^ii y:>^D 
"iitnyn^^ iy:^n ly^ss yoD-inyD n tn .nfc^'.iy: o^yDt^y^om^ 
"lyi nt< ''T iy:yj lysj^^y: lyoi^nnjsp yiro^tiriyoii^p nx w'? 
lyj^N^iy: lyDJ^n lyirDytmyoj^p n is .lyny: t^k Dso^nyn 
n lyni^n oysni^Q nx mi^atDfeiiOD pk iyn«: *."iyvy^3 ^-"Tiv 
-••n ^n yD^yii ,iyD«"inji?p n lyoijyjji^ ty^ytiyn^^ y^y^v^si^ 
-pyo ny*i:5N*Dpy^{§ inyn n m ; ny^ti^ i^ nra iyv,yj d'j ly: 
•^: lyn ns yoDs^n Dsnn ••^'n^ n mn D^it'oi^D nx i^«ijj^i 
VD^^v n ni^iiyj iy:^n nyo^^n-i^-iynn:) 112 ij^^jv ny^i<:s^v 

.DjyDS^iKS iiD "iyn^^:o^D""iyo^un8„ 

t^K lytD^sny: ^its: in lynj^n lyin^a yirD5§inyD:i^p n 
oy '>')) AV2i^r] lyoD^j^ovn^nD n rst ,p^sdsp no t3^>:^ nyn 
-yi yivD^inyD:j^p y^^: n li^j mi t^? -tDjyDyny: /DMi< onyr 
■yDyDD^x YV)Vi '?^2'Dnpn lyn toyii ^lyoipj^n^ Dy^^ jjn^j 
lyiiy: lynnyn t^x omj .pyn iyDny:pmv n>>^a "ldps Dj:n 
y: T{$ ^pi^iiyj tOD^Dy; to:5$pfe$n r^x ov lyii o^itJ^^iDjy nyn 



-o:Kp ]iH pKnpj t2:;K'7pj;;s2K ij; t'k Sikti "ij;t nwe tmn « .'?'r,~i'*Ji 
11E p>m:D u*^^P>?^ « i2»D j3n3'n"i«B ]'k ,'^nnn ]^n ,;*'-ji<-'3 

,"pi<t:tr-i>M3„) .tyoictr 4912 ps *?nK!J yom; n u*^'^^"^ =^" P^ 
-"r "]yt:Knn:Kp yiam,, yin^K n lytyni!? .(1874 ,U'e31 iki^n' 
;(m2D'?^y) ,V;^i«in ; (20Kp>jrn) ,eD"inmK"i3 ]''\''\v^ n lyiU*^ 17^ 
: (TKiKaiytsys) ,nN::KB ; (mnDJ'E) ,c:EKipv'7 ; (pmiNn) ,i;*opp 

.(p'HttD.) ,'|KD'?Hn 11K ,(i^<B&ojnB) .nyiTiNCKts ; (p"i«n 



DT^:^"'Ji''-TntD ps ytDD-'ti^j;:; 376 

."lyvyTyrnyD^ons,. yjyany:! •'its n nc :iJ'iPini n p^oy; 

l^^jm^nD n nx ,pj;sn \v:\^t&'? p« y:isis n lyn^viiiiQ l^f 
-«ip lyn nsj nyn^^:iD^D I'-w)) ns tD:!{^Ty:iB^ in lyni^n lynn'^D 
yD^^pmonj? n ."in>« isd nny D^i§ lyj^-'tj'iy i^ iyi«; y^D^n 
nn"'2i!^Din nyin noxn D^^n :ijn^;iyi n ts ,ty:i:nyDnisD 
18D lyiiyj ron: lyj^n ,D>^PD^^:!yD lytoonnc nyn >^n ty^yryj 
-n» yD^y.i iJiyjn^x ty:iyTi«n iv nD ,nyj^« pd lyDDTD Dyi 
nn tDi^n niD^ .y^D^oi^P nyi d-'d mD^^tj^ fe§ lyn^n iv lyD^^a 
lyn PN w^V"] 1^ lyiyinyn^K DtJ^^ya i^i^jjsipy^ lyiJSDpy^s 
'2^'? na nyoyipyo nyn »iJ$D£)^tJ' t^'m^itj'n .no p« y^o^oj^p 
-nyiDJix n .nny d^s lyoi^iDy^DnK t^x ,tD«TiyDSQ ny:«i 
rD^jB^ li^j ni^"iiy:i t3in^Dy:iJ«i lyj^n y^D^oj^p lyn pq ty:i3iDiT 
-yi n iyni$ ny-ii^^poix is inyt lyiiy: t^n DDnsn nyn pn 
tDDSD yK^''D^^i^a y^yjisyrio n DSi^syj pisDtj^ i^ Di^n :jn^j 
pK .y:isnD nyn d^d ty^^ati' iv in tyan^iy iv DJi^^jr n lis 
-yD n pa tj^^jjjysy: iv jiJi^^^Diii^isQ n D«n i875 jid nnnj» 
pyn n >u tortosyt^'sn lyiiy^ tyj^n dj^ii nytD^-'ms^^yn 
pisiDC^ ,vo^'ti '•\v^i$,i^H'? ytDJSPsn toi: s ^Dyny-ij p« i^Dpyci^n 
y5»yiQ IV Din-'syj toj^n px ^ajir^D yD^^Djyay n Diy-iny:iQnK 
lytDDO^D lyi tD«n or ps .DjyDs^isa t^x oy^vs^yQiytDj^x 
-nt^Q ynyi iytJ^ny^D^»«nQ»«P p« iyrDDr:i s i^n \'iv:i'i^ pq 
PK ly^nvv Dyi .yn^u pyijy w lytopy^i^iB ^niv \v:ii^'?^vi 
"yny;iDnK lyj^n ^n ni ^yopy^i^is n .ryTy:i ^sj^^np nvi 
«^yn3iD r\o ps T]'d ivi iin ^y^D^o^p lyn pk n«t"ny:i onyo 
-«n yD^yii .lyvyry^ d^s pj^iiy:i tyDijy:ij« lyj^n ,v^v^:^ pk 
""•Drn^ntD n pd iy:ijnyn«tD n D:inyn2sn n:yDti^^"iQ lyn 
T^K 1871 pQ "tops D:i:nyDynDn« vv^v^i ^sJ^-onp,, lyi .D^i;? 
Dyn iin .pi^iiiya iyDny:ipniv iy:iji:ijnsn in«t ti« ^yD"i«3 
Pi< yDD^tstJ^sn lyj^n vvw:^ nt^^ DDiD:y:!^"'S ps y^vsi^sDJi^p 
■ya tiD ajn^yii:^ nyn p« \^i$.^)Vi to^ytoti^y:! iyvy:yi:i yn'nsj^v 
-83 m myn,, lyi .lyD-inotJ^nsQ iv y^vsn^soj^^p pd ryt 



D'\^ pM nMK nx pi^iiy:! toci<t^♦y:5« t^k 1867 no YV^Vi ""iy:yn 
-^y^T /'ryry: lytD^^aii? nx D^na-'^ya,, 8 n^^iiyj iyDijy:iji^ t^k 
nyi r« y^vi^i>niy-i yD^^unj » D^yD*^y:i«D in d^d ts»n *iyD 
pi^ny: "iy:yn nx nyn» n lyj^n ii^ 18T no .y^:«^ijrDiyo 
ly^Mvv b! PK Dmv yD^^^j ^niv /'lytD^uis: pk DTir^^yn,, 
■'•n tDPstitD:j^p s: ly^yin ij^d iyDi^it:ti> c^^j^jyay: .tDP^ito:i^P 
T^N DJi^^jr"i>nD pD y^vsT^^{<:y^ n .nj^iiyj t:D^:i^y:;si^ w: 
PD ^Jijypnyji^* -lyD^^vyry: *iy*i ^-^m /pfc^^iy:) oruyoc^^ic-isE 
-D^N T^K iD^N iDy^^iyns » n^ix lyoyp^s avih^vd v^vt 
PN "^Jipynt^ji^,, nyoiyii yo^s n .pj^ny:) Dn^^iy i^^pnn 
D^D lyoDn n pd ojyn n pk iy:^n ys^yn /'i3ij^0Dy^5§3» 
iy:^>T jjipmiyDJiN P2 lyo^yDnDDyx lyny; iy^^^tDnj<"i«D 
PK iyt}S!t3D^fc<ii:i pN .ryTy:i nv: nvi P5< pi^jiiy: ryD^Dyionx 
PD ^^^0 ». D^fe? p{<tny:i D^yiJsnxn ty:^n ^Jipyic^jjj y^etonn 
->'mi? ysn; «: ^"id dps p^-^ .yv^v:^ !^{<ronp Dyj^^nyi^j? oyn 
,tii^ntDK' s IV iy2n>^inyo:iK lyiiyj o^J i» I{<t pd t^k lyo 
Dy:^yvj^^K is ivd 5'yrDnp lyiiy:! d^i^ii osd sts lyn^'-D 
lyD^-ip^DytD yro^iJ y^s .niP oji^ijsn yiropy^j^p .rytj'jyo 
tiiD-^r^iD ^DSP ly^^^vyryj pd ini^^ 50 ijsij tyj^n ,DJi^^:r pd 
*.n:s^ P2 rytyj ayi nn p«tiiy: D:ypny:fcj 



"iyimKii3j?nN'?"i«E lyD'n; *iv*t t:« Dxn ,tt»nn ]^^p i2»: t>k d:?* 
yjinn ,1875 ,ij?nKap« ^n cyn;;2Kp ]«':•) ' ninis D'>n .lyn'n 

lis ycnK:DnK lyi ts^o,, — ,'7j,*v.Nn ."itt tajxry:; i2Nn — '"eijyDK^nKS 
lysnpnn -IKS civ'^pny c^: 'bijai^'p in i^rnxn ,»ms nni* DVi''« 
*T2inE y2''7i2y ts'D njr ."upK D:53nj;D:?2Dn« YV^V^ '7«2'Dnp„ dvt 
-NiE *i;n ]yn ,B2';r2x'?iKS p.c ymy'^K; -lyn nyc^iN lyny^ U'-''t 
r;:'"i'?J t22Kpy2 D''.p lynNn lu ps ,"|"iNnj;j DTtaipDn t^n tpy 

-''KC lyi "IKS U*'2*?"l^I''^D'nK T'N DKip .ID Ijm »!>'*iyn >'T Dxn 



br-'Ji^^ar-Tnto ;",d y\^::^^);} 378 

iy;ji«i^vy:i m^ D«n 4875 rn 1867 nc nn^P ly^J'n^tojyo 
*inx jJiD^nj};? yny^ ^yo^s^p lyijy^ip nvi i^a iyT}!j^ivnyn''« 
nc yDD^5J^y:i ii^^:r-n>nD nyn r^x iyj:n^D^5 ymmpnyD n 
-ijnyvnni;?^ Dyi ns ty:j^j:yntoL^j}<i y:injyD5^ n .d^^v lyjy^ 
ny:iJ^i< fc$ ns nt^iiy:) omt^jr^ ddj^ nv iy:^n y^^yii ,r^ 
■•i ns toji^DiyT D2J^ ov^x IJ^'J piyii ,iyioD^ji$^jm>nD in 
n D^fci! D^-'V yjy^ lyD^fe^iDfesa yj^yii nyiD ynyto^y 
DD» "lyn^x .o^^prtoytD iJ^^jm^no iid yii^nys) yDDiiyi:^ 
"lyi nytDJit< lyDii^inytoJiK lyiiy:! DJi^^jm^no n ;y:^n in«i^ 
ny>n lyD^yii px ,Dnnp lyDi^ti^ nx Dy^y^nvi^a ^ tiD dd^*^ 
Dnnp Dyi DJ$ na -ij^p r« iyj5§tDti^y:i r^x nytoonpy yDi?D 
lyijyi^QDixnD ^ d^d ,inyTy:i lyn^n i^d ^ii ,D^n^ ^n lyj^n 
-i^n t^'^1i$t^'^ .-id d^d in iyv"i:i^n i^ — "t:''n2^n„ /:i^j^Diy 
-y:i ^sronp n r.D nstr ty^vy^ oyi nS" — lytoiyii D'^yn 
."-lyD^^ms! n iy:y: D^y^vy:i ^y^vysD ryny:! tyj^n Di<:ii ,iyvyT 
lyrvj^^N iyi lyiiya d"*: t^n :yn lyrTni^i'DD iyi toj^ 
yan^sn yiy^n lyD^njiyi iv n3 .?id^p Dyi n^ n^i'^^nyi 
":yD^:iisi n lyoijy;:^^ D^ny:i D:)$>jr-i>ntD n lyn^in ,:y^y^^ 
■"ivjij n^iiy:i DDsiny3D"'» ty:^n n« iy:.^y:i yiy^n ns lytD 
-i^>nD n iiD :;:njy'iis« m tyiiy^ t^« om) .y^vr^^^ ^ \VDnv:i 
"IV iyi pK Di^n px D^^njy:ij^:ii;sQ iyi PiD oyvn^iD it^^^jr 



-D'i'?3 "lyi "lyD'byn tD^o ,"!2''p3j?u'7Knv^DniS lyDniJi,, ip iks t2i'u 
T>N Dy DNu jsK'jiriNS lyny' lyoiiyjssnx t2Nn„ p:.*:'H ps i:;n 
'*;„ — ts^nuyjiij iu bkh "ly ]ix — ,"p^?^^y;l t:;y'7;*j;iJ?5 DiTn in3 
K ."c^>'?DtD''nnK n pxny;: IV-y-^y-s '^^''^k t'n Dxn si^^n y!:Dy"i-3 
-yipns KT« ro'O uiMiynnsTsaiK upmyjiDMx idkh dkii jx^iynKQ 

-:Np "iyMKJT«'7Jj lis BDns'n) ]yo'i2ty ly^s Tn*?! i::;n!jy:! t.vn /'nu 
pi£ lyj^nyDynDMK y^itaznnyiJ^D p^jTix y^iijux .(1S74 ,Dyi;5 
;:"i5t'iair-iyt2JTK y;^t2^'T5y;y;! n px y^K'mDi;!^ nn y^^*^ n*y^ 
^Km» lino Dyi pK pxnyj! t-iyE-iypiNS lya^'T ,Di«ii"i' Tnu ps 
inna»n„ oyn nyr .1876 ,-iynN!:p« ps ,t2pK DJi^nyoynonN ry^y^J 
.^yiiKin lyTinKtyTT .10 ps /']y!?yTy;!-nyu"n"1^J pa 



379 vuiyirnnyts p^n ps »tD:v n 

fc<tD:v -iyi lie jy.tD^sn v'?v^DPV'?v:D:'i< n inyLO'jn^s iv -r 
nnnKD "inyo ly^jDjisitDSiD tDC'iyiv -i^d lyno ,i:^nD yiy^n r,x 
v*2^D 112 -P^P^oet IV iyoipy:DnN T^^< ^n yD^yii ,Dy^vn8^*9 p 
iJi^JSiDi^j D^n3-^^y3 n iy:^M ,Diyijimnj^^ cyi iis a^n::^ 
is^r^si^ lyDf'yii i:y:i^K lyo^^*^ iv t23y*i *iyn n^K ly^tiitDreia 
-Til {< ns5D DJ^ii rijypip tD^: .nyt:^''2-is! Dy:^yvj^^N oyi c^d 
^n .yoii^: Djyny^ D'nyLD^^sne; oyi n^iN ly^t^n ]h? ci^i ::)p 
-fcj^:v-n^ntD n is^n^ ,s^vri3 oyi iy!2i:y:Jij i^^:^i$d \V2ii?, 
"iy:n:ytDC'^i2 112 ^ysj^itoj^^^D ryryrpn^sts n nx lytDD*: 
lyjn-iiv ny-iipji^»p yjn:yotJ^!^iD UK ,t:pspr):i^'p 112 tD^Ti^na 
-3S5 n ny3n"ife?2 iv n^ .D^nn-^^y^ lyt^^iiv m pyro^"'m{§ n 
;yiiy: t^k ,y:^yv:^"'K lytrmv r:y"nPJ«P ns D^^n^nD ytDi^j^D 
-y*i w "lytD^^my: n ivd ynj^is yny^ lysi^noc^^a iv yto^j 
'i:s;n ^n yD^yii n^ix iy:iji:]nst3 n ojirj^^xietD nn ,n^^i: 
D{>n oi^n t^^^pD^^pnni nyn pk lynu .D^na-'-^yn n 0^0 ty^ 
':t^p "lyD^S'yry: ns s^vjns nv\ 112 :iJijyp^^^n^D iv tDin^cyj 
yivDpy^j>*p n ,DP^itDJijp iid yo^i^D i>"'k .D^'^n^na-iDPstio 
My2y"in"i{<2 ly^yronp {< pJ^^iiyj tDpsis pn t^k o:i!^"ij{<ms:2 
pyo^^m^ n lytD T^K isiT ^T^ 1:1:) ^11 T^ p^nonK oyi nyoJix 
lyf'b*:^^*^^^*: nyn iid ^y^^ii^n Dyt nyojix ^yni^ oy Dn«n:) 
oyi Di? pi^iK n:ynyDEi^^n Tt§ ,^h^p t^n oy pJ5<oti^^nKii 
yojyiipyDJi^p o>: s iyoijyj:i$ D^nr-'^yn n lyni^n D^yoms 
-ji^p "iyr-ijytDtJ'5'iQ nyn px lyDyiytorNP^yj yiy^n .y^vni^B 
-ns pK lyn^": ly^n t^^DPsts ryriKiiynynns? iynis*n nynp 

iyat^n y^^yii pytD^-im^ yrrrsn^:^ p wi^n v'?'''^'\''\v\ 
niRD vw'^f DnptDjyvji^p T^^ijysiDC' oji:yii^n n onn^sy^ 
-^p toji^pyj lyni^n ••n lyD^yii ps ^y^vr^s nyrv:^>j< "lyn «inK 
-y: tD^: ly^ijn >n ty: ,iy:iM px lyni^n ti'o lyn .^yn s n''i« lys 
<i^it< lytDDn:^ V'^V'>^t iy:j''iivivDn-)^ ni ,iy^tD'''o yj-^^p t^isin 
t3''D *iy:^i^2Di^J v\v\ ]V2Hn 1867 nt^j i^^b^ .yij^-'oy^ nyi 
p nyn py^nyii p P£ oyoPi^i^D yj^-i^p 8 tD^'yotJ'ypi^c m 



DPjy''JT'-Tnt:i lis ytaD^itrj;: 380 

-^ytD^D ns '^:ivn n p« iyjy^y:i fx p-io^^i^s na pej'sd yxj«j 
■wjijt i^^Ds iyi« ,K-nD » iyDife5iiNivQnis 02^d \m -0^"?^ 
liji: iy:niyj tojiijpya ^n lyn^in /tyoss^p yuyt^nyn n lyc^^iDD 
Dy Ts .Di^n ■iyTi;j^D:iJODi^n 5§ tyiiy; iv2h vi^ oy .lytoi: tD-'o 
Ds^p-^yD^D Dyn nnypfenn i^f iyny:j>>5§ t^x ov lyii ^n in toyi^ 
"QMx y:y:iJij<nvy:i n — DT^:«:^jr"i>nD ns 5^v:ns Djn; d^v 
njSD^iv iyjnDD^j!?Di!!T Dyn px .yDiJ^: Djyay^ 8 no :iJiD^8n 
Dsny; lyoD^ji^^jm^no n lyn^n y>oi^j«py lytj'^D^^i^B na 
aiiJ>"'D yD^^tDjyoy yv:»:i n dpjib uvi t:)« y^iJi in iy:y; 
n^T] .'?^o^ .tD^nn ini^trn .nj5§^ na ly^jyo y^yi^uyj n nc 
-)yirDyi:ij$iB lyi na lytDDnjj^ y:^^Dy:^^ n opmyjD^x ij^j 
n D-iy^m^D i^^ny^^s toi^n -ly lyn ,d^^v "^vw ns ^••dij^s 
lyno ,51^^ lyjjs^ px ,Dy^vsT^j»:n« nyto-'uns,, rs nyo^^nnt? 
''PV2 Dyn ni toij '•ITS /DDn^yr lyo-'uife? Dyi lynj^tj' iy:jyin 
■y^ nyi ^nnotoD^tJ' iii^^ '^."d^j:)VP iy ryi^^yn lyjy: ,nun 
,m:^ lytDyny: toj^n ^ly^^yryrpnn^Q isd -\v^mi> ny^j^^Djyn 
iytoD3:)yno:5^ iyi ns nv)^ to^nssn ly^^r lyD^unis n„ t^ 
ya^vJ^^N v'?^ .lyt^^^y: lyii w^nn ^n lyD^yii t^Q .^nyas^pt^ 
,\V'i)Vi m) lyj^n D«ii^ ty>Di<npi^DDns y^s pix lyDi^sDyi 
^yDJ^i nyn^^D s mi -i»: :y:j^n ,pn t^i^ oy lyii ty^yi^ lynt? 
n **"D:»''Jvn^nD n ^ooyniDt^' n va^ d^d n^^^:n^Q px 
yrn:yDK^ n lyayi^ lya^s^P n ^mn^vi v^v^:^ nx nyn^y^ay^ 
na tDGi^c'nyjiya yrn^^« n ,tD>^^ m^jr-^-'j ns iy:ji:^^Qi5§Q 
iD^on^-p-'DK' ns aiivyjyi:isn n 4y:j^65^8D iv nytD^m^-DJ^n 
ytDDfe?nDyiDMK PN y'riDK yf's n Di^ — ,is^:irx ^mv"? pt? 
ty^^yii lyayi »^^^t3ni«n«Q ists! tyasiti^ya wntan — ,Djy::yinifc?D 
-J2VP IV D3ij^Ji''-T'nj3 n ifeitQ Ti^^D:j"ijy2J<!n tyiiy:i t^n oy 

•lyD 



,Bi'-in inK»n ps ei^^nn ya^'^iDi^rBi;,, .i860 ,]j?ki3 Dyi nynoyn 
.80 tt^n ,(1885 ^iKna^'b) ,1^10''*? t^n .n ]ib ta-iitapKiyn p« is^nyn^;; 
]iK ,''?D>i -njDyBNiB ps tDniB'^ ,mNO 'i':;:"inp is «iynn ** 
cyT pK tayttS'iKn ,1869 ]'N ,nBK-i-i73KB nyiNn:K*7 n^n j;nj;i pn 

.1870 ,pX^o /"iK^'i'ipi^s ipynD 'jy^tt,, 



381 vcyimiyiD y-iy^n jik m:v •»! 

^n lyii ,it^oy: :ii:?p nneti lyai^n -lynn^s i«:^jr-i^ntD n 
.tD:n:-iyt:rn pk y:si2 "lyi ns ^^^tD oyi d^ lyrs^yj iy::iijn 
T^K DT>:ij^:r-i>ntD >v ^p^tDjyoms! iv lyD^oyjonx lyasn >m 
.tDDy-iy:DiK lyni^ ^^vwi ,T^iv^ ")yi« i^^vij s^vjns pn 
-iyi:y^:jy w^v ns tDsyi Di^i nnx iy:5§tDK*»a n«j iy:^^T ^m 
in tD3en DH^K D«i"i .iDii< s^T^ ^i^K o^-iais pn tyanpiss :v 
li^j lyni^n ^••t .lyDyiytDJ^N yjyr^K yj^n i^^d lyDoya lyi t^k 
IV "ly^^^mst Dyi n$<D tD^^i^nc ynjyDtr^is n DtyiijDy: 
3n« nyj^yvj^^x D^^ iy^nj«!n iv D«:Dt^':s ivDpy^«p ty^i:s;n 

,iyt3^^njy:y!'yj:i>* t:pi<-iDJi^p p« in lyrj-'^NieiD iv D^-in^nc 
-"18 n PD >nK'y:) nyi n^i« lycojy ly^n 'm^m'i Dn^^i t^x 

.ny*TiP:t^p ly^ns nsiD ly^yjio^^^ 
nyn D5<ny:i iy3J^*n iytDD'':ij''jvi>nD n ty; ,i«i^p t^n oy 
-y^DiK iyi"iy:i n^iN^ynnx ps T^i< oy .o:yDi:"is: lyoDpn^DC' 
nyi T5$ iS^vns I'Dnx inytDtJ^sn iv n^nn-'^ya n pd D^yn 
lyi^ ,ynt2Dnrx px in lytj'^o w d^j tDDyi p^"5 to«n tDj^stt:'^ 
nyn>^t3ii<D n pD 0:811 nyi iv pyn Dpmyjiv ty:iy^3 ^n 
l^vp'^D IV D^^v nyrn^ynyn pk pk ,i3iny:ivyTy: pnass pd 
pi< ys^^nyna lypmiytDJiN* iv '•^v^^^b nyi pd n^^i 18: 
■8t:'B8P n ,n"iP nyiD^^^i^ yny^n pa iy:>^8"i8Q yr^nrne 
"-lya ^yD8^„ pD B*v:ns nvi 18 ryD^8ny: t-t iyn8n ly^D^^ 
P3 riyny^ iy^ynt:Dn:^8 p,d Dn8Q lyiy^ P8 ,{r^\^ iv tDT8^) 
PD ininy: iyt3vy:y-i:83ci8 cyi V2 "^y-i:8iTn8P"ty^nQ„ 
irL::i8 P8 nyo^y lyiy^ pa lyniD P8 ny:yD pb D^ms lyi 
n Diy-i8By:i i8^ iyn8n -iytD^^ni8 n p8 ; iyi:ytDEJ'oi8 y^8 
.iyt:P8nt3:8P"n^ n tinx B^v:n5 ly^n^yTDyi ps ::n:yii:8 
-^r;yiiy:DMK iv'^'i 1869 p8 on^nt?^ /'y:8nD t8^:r-n>ntD n„ 
">^8 18J P8" ,ny:n^^t3i8D iyt:D:^DDy!3 P8 iynytDc^i82 lytD 
PS T^np lyi T8 .nn8 Dyi ps ^y^s'^j'^^a nytovy^ nyi P8 ly: 
DyiD8^ .t:vy:y"i:82 :n*inip"iyQ P8 ::v\^^ t^k ::ny:vyTy: 
:y:yii lyvyry: DD8sn8s ::8^ iy^n8^ iyiDnyn:in D8n tyo ni 
-8n ,nnv y^^: iys8:i^8n D8n 5:nyi:yTyTy: viv' P8 .p^^nns 



lyno n^D T5§ ,nDi< Dyn tnynyi tynnnyj:» Dtitnjji!^ vd \v2 

-o:vziV n .lyvyryriytD^^ni^ w^^^ iv pyna^ix iyv:s;jj>« 

ytDDjny 18 n^stj^nyi iynnny:iJJ5 DjyDvy^ Di^n :ijij''"'d yD^^ 

8 Dysy fi^iK i^ny:iDiK d^d lyDisii nx D^^p::>^Dynp8nmK 

in ^i!?T Diijii nv?V]^:v tyti^''^D^n pd « .:jiT^^^ny v:^''?'£V^v: 

'^nvwi Ml .nNiDi nyEJ'n80jyo5$^nfe$B iy>o 55 t:)^o lyt^nisn 

?"•« DV Ts /Dms nytD^^^x in DT^ni ,iy^82 y^^yT^ px i^5» 

-ijQ jjiT^"*^ y'ncK n t^ nx ;jj'it>^^ y^^^^yry: p>p d^ji«j 

lyr^niT'-n nvi ns JiJiD^tj'fij^ n 3Ji:ijn$§3 Dsnn d^s; Diyn 

T8„ ^v^nv'? n *"iyD^"'V yjy:ij«n8Q n na in lytj^^oj^ns 

tD^: lyii? iyD^"'nife$ iv tyD''Dc^r>» i^^^vyryj ty;yD \vmvT2 y^s 

^nx ,iyD^ui8 ly^yDs^ivji^ d^j lyij^ ly^yDmvjj^ ,iyD^>ni» iv 

T^t< /'ijyD83 T^x lypjyi ^n D«in oji:!jn«2 ly^^yii ijy:ii^i^ 

-i^nto n 11D Dy^v^tDyQ px oyiyi v'?^ pq yjs^ iJn;i n wwi 

lynyiDtj^ i^d„ .D^nDtj' Dyi dj^ ria 'nn^i^Q px lyin^a t«^jr 

DT^jijor-i^no PD lynytDtJ'iJ^D y^y^v^ci^ n ty:i«T — /'d^j 

,^nss! t^K A^w^'i^ PQ iytDD^:^D div Dn:t5i«Dyo iy»n px 

-"•■•nisi 1^ i-'n^ Dyi pa nyiiP:)i<tP y^ns n nytoK^ iv„ — ,i875 

lyD^snsn i^d lyni^ ; idi{< Dy:iy:!>>N v^f nnx i^a pn ^n tyto 

iyij<t .iytD^^3i8 IV 00 lyij^ tyto^-'iiy: iv toDyi dnii in iss 

-jyDK^DiK n ton^ n^nn-^yn t? i^d lyD^ui;?? iv in iy;«pvs«i 

-Si? ODyi 8 DHr\ n^3n-^yn iyi m nr^ ,^8d lyiy^ Pq lyi 

Di^i T8 .si^ lyi^t^tDjy lyjyp^''^ i'-d pn ; lyD^-inis i^ ly^j^pv 

,tDiyDtJ^y: i2iN lyD^yii ijyn^« tm^ Diyii i^n** Dyi pd toDyi 

."i''^DD$<tJ^r^Dy:i i^Dy: Diyn d«!1 lyn 

pD lyc^^i n tyoiJiy^py^^ ti'^Dp^Q tyn^^tn lyo^uiy; n 

.:i:ia''i^^Di8s 8 inj$ oti^^ynyn^N ^n iyn«n m iyjjy:i yiy^n 

lyin-iQ ytj'^tDD^ji^^Jin^ntD n jyni^n ^Ji^iJ^n ^r^ t5^o iyn«! 

,y^vni^2 8?^ p« tD^ytotj'y:i pniDy^D^i in d^^v iyjy> pd 

n pD y^vnt^s n ni tDjyiipyDJi^pDiN iy:i''jyii tD-i^ t^n ys^^yii 

'r'^t ^fc^T i{$^:r n rs; /tDi''0jyDi:i8 tyni^n ^n tyii .p^nr^^ys 

Oiinta nyn,, ,1869 ,''7V p;a{j>ij; on /'imyn i''!2>'3t3nN5„ * 

.]NDnyn pmpij .id ]is /"7'n ik'2i^ 



383 yt2yi:^2nj53 py^^r ]i« «t::r n 

PK ly^b* 'p^iKiutjj •pytDt:' IV Dn^« n^ ly^n pn lyny: n«: t\x 
-iyD^''r:yp "lyi lyi^yn 025<njyDMiyj lOJt^jpyj lyniijn D-ij^j^yE^^ 
in \v2i^7] cv'^^v^^iii^ vw^t no nyn^^JD^D n ts .y^D^oi^p 
nyi ly D'} \^vr]]Ji oi^)) ,\V'^^:vr2 d^d lyD^^my: w tDJi<Ti::y o*: 
-yn lyi ^i^ t» /lyoMi di:i lonDy: ii^ji ^n lyai^n ,y^v^T^j^:n«i 

-y: p^P t:isny: o^: t^nn y^vsr^JSij-iJ^j n ly^i ^lyo^^v v:^'?v*^ 
iv D^^pD^^jyo ^ lynyj "in^i< ^i^t d«ii /DyDn«i^i§o yom; yj 
oDi^^mt^in n:yn .no y^^yn iv iyDi$D n .tj'-iyijs; ly^ijj^n 
Don^a "in ly^i^n ^loiyny: lyai^n ,'?v)M^n c'nnyt^'n .-id px 
-ijnn \V2i^r] DJ«!^:r n ly^^yn d^o ,;^ij2iy oyi d^d oDj^oyj 
-••n Di>*i"i ,iyD^^m5< n lyTi^^nyi iv d^j p^dpj<d "ly^n onn^Dy: 
-^e!niv:« ,y^V5?T^J5<:nt!? "ly^n pd nyi^^jD^D p^p lynyj d^j ly: 
i:s!^-iy2?o^n nj$: pd nyny-i:ijy^nMp n .oy^ytDc^ yiy^n ryo 
n PK inyjmyD:n5§ D^^rtojy in iidd lynyin Dsmn p.x 



,]'yT:?;-p;niii:B'8 oyi lis lyjjy; lyiytt'jKny^DnK "lyn iik Dn;*:''2 
^cviKT pytsyety « ]T£5 «iy'in lytsjKpxn-tti; k ]»k ,pi«i:tr bt::';^ 
riMj-' Din iyjn:yt2B''7K5 k ikb ,(y'SNp k iy-«n iid lya'i'yn lie) 
-ixp D:yt:D:':yncK wt„ .y^SNT'iKjiK lyn ]ie "iyT^;ta»o-!2': 
]nv;.*snyB3n« en "i^t in'N b^nt ly'rKe y;j'SnysDiK px .i::yv.p;*D 

-ipDH a'3 ttS'N "I'N '^m ;3T'7i2Nn KTK p5 fi2y"ittiK lyiK er;*' 
p.E ]y^''B y^'^fi pN liNBiyi!? ny'riax nyi t>n dkii i:;3k ; jnita 
"lyi pN inr^Jnn^ttinK ex -^n q^nt ih^n dkt^ ,tt>'!? iy-r pN ?i:«^ 
t'Q in'K cn^^Ney ,iytt»3i;o n ck ts'tt p^ttipi!?Eni>j nytK ,y:'» 
t:'?3 1X3 nn>N t2>>^"i» tseK ^ik ,j»iitt nyn pe px ys'rs i^f i^' '^t 

ti^'T iniK pN p^»2i>p n px iH^MTiv nt ts^o ttnt?:! "^n^x -•*'■: 
cm^n yn*?^ tyiy'i n Tyoipy: nx ^n^ n .Qy3»»K3<« ^jSr-rj 
'(♦•'sitSijnK:! n« •!<» Tt»^;^»ft»i» ^v an pt p»:5 bkh Dt» .prr eyn v/.v;*i 



T^x — Dy''V»T^j^:nj$ n tiQ lyn^^JD^D pyii iv "lyo^uis; \vi 
-lyi ni D:n; lym^yToyT tinn oju^^o lytJix dm^ ,iD^inyj 
,"ii$^P T^x ^pn D^j '?i^\ ov ni ny3« •DDStJ'iy^iu ns :iJ^iiv 
nyD^^m»-iynn:i nynJs^nynDin-nj^j n ns j^ts« iy-i t^? 
lyiiy: T^i? fD'''? li^^jr-D^j D-iD Dy^^^xrx "nnj^sivnyDjn^,, 
o"'j T^K DJ^n ,DyDn{^:^D lyi ?i^ik :j«iiv st^ dpjib Dvy i"'n 
r^N tD^^3iS! n iyi''^i:iyn iv rytyj d«:t ^ii ^^n d^d r^-'tDtj'j^^x 
inytotj'sn dj^t .topy^tijis lyijiDtj'-DDs m ^11 "iy"i^ 'tyj^Q n 
T^x tDp^-iD:{$P na D^^n^nQ fi-iii? DDyi D'iynjy^:ijy lyny ^i^ix 
\22vnH^ y'?'\r]VBv: \vw^ lyDD^jj^^jm^nto iid ly^^^D n px 
t^Dnyn pnynyiQ .no ts; /iyj^2y:i i^d ni< ; «iitDv'ynv iv 
,iyt:py^«"iQvyTyj vivi:^ d^d i^^to iv ::^§ny:i Di^n iy lyii >p^^j§ 
-i«D {j^nynyDDDn^yr lyiiyj d^j^ii oy t« ^DJi^sny:! ^n D«in 
: Dnj^ir:!8^K^ ytj^-'DD^^^c^a^p oi^i ryonyjivj« lyo^msi n 



»r. ,j;3io "ijn p« dj?ji'nj'x 'u ts'D lyajn^ tt istn^ nn'x lyix 

jri:yDNa B>i n«£3 »>t tD^Nitaxn .lytD^'ti y'?N px in nmyoiN onn ]« 
nxs "lyijro ynjpNQ ta^i ins pN ,'inn py^N pn "I"n "ins onnn 
n^'bp n:?*T ts'D n:?n t2pnNOTiNi3j?;i nr i^t'^nt .nytasyta p:?''N 
nj?3''72nj?np;j k px i^t lye^^D i!? ij?B»jyD yjJ'DNQ tD^j d'^n ,pp pQ 
la'j -ju 'o ta;r"n "in^N V2 .tDSNty^yry:; ly'rnNtDpysDp px -lya^'inn^ 
lyT^'iB^nsN pN Din i^Jinjyttty'bNS n pn 'U ij^Ji^r'^rJiinN ]j;dno5n 

pB Bpy^Nis jr'Di^9-Djjn^;iy"i dj;t i^;yn 5i:;nn pu n^rr * 
mttNtapn DJinup i^t ly^yn tjin lyo ta'i'nyiiij;! siid^„ : 1864 
ip'ryn b2V tt>a lytrj^'^ tn ,'tynn^J! ta^o i^p i^n jJitr^oi^nN pN 
lytD^niN n ly'^NT ...i^'^NnnyTm tsoaij; ^non in: i^»dnt 5;2'?:;tn 
^ ttiyoN^nNs ]'N ]y;iN'7tyj?jiNS in: tanyn Dj? ]yn tn ,iypjy*7y;: 
enyi") ]n'75 ntn tj;n i^n ,iit -ins j'iddj'; t^n dnti iapyiN-iB 
"['H n ix;snp:5Nn is '^d — t^n^ pn ry^njr laiNonjrn tssnnii^i'N 
-uyn n ,nyni'p pN ^yms i^^j^cNn is ,]j?i:itDty-Dt3''a"iN yj^N"? 



385 ytsyirnnyiD j^ny^n ;•,« «mr ^i 

-r« -lyny-ii^'o lyi ns p>dp^-i3 *iyi p« ::nnsDny ^y2 
D^D lyo^^mvri^iK tD^^'^rron: n lys^nisa iv tD^: ynoon 
■3ij D^: li^P OD'ji>*^jr-T'nD P\'5 .yDiyrDjyny^ n d^siij 
yosTPini 5< iyD^5<mv2MK i^^^yoDiK r^N oy ts; ,iy:yp^^^ 
-r"nvivDnii< yiijoyo t^k oy lyD^yii « iniij ::irr^N-i{<D"ifc?D 

•tsyDni^^SD "lyn ns lyo^^c^sa n ly: 
"ijyD nyi ^'iK P^onp lyn tD« r.s iy::m do n^t: lyo 
-y^D^nsi iy3«tn yD^yn .lytJ'jyrD n D«n ,y^vni:j3 lyj^^oyn 
tyni^n ,Dnnp lyoDyi: "in^« 112 :i:ijy'ni<3 iJ^ovi^ntD n d^ih^d 
-ysoLJ' iy:iy: n:yD ny^n re; ,DDi«iiy: lyni^n ^n t^? ,iyt2ijyjjij 

D^D 1S!T ly^n iy:niy: w lyoijyni^D in i^^oDnns iyn«n 
ly^n ns ytoD^tryj n pmotj^ do i«p nyj^^*:) .noyD yK^^5<2 
nx DD^K^:i^P /D^^'^jyny^nyn^x ny^n T5< ,nvi inj^ DssK^iyi n^D 
lysyD S! iyDfc?o do Dn^t< ^inx ^i^T ynni yD^^^ynys y^nn 
D^^PjyD^snyjDnt^-DO ly^n lyDDK^D^n ty np i^d .pmj>>^ 

n ,dn'?p ]'ik t^s t:£Nty-ij;:jy: n ^niytstr ny t2i:;;y;Kn — cnn-'^i'S 
T^K i:exc»i^'j;;j;j n ]in ;pynpjNp iyt3:i:;:j;i;N2mK ps "i:r-3i>*n:i< 
-ne pE t:'in'n£ -ij.^isi'jnd^k nyi c]nN ,njnj p'K e^nK t:yi:n;«2 

'nty^js njTT T'K Dy "i»'?3y'?£"iynnK px tt''i2D'KN;y >n — y^K I'o 
cyT ]y:5j?: iu ]j?^yBB> ys'^yn ,iy!:D''7K:2^SNp yz^^ciyiKOiK ]ib 
si^TN lysnp IS ;:Kn!J oyn ps "lyc^i^nx n lynExn ii? tapyxiB 
Dyn iy;y; "lynx ,D'nn i^yn n pe lyusytry:: n i>n rn^n ;"iki 
-IN n "INS tynyinyocDn'ryT tao Dy vh .cpyKiB lyniitsw ]nys 
ts'iiiKn ;:niyt2ty t'n dnti ,'nij>y: lyn'i'yT oyi tynnnitJsnK lyts^n 
ya'ryn ^yjsoy n ps ]"iyn t2!ii:Nn ;n:yt2iy t:yn pN ]"iN"i"iyJ 
-y*? pyoyn k ine ^lOKp px lyo'ip^nyntr 'u lyrxo "li? lynyitae' 
K nNE lyeyittDmN iy'?>iT lyis^'^iN ]yn ,cE:ipi!J lyi ]'« ? lyi 
lycn ''T y;n cyn ,]yi:itsB'-Di2"2iN n lysTpiKE is opyitna 
]ifi D'ioy i^K I'T lyB'iD B'3 TIE 5's:ns lyu ^^n nn lyta^nn 
.(.1864 y')';d /'pKBB'-:yo„ lyn) ."^nbibnp cNnne 



iy^8^^i;?D Dyi PD nn:!«n pi^^p i^^"? do \:>m n lyii ^-'^lo-isq fe§ 
Viv ns ^DSiP Dyi p« .DayiDti^ n ty:D^y^^ iv nj^iiDi^'^v 
lyj^n lyDDo^ovn^nD ytj'^^jjy n mi ,vd typiyo^n lyinj^^ 
■DO 8 w ly^y^v yji'^DD^Bi^D'ix yiy^n na n^^iiy:! lynnoyj 
ti>i^i82 PK iyj''n ^n lyD^yi^ pd ,DToiDni^E)« DyjyD^fe§nyjD^'i« 
lyDD^iB iy-i IV ni!?iiy: lynnDyj in lyijymp ayi pd 
■"18Q p« ."y^Dfe$-ipJ^DDn^ nyD^uis,, ts pd "^^•'h Don^yr,, 
-lyrvj^^N p^p lyiiyj do t^k oyvi^iB lyvjsj oyi pd nn^ 
-niv mstJ'nyiMi oyi tyDn:s3 tyn»n iy^«!T ^n lyii ^D^vr^i^o 
•lyDDnJS ytJ^^DDMVDpy^^P p« y^^DD^^«nninrK v^v'i w^ 
">\\ Dyn tnyty^j^^s do iyn«;n /^tj^D^ nyns pk Dn«j?yD» 
■8jnyDJ''«„ Dyi pd yDDyisn dd^ih n nyii pd inD^nyi 

OIK P« /I'DPISD ^")8P PD DDe!D-lS!D D^!n:ii?;iD 8 D>D /'^^Ji^^V 

-«D yjyDoy::j;j dd^j;?d81 n d^-iv lyji^a^yTiyi pk lyvDti'iyD 
lyc^ny^s lyDiyD^nny^Dnx i^ i«d iy^i§pnfei;-i n pd :ijnyi 
Diji T8 /n^^n^''Di8DDii< lyny: lynj^ r^x oy .DiDjy:i^>t^ iji?^ 
v^'?V)'\ t:i''D ,iyDJyD"i;is: yti^^DD"'^snMrnj"'t< n ?imk inyDtj^^^n 
^'^iT ,nyi*i iyjit<iiy:i D:«!py:i i^^iDytDD^n Dj^n 1875 pd :yn nyn 
mniD n pt? ^syi^x lytj^^DD^^^Jinnrirt? Dyn iy:i>DDyip^n 
.-lyin^D n iv Djyn^^iJ lyj^^D^J^y:! tyj^n am ,yjoy> n pd 
T5< ,"ivnyn iyii^nDy:i^^n nnyD iijJt: lyn^^n lyoi^Dj^^^ v'^v^^^ 
-lyir^i^^K^ ytj'^Di^j^py n lyDnyjjii^ jy^j^r lyDDOt^ovi^nD n 
-Dpy yj^D^"'VDiK n pd ^is^ddih lyn .d^'?p '?v\:i''D pd nyD 
:7i<iDny nym^ipiyD lyn ,i'iyj{<iPi^ pk iy"n« pd \vi:i2VD^ivB 
PD 3:ir^^^Dsn yiyoyi:! r^s n ,p^d''^«d ^yi:^n-^nD iyi pd 
-ij^: PK ^D^"*!^ lyjy pd p^d^^^^id ny^^iyn^^ nyi px lyD^-'ms 
Dsnya iyn«n yiy^n id ^ oi^)) ojiinnxn yDjyni^j n nnvD 
Di^i — Ds^P ^yD^D PD iv^avi ynisinDDnD pn yrnyD n d^d 
"i^nD y^o s \iv)) lyDSK^y^ ^«it oy ,D-in^Dy3 \:ii^n lyosTiv r^s 
-^^{^ n>D ly^yii ^yD^D^p nv\:i'')) ^ p« .y^i:^ ytj^^Dooyior 
nyi ^MK :jnnyp»3 nyrDD>o -lyi D«t pd lyD^D^nyi n nyn 
ly^yDsrsi?: m 1^0 dttid lyn^ Dtj'-iyiv oji^yiifenn ii<ior"i^nD 



112 i'):]^' n 112 iyDDfc?p y'j'nfc<'j:yD5<:?-)j<s n pa jjnyi^^t' 
*.IT"i«!3:"i< ^v :^:?>MitD^^v iyj:i«iivy: tjik otijn 1875 V2 1867 



-;VDK?p-^y't:"2iK "i^'CDJ'CDm ij,n t'»< 1877 r^n 1861 p£ * 
-K':'.'-Tnt: ysn; t< ps e;n:n;ij;: ,"pKctr-:y':i„ n:?T lyny; iN;n^ 
-2in 'n inyD •;»<','. ,::EKty7yTy; k I^skb':*^ Iy^«n y-'7>^i ,];'CD': 
.Dy'!JpK cEMpy; lP«<n ,!:ycs'"nK2 tsiyu oy m ,D:i<':r tsnyT 
,T'K jr.c's nyi pE "iyD'K!:y;^'N lyiricpxE pK iKcpKiyi nyn 
cTTiKtrn ,t:n^eD'Tpy cj<n >t m ;:«? nrw lyny:; ,DnK enyi oy m 
ycD'"? -lyT ]'K .cyt2<DKp-D:!Jit:K-iK2 k ]is ci'jino'D lyi 12 >o nyoiDKB 

-'CNp Dyi ]iK 2;^'7''C«2 CS TS CS ]1£ "W lyiKH CKII H pfl 

-Tntt ■iy:Ki:N7 y:ynyTy;:K y7K p.E lycy: n -u ]y:iEyj ,ttyB 
iyny:: "lyncNB t^n ,iyT"r.2K nycysc ly^yn "I'a mt .lycD^^K'iT 
ny2'7yn ,:jnniEBMK ]i« "lyBpNiK^ ]y;'B>n'ms k k'O tr:yo « 
ni>-it3 "lyi PK y>!fUK5 y;'C2Mi ]''p ]yDi:nKE 1:1: 'jhid ]''p cwn 
-:y'n„ lyT vh y^i'pKiyi 'iy'7y:'i2Ki ]»u -lytsiiK lyzx .a^yn ]«^ii' 
T'N-Dyiy.T T1K Dxn ,;:*,i:''S "lyB'^nK ycoyn n P«'iiy; "pKcty 
q7'n "ly^'^nynE^'.NttiN nyi iyp:KiiKE \^ ]ya '^Kn dki .;y:'ty"iy 
*]^Hb ,'^D^n .D .y ,]Kcsi3K"ip ^'\:';n ,]KDnNn p>-nyiE ]n"iyn n ]^s 
-£is lynxn ys'jyn ,DT'iK^2T-Tint2 ]"ie i:'>ns yiyn:K p« dj^ks'ti 
"Tnc n .ly^p'iiiK y::iSny!JOTN lymtry;} i:k:k2n: inK' inys 
!:ek imk iu lynxn ]KttE'tr ]'.n ^ynxn ,t2nK;^ysN lyin^E i«'jv 
IKE ;2if :? n ]y2«s ly'jp'ttiK n cn .;:•,!:' 's lyi ]»k t:pmy; 
.ycD'iyy; l«':v T^nt: ]ie lytynxE Dyn ike riEnty lycD'^iEtsiyn lyT 
-K'"72'n ]'N ;2'it:''!t nyn ps :iii^o«T y;n2yt2?r'7NE ]i^;i t'k lyT'^ 
ir>!:n2 px I't c:'Ey; ,nt t'n dkii yi:D;n2yt:r'?KE n .nb^: lypyis 
c^KaiKE d;i»k2 inxtrn .id .1869 tie ]k tt cinn n ]i« ,D'iKyTio 
"ly ya'jyn ,1863 pE in yt cnnn dkii ,;:i'7Dnt yjimmpiyr J 
n I'T BKH 1877 ]'N .iy!f*.:Ni n* i:2n'?ny BD;''?yEy; t:in ::Kn 
T'K y2'7)}'i'i ,imy"i '7KnttDNn:'K„ cyn i^x t27yi:«inNE ;2ics 

.1879 ]'« iy;i8;y:inytt2iK 



e^ 




«vo 



^ 






Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

f*rom 
the libraiy of 
the late 
Samuel Lazar Kagan